A National Management Plan for a protected non-timber CITES listed tree species: Prunus africana
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A National Management Plan for a protected non-timber CITES listed tree species: Prunus africana

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A National Management Plan for a protected non-timber CITEs listed tree species: Prunus africana. Ingram et al. pygeum mgt plan presentation nat forum march 10

A National Management Plan for a protected non-timber CITEs listed tree species: Prunus africana. Ingram et al. pygeum mgt plan presentation nat forum march 10

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    A National Management Plan for a protected non-timber CITES listed tree species: Prunus africana A National Management Plan for a protected non-timber CITES listed tree species: Prunus africana Presentation Transcript

    • A National Management Plan for a protected non-timber species: Prunus africana Verina Ingram1, Henri Charles Akagou Zedong2, Nouhou Ndam3, Abdon Awono1, Yanek Decleire4, Narcisse Mbarga5 1 Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), BP 2008, Yaounde, Cameroon Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife 3 TRAFFIC Central Africa 4 GTZ ProPSFE 5 ANAFOR 2
    • Introduction • Cameroon largest exporter of Prunus africana worldwide (>50%) • Traditional multiple-uses timber, fuel-wood and medicine. • Local, low volume trade for medicinal use • Raw material prostate drugs and health supplements. • Major income source for forest based communities and enterprises • Protected species IUCN and CITES
    • The problems…….. • Prunus availability reduced by: – – – – Bush fires Grazing Unsustainable harvested quantities Insufficient regeneration in wild & domestication • Unsustainable exploitation: – – – – – – Lack or insufficient local management Unsustainable harvesting techniques Quota based permit system unrelated to actuality Difficult regulatory system for SMEs Inadequate regulatory controls High local and international demand • Government capacity: – Insufficient capacity and financial allocation to Prunus to respond to CITES obligations • Poor market and information: – Little info exchange at all levels – No processing (added value) in Cameroon since close of Plantecam
    • Developments ….. Inventories Mt Cameroon, 2000 & Adamoua, 2001 Cameroon request to maintain quota for areas not inventoried re livelihood implications 2005 IRAD/Uni Dschang/Biodiversity International: 3 studies genetic diversity/ planting materials, survey participatory regeneration, 2005 - date Conflicts re revenue distribution & massive illegal harvesting, Kilum, 2005 Uni Yaoundé: Phd on genetic characterisation, 2007 FAO/SNV/CIFOR NTFP SME project started, Feb 07 WHINCONET/SNV survey: unsustainability Kilum-Ijum, March 07 Institute Ethnobotany Stewart: massive degeneration, Kilum Ijum, June 07 CITES questions status of Prunus, July 07 GTZ: monitoring Mt Cameroon November, Nov 07 Cameroon government response to EU‟s Oct concerns, Nov 07 “Ban” on imports to EU a reality, Nov 07 MINFoF introduced Circulars, 15 & 22 Nov 2 No Prunus harvested in NW or SW since Nov 07 (1 seizure SW, Jan 08) Exploiters verifying status of plantations & “non-forest” Prunus, Jan 08 “Prunus Platform” stakeholders & 6 meetings Nov 2007 - 2009
    • Pygeum: Economic value • • • • • • • Prunus secondary source of income forest users 1985 - 1991 ≈ 9,309 tons exported from Cameroon ≥ 143 million CFA (290,976 US$) Plantecam turnover 1998 = 4,000,000 US$. Export value in 1999 = 700,000 US$. Export prices for dry bark (chips): – in 2000 = 2000 CFA per kg – In 2006 = 660 CFA to 1000 CFA per kg In 2005 & 2006, 1500 - 2000 t harvested annually: – Valued at ≈ 260 million CFA (540,000 US$) to producers (harvesters, community organisations and individuals) – Export value ≈ ≥ 2,649 million CFA (5,470,000 US$), based on an average export price of 660 CFA (1.34 US$) per kg Market chain in Cameroon ≈ 60,000 people in CF communities, unknown individuals with plantations, 500+ harvesters, 11 exploitation permit-holding small scale enterprises and 5 SME exporting enterprises. Revenues to government – Estimated between 1.5 to 16 million p.a. from Regeneration Tax – Estimated up to 22 million CFA form Permit sales p.a. But it’s an NTFP! Prunus revenues are nothing compared to timber revenues….. January 2008
    • Conservation importance highlands forests • • • • • • West Province • • • • Cameroon Highlands chain of volcanic mountains Habitat ranges from sub-montane to montane forests and subalpine grasslands. Largest remaining patches of Afromontane forest in West Africa. One of top 200 worldwide Ecoregions (35 bird species, 10 reptiles, 55 amphibians, 6 mammals & around 100 rare/endemic plant species). Human activities have fragmented, degraded and isolated remaining forest –, unsustainable harvesting, fires, agriculture and bushmeat poaching. Huge losses forest: – 1958 = 37% of province forest covered – 2000 = 3.5% largest montane forest is approximately 98km2 in Bamenda Highlands Role of traditional conservation & management by Traditional Authorities increasingly less successful and un-enforced 38 Community Forests, up to 5000 hectares each = 72,681 hectares (2007) - conserving biodiversity and sustainable livelihoods Adamaoua largely unpopulated and no community forests – not traditionally used Highlands forests provide other essential services and benefits: water, water catchments, fuel wood, medicine, fertile land, animals, sacred shrines and ecotourism. September 2008
    • Pygeum: Health importance • Prunus africana used locally as important traditional medicine • 4th most popular medicinal plant collected around Mt Cameroon by 14% of households. 1st or 2nd most popular medicinal plant in Oku. – Human use: barks/leaves/roots/seeds powdered or tea, 45+ uses: – – – – – – Anti-inflammatory Stomach ache Allergies Malaria Parasites Menstruation problems - Analgesic - Genito-urinary complaints - Kidney disease - Fever - Aphrodisiac - Infertility – Animal use: – Pox, cholera, diarrhoea, purgative, wounds gastric problems for fowls & small livestock • Bark is dried, chipped or powdered and pharmalogically active compounds chemically extracted (ratio wet 2 kg:dry 1kg: extract5g-0.05g). Extract also contained in roots & leaves. Forms the raw material for international pharmaceutical industry: Italy, France, Spain, Madagascar & USA for drugs to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, a non-cancerous glandular disorder affecting mainly older men, also excessive hairiness and aging.
    • Pygeum: Social functions • Prunus africana, well known species internationally as: – African Cherry – Iron Wood or Stinkwood – Pygeum Locally as: – – – – – – • Durable wood is used locally for: – – – – – – – • Kanda stick Kirah (Lamnso) Elouo (Kom) Eblaa (Oku) Bi‟beh‟kemb‟oh‟ (Fulfulde) Wotangu (Bakweri) Axe handles Poles Hives Door frames Charcoal Fuel wood Carving Bee-loving tree for local “Oku white” honey January 2008
    • Pygeum: Economic value • • • • • • Prunus secondary source of income forest users 1985 - 1991 ≈ 9,309 tons exported from Cameroon ≥ 143 million CFA (290,976 US$) Plantecam turnover 1998 = 4,000,000 US$. Export value in 1999 = 700,000 US$. Export prices for dry bark (chips): – in 2000 = 2000 CFA per kg – In 2006 = 660 CFA to 1000 CFA per kg In 2005 & 2006, 1500 - 2000 t harvested annually: – Valued at ≈ 260 million CFA (540,000 US$) to producers (harvesters, community organisations and individuals) – Export value ≈ ≥ 2,649 million CFA (5,470,000 US$), based on an average export price of 660 CFA (1.34 US$) per kg Market chain in Cameroon ≈ 60,000 people in CF communities, unknown individuals with plantations, 500+ harvesters, 11 exploitation permit-holding small scale enterprises and 5 SME exporting enterprises. Revenues to government – Estimated between 1.5 to 16 million p.a. from Regeneration Tax – Estimated up to 22 million CFA form Permit sales p.a. But it’s an NTFP! Prunus revenues are nothing compared to timber revenues…..
    • Sustainable? How much is available? > 30 DBH average 55 – 68kg per tree, every 7-11 years (Hall 2000, GTZ 2000) • Inventory: GTZ Mt Cameroon = 209 t. pa average (2000-2005)/ 0.369 m3/ha (2008-2013) • Inventory: MINFoF Samba Pelmali Boudounga = 28.21 m3/ha (?) • Inventory: ANAFOR Tchabal Mbabo = 493 t. pa (2001-2011) * • Inventory: ANAFOR Tchabal Gang Daba = 8.8 t. pa (2001 -2011)* • Inventory: CIFOR Kilum-Ijum = 1.036 m3/ha (2008-2013)* • Inventory: CIFOR Kupe Muanenguba = 0.248 m3/ha (2008-2013)* Natural forests current inventories = 735 t p.a. (*adjusted for prior & unsustainable harvesting in Mt Cameroon, Kilum Ijum, Mt Manengouba and Adamaoua Tchabals) Perhaps 343 t. in private and community based plantations Differentiation for Kilum-Ijum CFs and Mt Cameroon Rest of Cameroon?
    • Approach • Science and pragmatic guidance to develop national management plan for the sustainable exploitation of Prunus africana in short & long term • Innovative for Cameroon and Africa • Culmination of 2 year process: – – – – – Scientific evidence Regulatory study Negotiated policy indigenous knowledge Stakeholder participation • Plan has general consensus from majority of stakeholders.
    • Context • Draft plan financed by EU, CIFOR and GTZ • Close collaboration ANAFOR & MinFoF • Consultations with CITES - Prunus Working Group, TRAFFIC, EU and scientific experts • Output: Guidance & norms for a national Prunus Management Plan adopted by government Actors believe in the sustainability of plan incorporating a combination of measures;
    • Proposed Plan Key elements 1 Replaces annual, non-quota based, multiple permit holder, non-specific geographic areas system with: 1. National quota for commercial, large scale = ∑ PAU stock (Inventory + MP) + registered planted Prunus africana 2. Distinctions; • Commercial, large scale exploitation different from small-scale, traditional use • Planted different from wild 3. 6 major landscapes containing Prunus divided into Prunus Allocation Units
    • Key elements - 2 4. Exploitable quantity Prunus in a PAU over 10 year period Determined by inventory Approved by Cameroon CITES authorities Commissioned and financed by the PAU holder 5. Inventories according to „Inventory Norm‟* 6. Harvesting according to „Harvest Norm‟* Planted different from wild 7. Trained and certified harvesters 8. Regeneration obligation in PAU 9. Controls, monitoring & traceability strengthened - role national and regional authorities Includes cross-border trade Nigeria 10. Coordination & roles Management and Scientific Authorities clarified
    • Key elements - 3 Permanent Forest Non-Permanent Forest Protected areas excluded *Mt Cameroon NP Council Forests Communal or Community Forests Private land Leased Concession Unit CF CF Registered Prunus Single exploiter Council (Enterprise or GIC) CBO, Council or FMI Owner Regeneration obligation Regeneration obligation Regeneration obligation Open bidding Respective Council Relevant Council, CBO or FMI Owner Zoned Zoned Zoned Registered Inventory and Management Plan Inventory and Management Plan Inventory and Management Plan Certificate of Origin
    • Adamaoua 4 Adamaoua 1 Adamaoua 3 NW 2 Adamaoua 2 NW 1 NW 3 Adamaoua 5 NW 4 CH1 W1 LB2 CH1 SW1 SW2
    • Figure 1 Monitoring Scheme EC CITES Secretariat Monitoring Checklist Importers CITES Secretariat Inter-Minsiterial Cmmttee Monitoring Checklist Monitoring Checklist Annual report CITES species MINFOF Mgt Authority ANAFOR Sci. Authority MINFoF RDs Monitoring Form D Monitoring Form E Advice on PAU Mgt Plan Exporters Schéma 2 : Visualisation du Monitoring Form C système Prunus Annual DExploitation Permit de la région. Scientific Committee Transporters Monitoring Form B Registration prunus CITES species Private owner Harvesters Monitoring Form A Advice on Harvest & inventory norms Research institues & NGOs Approved PAU Transporters Mgt Plan PAU Management Plan Approval PAU Annual report PAU permit holder
    • Addressing CITES and EU concerns Short term (2009 to 2010) 1. CITES 2006 Lima meeting (this Management Plan) 2. Location 2007 stock traced 3. Current availability est. 1078 t. of wet weight bark annually*; • 735 t. current inventories of natural forests (adjusted for prior and unsustainable harvesting in Mt Cameroon, Kilum Ijum, Mt Manengouba and Adamaoua Tchabals) • 343 t. in private and community based plantations 4. Actual quantity only known with PAU inventories/Management Plans + when Prunus on private land is registered 5. No harvesting in protected areas = conservation of genetic resources & regeneration stock 6. Distinction between ‘wild’ and domesticated Prunus embedded in exploitation regime via Certificate of Origin 7. A new permit system devised and agreed by stakeholders as sustainable alternative to current system.
    • Addressing CITES and EU concerns Short term (2009 to 2010) 8. Consensus on scientific & practical inventory method. 9. Conservative harvesting technique and certification agreed. 10. Revised monitoring & control government and communities agreed 11. Ongoing research needs consolidated & being addressed. ANAFOR coordination & dissemination....... 12. Coordination mechanisms e.g. Prunus Platform...... 13. Awareness raising & education on CITES & regulations started 14. Need to promote domestication and planting + regeneration program in wild.
    • Addressing concerns Long term (2011 +) • Further exploitation continue to be quota based • PAUs emerge in response to market demand and bidding • Gradually inventories and PAU Management plans conducted for MinFoF approval • Ongoing capacity building of CITES Scientific authority (ANAFOR) will bear fruit (ITTO Project) • Results of ongoing projects on Prunus africana sector (Domestication, support to small enterprises, changes in the legal framework of NTFPs, domestication & ongoing research) become available and incorporated into national policy as appropriate.
    • Table 9 Matrix of Prunus stakeholder responsibilities roles and actions Regulatory authorities Pharmaceutical Government companies Projects / NGOs Permit Holders Owners trees/ Plantations CITES Adapt regional regulations Needs to regulate trade through certification Feedback on scientific information on CITES species Motivation for more Create & sustain planting. awareness on CITES issues Pharm companies Support sustainable forest management Country implementation of CITES recommendation s Agree to support & Support policy champion development sustainable management Fund development Buy only from projects responsible Permit holders (certification) Long term link for direct supply. Support long term partnership Government Support participation in international fora Provide framework Develop regional for certification strategies Feed back on relevant field data & information in exchange for respecting Project recommendations Issue permit after agreed inventory & Prunus Management Plan Provide planting/regeneration incentives Incentive for cultivation Provide planting/ regeneration incentives Establish a favourable policy & provide technical support for sustainable management Development Projects / NGOs Promote Continuous Project awareness raising achievements at national & international levels Set enabling environment for Projects to support Prunus sustainable management Support Prunus related workshops & networking Collaborate for sustainable management Support tree planting Advocacy for best practices (e.g. sustainable management, fair price, regeneration) Permits Holders Raise awareness to respect CITES Issue a single long term permit per permit allocation site Organise & train community based harvesters, Fund regeneration Support sustainable Prunus management and regeneration Fair price Buy from organised villagers with training in harvesting skills Owners of trees/ plantations Promote Promote large domestication scale production Registration of trees Set enabling environment for private planting Capacity building for propagation Offer fair prices to Networking, setting Collaborate in encourage large scale common price, regeneration and production exchange of marketing of Prunus information Communities / CBOs Raise awareness to respect CITES Issue permit to organised communities (e.g. MOCAP, FMIs) Support capacity building &sustainable Prunus management Establish a fair price for equitable benefit sharing Fair prices to fight poverty Support sustainable forest management Create & sustain awareness on CITES issues Collaborate for inventory and protection. of Communities CBOs Networking, setting common price, exchange of information /
    • What next? A road map Annex 1 & 4 1. Gaps - 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Revise and appropriate Management Plan Send Plan to CITES and EU CITES Include Harvest & Inventory Norms Revise and adopt the Management Plan (Ministerial Decision?) Translation 7. Diffusion Plan 8. Nigeria transboundary trade, Reforestation plans - (CIFOR print) Training MinFoF and ANAFOR national & regional on control monitoring 9. Set up Scientific Committee 10. Implement e.g. Bids for PAUs, open registers for private prunus