Learners and Learning: More Learning for More Learners<br />As you come into the workshop today, use the opening minutes to review and respond to the following two writing prompts to begin thinking on workshop themes.<br />1. Learning<br />Frank Coffield proposes the following definition of learning, with two qualifications: <br />“Learning refers only to significant changes in capability, understanding, knowledge, practices, attitudes or values by individuals, groups, organisations or society.”Qualification 1: Learning excludes the acquisition of factual information when it does not contribute to such changes.Qualification 2: Learning excludes immoral learning as when prisoners learn from other inmates in custody how to extend their repertoire of criminal activities.<br />Just Suppose Learning & Teaching Became the First Priority (2008)<br />Making use of the prompt above as well as your experience as learner and teacher brainstorm in the space below, or on your keyboard, to begin defining what learning would look, sound, be like in your course(s).<br />For Further Information – Coffield’s analysis shows that if those involved in teaching – at policy or classroom levels – do not define learning, then acquisition becomes the default definition regardless of course goals/outcomes and levels of complexity required for mastery.<br />2. Learners: Making use of your experience and prompted by the chart below, write notes / ideas about what learner characteristics will help students flourish in your class. Use space below the chart or your keyboard to record your focused list of learner characteristics.<br />STUDENTSLEARNERSRelationship with EducatorsStudents are employees, required to obediently follow instructions.Learners are citizens with a vested interest in the learning society.Relationship with other StudentsStudents are competitorsLearners are collaboratorsMotivationObligation: Students are culturally obliged to work for the teacher & for compensation (below)Responsibility: Learners are motivated by an understood and realized “value in their work, especially when it is valuable to others.CompensationInstitution defined grades and gateways to college (another institution) and a good job (another institution)A sense of ongoing accomplishment that is not delivered but earned, and not symbolic but tangible and valuable – an investment.Mode of OperationCompliant, group-disciplined, objective-oriented, and trainablePersevering, self-disciplined, group-and goal-oriented, resourceful, and learning in order to achieve rather than achieving learningWhyCompelledCuriousEquipped…with packaged knowledge and tools for recording packaged knowledge – prescribed and paced learning…with tools for exploring a networked variety of content, experimenting with that content, and discovering, concluding, and construction knowledge – invented learningAssessmentMeasuring what the student has learned.Measuring what the learner can do with what has been learned.<br />What is Universal Course Design?<br />Adaptation from an Instructors’ Wiki into which we have added aspects of Integrated Aligned Course Design & of 9 Principles of UDI.<br />Universal Course Design (UCD) is constructing college courses including course curriculum, instruction, assessment and the environment to be usable by all students, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for accommodations. <br />Faculty Goal: What should all students know and be able to do by participating in this learning experience? <br />Faculty Challenge: High standards and greater student diversity.<br />
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONSUse in conjunction with Integrated Aligned Design UDI PRINCIPLESPrimary Starting PointsCurriculumDetermine the specific course content, skills, and strategies to be learned. Ask the question, “How will the students access the information?” Provide flexible media & materials to ensure information access & learning.Motivate & engage the students based on interest, experience & application. 1. Equitable use 2. Flexibility in use3. Simple and intuitiveInstructionProvide multiple and flexible methods of presentation.Provide multiple models of correct performance, multiple opportunities to practice with supports & flexible opportunities to demonstrate skill.Provide choices of content and tools, choice of learning context all of which are culturally responsive. 1. Flexibility in use4. Perceptible information9. Instructional climate AssessmentCreate two or more assessment choices for students to choose from to coincide with their learning styleProvide ongoing evaluation of “what is working and what is not.” Change methods according to the effectiveness & appropriateness of pre-sentation format, expression methods & level of engagement of all students.Measures a range of student performance across multiple levels. 1. Equitable use5. Tolerance for error EnvironmentCreate a campus-wide climate that is safe, caring, and nurturing.Build a personalized learning environment. Teach respect for all learners.Use physical space to enhance student participation and engagement.Student-teacher social interactions, classroom climate, and peer group relationships enhance student learning. 6. Low physical effort7. Size and space8. Community of learners
EXAMPLESSuggestions from Instructors’ WikiRESOURCESSuggestions from us for Further InformationCourse CurriculumA statistics professor at New Hampshire Community Technical College began his course by asking students name their interests. He then incorporated the interests into the statistical data sets he used in class. Students reported being more interested in the class and better able to understand how information they learned applied to their profession. Developing an Inclusive Curric. http://z.umn.edu/ukinclusiveCreating an Inclusive Campus: http://z.umn.edu/3h8InstructionA family studies professor at the University of Vermont teaching a large lecture class used to lecture for an hour but noticed that after 20 minutes students’ eyes look dazed and they stopped taking notes. When the mid-term exam scores were not great he decided to begin providing the class with an outline of session concepts & content. Also, students broke into groups to discuss a particular problem and then report to the entire class. This strategy increased the level of engagement in class. Using an MP3 player to audio, he recorded lectures, and after class put the audio file on the website for students to download. As a result of this technique, students were better prepared to participate in class. Preparing Future Faculty portal: http://z.umn.edu/ida8101 Improving web access for learning: http://webaim.org/Accessible PowerPoints: HYPERLINK "http://z.umn.edu/3h9"http://z.umn.edu/3h9Connecting: HYPERLINK "http://z.umn.edu/findingcommonground" t "_blank" http://z.umn.edu/findingcommongroundMerlot on UCD: http://z.umn.edu/udmerlotAssessment An education professor at Rhode Island College recognized the diverse learning styles in her classroom and decided that a typical final exam would not accurately reflect what students had learned. So, she gave them a choice: take the final exam or develop a website in groups of 3 using wikis to reflect what they had learned in the class. 65% of the students chose to develop a website, which they still refer to that site as a resource and she has used it as a resources in subsequent classes. Accessible Assessments: http://z.umn.edu/assmtUniversal Design for Testing: http://z.umn.edu/3ha Universal Design for Assessment: http://z.umn.edu/3hbWriting & Multilingual Students: http://z.umn.edu/multilingualEnvironment A nursing professor at the UMassachusetts-Boston assigned a small classroom with rows of chairs does not like the arrangement because it does not permit her to freely interact with all students. So, she arrives in the classroom a half an hour early to rearrange the chairs into a large circle, equalizing the learning environment for all. Students not only take a more active role in the conversation during the class, but also arrive early to help her with the chairs & speak to her about their work. Multicultural Learning/Teaching: http://z.umn.edu/islandsUniversal Design for Instruction: http://udi.uconn.edu/
Note taking assistance provided by a peer note taker. Please assist John in finding a student in the class to provide copies of his/her notes. John will provide an announcement for you to read to the class explaining this process.
Preferred seating. Please allow John to choose seating in the classroom.
Audio recorder, provided by student, for lectures.
Coursework Adaptation Accommodations<br />
Class handouts provided in large print: 20 pt font. Bold, sans serif
Recommended Best Practices/Universal Design<br />
Instructor provides verbal description of all visual materials shown in the classroom.
Instructor provides presentation slides to the student prior to the class.
Testing Accommodations<br />
Extended time for all exams: double time
Alternate format testing materials provided by Disability Services: Large print, 20 pt font.
Use of computer to provide large print display.
3. A Textbook Case<br />You’ve made your syllabus available to students ahead of the semester – you know from past experience that a number of students like to start collecting and reviewing course readings during the couple of weeks before classes begin. This year a number of students have emailed or dropped by to ask whether they might buy an earlier edition of the textbook since it’s nearly $75 less expensive than one they could order online (which costs less than the text at the local campus bookstore). Cuts in grants, student loans and increased tuition, some say is impacting their textbook budget. One first generation student who is an engaged student in your department thinks she might have to shift her classes in order to balance out the book costs. Classes start next week and you wonder, what can you do about this situation to maximize their learning in ways that will benefit all your students?<br />4. Learning and Teaching Interrupted<br />You have a student who does not appear to be intentionally rude or abusive, but constantly interrupts, often offering personal information or opinion that has little relevance to the topic being discussed. During the first week, you notice the student sometimes dominates discussion, generally by asking repeated follow up questions, and at times by making repeated movements to switch chairs or stand up. Other students in the class have begun to avoid sitting nearby. Given that the course features a series of group activities requiring consistent collaborative participation, you are now thinking about how to structure those activities and you wonder, what can you do with regard to this situation to maximize their learning in ways that will benefit all your students?<br />UNIVERSAL DESIGN RESOURCES<br />University of Minnesota:<br />Center for Teaching & Learning http://www1.umn.edu/ohr/teachlearn/<br />Disability Services http://ds.umn.edu/<br />Accessibility in Learning http://accessibility.umn.edu/<br />Office of Information Technology http://www.oit.umn.edu/index.php<br />Additional information on Universal Design, Instruction, Course Syllabus, Technology, and more:<br />Center for University Design http://www.ncsu.edu/project/design-projects/udi/<br />The Faculty Room http://www.washington.edu/doit/Faculty/Strategies/Universal/<br />Technology http://www.washington.edu/doit/Resources/technology.html<br />Course Design http://www.eeonline.org/<br />How to Rethink Your Syllabus http://www.portals.emory.edu/sylideas.html <br />Course Syllabus http://uditeach.r2d2.uwm.edu/?p=67<br />Syllabus Development http://tep.uoregon.edu/resources/universaldesign/syllabus.html<br />Merlot http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm (search “universal design”)<br />UDI for Moodle http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/869/1575<br />