Open Access and emerging
networks of Open Research
UHMLG Spring Forum
London
28 February 2014
Catriona MacCallum
PLOS Advo...
The landscape
– The OA publishing landscape, PLOS
– The growth of Open Access
What does ‘Being Open’ mean?
Adapting to the...
More Open Access Policies
Mandates for Access to Research Emerge Across the Globe
3
Map: www.openaccess.org
Open Access Publishing Landscape
OA Publishers
• BioMedCentral (Springer)
• PLOS
• Frontiers
• Hindawi
• Copernicus
• CoAc...
5
About PLOS
PLOS is a nonprofit publisher and advocacy organization
founded to accelerate progress in science and medicin...
What is Open Access ?
Free Availability and Unrestricted Use
 Free access – no charge to
access
 No embargos – immediate...
PLOS Open Access Journals
7
• PLOS Biology
works of exceptional significance in all areas of biological science
• PLOS Med...
Key Innovation:
the editorial process
8
• Editorial criteria
• Scientifically rigorous
• Ethical
• Properly reported
• Con...
99
Attrib: Martin Fenner, Technical Lead PLOS ALMs
Published papers in PLOS ONE since launch
10
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012...
12
Cameron Neylon, OASPA. Scale of OA Publishing http://shar.es/EOfw5 via @figshare
50% Open-Access in 2013?
13
A tipping point…?
14
No longer a question of if…
15
“Open”
What does
mean
My work can help someone...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/mararie/3313582639/ CC-BY-SA
P =
Interest
Friction
x N(help someone)
Neylon C (2013) Architecting the Future of Research Communication: Building the Mo...
P =
Interest
Friction
x N(help someone)
Proportion that could
use your work
Usability of your work
Number of people
you ca...
Someone out there can help...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/mararie/3313582639/ CC-BY-SA
P =
Interest
Friction
x N(getting help)
Proportion that create
work that you can use
Ease of contributing
Number of people...
P =
Interest
Friction
x N(getting help)
Fixed
As small as possible...
As large as possible...
Being open is acting to reduce
friction and to maximize N...
...for both outgoing and
incoming information...
Matter?
Why
does it
Public Domain:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wik
i/File:Rosetta_Stone_BW.jpeg
We hold a public
trust...
Scientific
informat...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkingsf/6635655755 CC-BY
...because the
world has
changed...
…the number you can reach is p...
A network of literature
Document
A network of literature and data
Document
Database
and people
Torres-Sosa et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002669 Waters et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040337
http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-f...
Torres-Sosa et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002669 Waters et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040337
http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-f...
32
Connection Probability (the inverse of friction)
Size(nodes)
Many small
unconnected
networks
Large
interconnected
netwo...
Enabl
Whatwould this
27 January 2009
February 1 2009
March 10 2009
http://gowers.wordpress.com/
“Without openness across global digital
networks, it is doubtful that large and complex
problems in areas such as economic...
Accelerating Science Awards Program (ASAP)
Global Collaboration
to Fight Malaria
Matthew Todd, PhD
Visualizing Complex Sci...
Adapting to the Network
Reducing friction
38
• Research Assessment & Peer Review
• Article Level Metrics
• Data
Is the communication trail fit for purpose?
39Cartoon by Nick Kim (non-commercial reuse & image mustn’t be altered) http:/...
Can Scientists Assess Merit or Predict Impact?
• Analysed subjective rankings of papers from two different data
sets over ...
Subjective assessments of science are poor:
• Very weak correlation between assessors
• strongly biased by the journal in ...
Can Scientists Assess Merit or Impact
• Last R.A.E. cost the UK Govt £60 million – what are the
assessors adding?
• Multip...
New Peer Review and Publication Strategies
• Pre-print servers
– PeerJ PrePrints, arXiv, bioRxiv
• Open peer review (signe...
Who cares about
measuring research
impact?
Researchers
(authors and
readers)
Publishers
Funders The public
Librarians
Inst...
Problems with using journal IF as a measure of article
quality or impact:
• Citation distributions within journals are hig...
• A worldwide initiative, spearheaded by the ASCB (American Society for Cell
Biology), together with scholarly journals an...
So, how can we measure ‘impact’?
http://article-level-metrics.plos.org
A suite of established metrics
measures overall per...
48
49
50
PLOS ALM Usage Patterns
Scholarly Usage & Broader Impact
Citations HTML Views
PDF & XML Downloads PLOS Website
PubMed Cent...
Reducing Friction around data
From: How Does the Availability of Research Data Change With Time Since Publication? Timothy H. Vines and colleagues, Abst...
Transparency: it’s not just access to data
that’s a problem
54
• Bias (common)
• Misreporting (common)
• Spin (common)
• M...
Being open around data
55
• Raise reporting standards
– CONSORT, ARRIVE (EQUATOR)
• Improve access to original datasets
• ...
56
PLOS will require a data-sharing statement in all papers
• Data underling findings
• Describes where and how data can b...
Adapting to the Network
Maximising N
57
• How Open Is It?
• Managing the transition to OA
HowOpenIsIt?
Not all Open Access is created equal
58
Open Access Spectrum
• Recognizes 6 components that
define Open Acces...
HowOpenIsIt?
59
Reader
Rights
Fees to read all articles
Subscription, membership, etc.
 Free readership immediately upon
...
Open Access Census
• Tool to generate reports on the Open
Access status for a set of articles
• Search a database for arti...
Search for Papers belonging to Grant XXX in PubMed
Software Development: Ana Nelson
Data compiled by Cameron Neylon, 2014
Managing the transition
• Minimise costs
– Price transparency
– Avoid replacing big ‘subscription deals’ with big ‘APC’ de...
How do you stay afloat?
http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationallibrarynz_commons/4078337883 Public Domain
Quality of service...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/62337512@N00/3958637561 CC-BY
Value for money...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/mukumbura/4052671706 CC-BY-SA
http://www.flickr.com/photos/maleny_steve/2950362521 CC-BY-SA
Sustainability...
Impact.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/meesterdickey/2581274092 CC-BY
Our core business is to get authors’
work in the hands of those who
can use it
http://www.flickr.com/photos/thebarrowboy/7...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/65208723@N07/6032293799 CC BY
Dissemination…
70
US Defence Department: 090807-N-5749W-394.jpg
…not distribution
71
Discovery…
http://www.flickr.com/photos/joiseyshowaa/2374526016 CC-BY
72
…not filtering
http://www.flickr.com/photos/81223571@N00/3074025679 CC-BY-SA
73
http://www.flickr.com/photos/37984062@N03/3495256118 CC-BY-SA
Platforms…
…not just services
http://www.flickr.com/photos/benzado/3968712449 CC-BY
75
https://www.flickr.com/photos/statuelibrtynps/6276757947/ CC BY
76NASA, ESA, and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team: http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2009/25/image/f/format/large_w...
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Maccallum

  1. 1. Open Access and emerging networks of Open Research UHMLG Spring Forum London 28 February 2014 Catriona MacCallum PLOS Advocacy Project Manager & Consulting Editor (ONE); OASPA BoD
  2. 2. The landscape – The OA publishing landscape, PLOS – The growth of Open Access What does ‘Being Open’ mean? Adapting to the Network Reducing Friction – Research Assessment & Peer review – Article Level Metrics – Data sharing – Reporting – Reproducibility Maximising N – How Open Is It? – Managing the transition to OA 2
  3. 3. More Open Access Policies Mandates for Access to Research Emerge Across the Globe 3 Map: www.openaccess.org
  4. 4. Open Access Publishing Landscape OA Publishers • BioMedCentral (Springer) • PLOS • Frontiers • Hindawi • Copernicus • CoAction Publishers (Humanities) • OpenBook Publishers • Ubiquity Press Subscription Publishers with OA options • E.g. Oxford University Press, Wiley-Blackwell, Nature Publishing Group • AAAS and The Royal Society (last week) 4
  5. 5. 5 About PLOS PLOS is a nonprofit publisher and advocacy organization founded to accelerate progress in science and medicine by leading a transformation in research communication. • Ten years old • The largest not-for-profit Open Access publisher (~ 3000 publications per month) • The publisher of 7 peer-reviewed Open Access journals • Based in San Francisco, US, and Cambridge, UK • Business model: Article Processing Charge (waiver system) • Self-sustaining since late 2010
  6. 6. What is Open Access ? Free Availability and Unrestricted Use  Free access – no charge to access  No embargos – immediately available  Reuse – Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) to use with proper attribution 6
  7. 7. PLOS Open Access Journals 7 • PLOS Biology works of exceptional significance in all areas of biological science • PLOS Medicine leading open access medical journal • PLOS Genetics outstanding original contributions in all areas of genetics and genomics • PLOS Computational Biology new insights into living systems at all scales • PLOS Pathogens new ideas that contribute to understanding the biology of pathogens • PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases forgotten diseases affecting the world’s forgotten people • PLOS ONE world’s largest scientific journal, covering all of science $1350 ‘Flagships’ • Highly Selective • Professional & Academic Editors $2900 Community journals • Highly Selective • Academic Editors only • Similar to Society Journals $2250
  8. 8. Key Innovation: the editorial process 8 • Editorial criteria • Scientifically rigorous • Ethical • Properly reported • Conclusions supported by the data • Editors and reviewers do not ask • How important is the work? • Which is the relevant audience? • Everything that deserves to be published, will be published • Therefore the journal is not artificially limited in size • Use online tools to sort and filter scholarly content after publication, not before
  9. 9. 99 Attrib: Martin Fenner, Technical Lead PLOS ALMs
  10. 10. Published papers in PLOS ONE since launch 10 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 No.ofArticlesPublished Year
  11. 11. 12 Cameron Neylon, OASPA. Scale of OA Publishing http://shar.es/EOfw5 via @figshare
  12. 12. 50% Open-Access in 2013? 13
  13. 13. A tipping point…? 14
  14. 14. No longer a question of if… 15
  15. 15. “Open” What does mean
  16. 16. My work can help someone... http://www.flickr.com/photos/mararie/3313582639/ CC-BY-SA
  17. 17. P = Interest Friction x N(help someone) Neylon C (2013) Architecting the Future of Research Communication: Building the Models and Analytics for an Open Access Future. PLoS Biol 11(10): e1001691. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001691 Published October 22, 2013
  18. 18. P = Interest Friction x N(help someone) Proportion that could use your work Usability of your work Number of people you can reach
  19. 19. Someone out there can help... http://www.flickr.com/photos/mararie/3313582639/ CC-BY-SA
  20. 20. P = Interest Friction x N(getting help) Proportion that create work that you can use Ease of contributing Number of people you can reach
  21. 21. P = Interest Friction x N(getting help) Fixed As small as possible... As large as possible...
  22. 22. Being open is acting to reduce friction and to maximize N...
  23. 23. ...for both outgoing and incoming information...
  24. 24. Matter? Why does it
  25. 25. Public Domain: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wik i/File:Rosetta_Stone_BW.jpeg We hold a public trust... Scientific information is a public good...
  26. 26. http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkingsf/6635655755 CC-BY ...because the world has changed... …the number you can reach is potentially limitless
  27. 27. A network of literature Document
  28. 28. A network of literature and data Document Database and people
  29. 29. Torres-Sosa et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002669 Waters et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040337 http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-fig1 http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-fig2
  30. 30. Torres-Sosa et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002669 Waters et al, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040337 http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-fig1 http://bit.ly/bosc-cn-fig2
  31. 31. 32 Connection Probability (the inverse of friction) Size(nodes) Many small unconnected networks Large interconnected networks Fig 1. (Adapted) Neylon C (2013) doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001691 Code: https://gist.github.com/cameronneylon/603336
  32. 32. Enabl Whatwould this
  33. 33. 27 January 2009 February 1 2009 March 10 2009 http://gowers.wordpress.com/
  34. 34. “Without openness across global digital networks, it is doubtful that large and complex problems in areas such as economics, climate change and health can be solved.” Martin Hall, Chair of Jisc and vice-chancellor of the University of Salford The Guardian 18th Feb 2014 “It's time senior leaders made openness – and its consequences – their concern”
  35. 35. Accelerating Science Awards Program (ASAP) Global Collaboration to Fight Malaria Matthew Todd, PhD Visualizing Complex Science Daniel Mietchen, PhD, Raphael Wimmer and Nils Dagsson Moskopp HIV Self-Test Empowers Patients Nitika Pant Pai, MD, MPH, PhD, Caroline Vadnais, Roni Deli-Houssein and Sushmita Shivkumar 37 http://asap.plos.org
  36. 36. Adapting to the Network Reducing friction 38 • Research Assessment & Peer Review • Article Level Metrics • Data
  37. 37. Is the communication trail fit for purpose? 39Cartoon by Nick Kim (non-commercial reuse & image mustn’t be altered) http://www.strange- matter.net/screen_res/nz060.jpg
  38. 38. Can Scientists Assess Merit or Predict Impact? • Analysed subjective rankings of papers from two different data sets over five years – Faculty of 1000 – Welcome Trust (data from Allen et al. of 2 assessor rankings within 6 months of publication) – In relation to citations and impact factor 40 Eyre-Walker A, Stoletzki N (2013) The Assessment of Science: The Relative Merits of Post-Publication Review, the Impact Factor, and the Number of Citations. PLoS Biol 11(10): e1001675. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001675 http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pb io.1001675
  39. 39. Subjective assessments of science are poor: • Very weak correlation between assessors • strongly biased by the journal in which the paper was published Scientists are also poor at predicting the future impact: • Because they are not good at assessing merit • Similar articles accumulate citations essentially by chance. 41 “What this paper shows is that whatever merit might be, scientists can't be doing a good job of evaluating it when they rank the importance or quality of papers. From the (lack of) correlation among assessor scores, most of the variation in ranking has to be due to ‘error’ rather than actual quality differences.” Carl Bergstrom , 2013 Eisen JA, MacCallum CJ, Neylon C (2013) Expert Failure: Re-evaluating Research Assessment. PLoS Biol 11(10): e1001677. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001677
  40. 40. Can Scientists Assess Merit or Impact • Last R.A.E. cost the UK Govt £60 million – what are the assessors adding? • Multiple assessors don’t make much difference • Number of citations or the impact factor exaggerates differences between papers • Assessor bias could affect e.g. the ranking of universities, tenure, etc 42 Abandon subjective ratings of articles?
  41. 41. New Peer Review and Publication Strategies • Pre-print servers – PeerJ PrePrints, arXiv, bioRxiv • Open peer review (signed and published reviews) – Copernicus, BMJ Open • Reviewers know each other’s identities and comment on each other’s reviews – eLIFE • Reviewers comment on each other’s reviews, but remain anonymous to each other – EMBO • Post-publication assessment – F1000 Research, Frontiers, PLOS Open Evaluation1, PubMed Commons2 • Independent peer-review services – Rubriq, Axios, Peerage of Science 1http://www.ploslabs.org/openevaluation/ 2http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedcommons/
  42. 42. Who cares about measuring research impact? Researchers (authors and readers) Publishers Funders The public Librarians Institutions
  43. 43. Problems with using journal IF as a measure of article quality or impact: • Citation distributions within journals are highly skewed • Inclusion of highly diverse article types, including both research articles and reviews • The IF can be manipulated/gamed by journal editorial policy • Data used to calculate the IF are not transparent nor openly available to the public 45http://am.ascb.org/dora/
  44. 44. • A worldwide initiative, spearheaded by the ASCB (American Society for Cell Biology), together with scholarly journals and funders • Focuses on the need to improve the way in which the outputs of scientific research are evaluated: – the need to eliminate the use of journal-based metrics, such as Journal Impact Factors, in funding, appointment, and promotion considerations; – “need to assess research on its own merits rather than on the basis of the journal in which the research is published” 46http://am.ascb.org/dora/ DORA: Declaration on Research Assessment
  45. 45. So, how can we measure ‘impact’? http://article-level-metrics.plos.org A suite of established metrics measures overall performance and reach of published research articles PLOS Article-Level Metrics (2009) Martin Fenner (PLOS technical lead)
  46. 46. 48
  47. 47. 49
  48. 48. 50
  49. 49. PLOS ALM Usage Patterns Scholarly Usage & Broader Impact Citations HTML Views PDF & XML Downloads PLOS Website PubMed Central Social Networking Reviews and Comments Blogs http://article-level-metrics.PLOS.org http://almreports.plos.org UCL - http://almreports.plos.org/reports/visualizations/10097
  50. 50. Reducing Friction around data
  51. 51. From: How Does the Availability of Research Data Change With Time Since Publication? Timothy H. Vines and colleagues, Abstract (podium), Peer Review Congress, 2013 53
  52. 52. Transparency: it’s not just access to data that’s a problem 54 • Bias (common) • Misreporting (common) • Spin (common) • Misconduct (thought rare) – Falsification – Fabrication – Plagiarism – Violation of ethical standards – Other types of misconduct How can these be addressed? May occur at all types of journals – OA, or otherwise
  53. 53. Being open around data 55 • Raise reporting standards – CONSORT, ARRIVE (EQUATOR) • Improve access to original datasets • Ensure access to historical documents eg protocols – ensure what has been reported can be compared against what was planned • Incentivise reproducibility of original studies • Eisen JA, Ganley E, MacCallum CJ (2014) Open Science and Reporting Animal Studies: Who's Accountable? PLoS Biol 12(1): e1001757. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001757 • The PLOS Medicine Editors (2013) Better Reporting of Scientific Studies: Why It Matters. PLoS Med 10(8): e1001504. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001504
  54. 54. 56 PLOS will require a data-sharing statement in all papers • Data underling findings • Describes where and how data can be accessed • Restrictions allowed for e.g. patient confidentiality • Published statement prominent on first page • Data accessible in a recognized, stable repository PLOS Data Policy (Theo Bloom, PLOS Biology Editorial Director) Access to original Datasets Look for the PLOS Data Policy on March 1, 2014
  55. 55. Adapting to the Network Maximising N 57 • How Open Is It? • Managing the transition to OA
  56. 56. HowOpenIsIt? Not all Open Access is created equal 58 Open Access Spectrum • Recognizes 6 components that define Open Access publications • Defines what makes a journal more open vs. less open • Invites informed decisions about where to publish A collaboration among:
  57. 57. HowOpenIsIt? 59 Reader Rights Fees to read all articles Subscription, membership, etc.  Free readership immediately upon publication Reuse Rights No reuse rights beyond fair use/ limitations & exceptions to copyright (all rights reserved ©)  Generous reuse and remixing rights (e.g., CC BY license) Copyrights Publisher holds copyright. No author reuse of published version beyond fair use  Author holds copyright No restrictions Author Posting Rights Author may not post any versions to repositories or websites  Author may post any version to any repository or website Automatic Posting (e.g. PubMed) No automatic posting in third- party repositories  Journals make articles automatically available in trusted third-party repositories immediately upon publication . Machine Readability Not available in machine- readable format: article full text /metadata  Community machine-readable standard formats for article full text, metadata, citations, & data (community standard API or protocol) www.PLOS.org/HowOpenIsIt
  58. 58. Open Access Census • Tool to generate reports on the Open Access status for a set of articles • Search a database for articles or upload DOIs • Determine OA status relevant to reporting required (by grant, by institution etc)
  59. 59. Search for Papers belonging to Grant XXX in PubMed Software Development: Ana Nelson Data compiled by Cameron Neylon, 2014
  60. 60. Managing the transition • Minimise costs – Price transparency – Avoid replacing big ‘subscription deals’ with big ‘APC’ deals – Discourage double dipping – A mixture of repositories and OA journals • Foster Competition – Effective markets, differentiated products, differentiated business models • Effective Collaboration – OA at the heart of policy making – Working for a coherent global policy agenda – Monitoring Compliance and Reporting – Interoperability between platforms 62
  61. 61. How do you stay afloat? http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationallibrarynz_commons/4078337883 Public Domain
  62. 62. Quality of service... http://www.flickr.com/photos/62337512@N00/3958637561 CC-BY
  63. 63. Value for money... http://www.flickr.com/photos/mukumbura/4052671706 CC-BY-SA
  64. 64. http://www.flickr.com/photos/maleny_steve/2950362521 CC-BY-SA Sustainability...
  65. 65. Impact. http://www.flickr.com/photos/meesterdickey/2581274092 CC-BY
  66. 66. Our core business is to get authors’ work in the hands of those who can use it http://www.flickr.com/photos/thebarrowboy/7646188700 CC BY
  67. 67. http://www.flickr.com/photos/65208723@N07/6032293799 CC BY Dissemination…
  68. 68. 70 US Defence Department: 090807-N-5749W-394.jpg …not distribution
  69. 69. 71 Discovery… http://www.flickr.com/photos/joiseyshowaa/2374526016 CC-BY
  70. 70. 72 …not filtering http://www.flickr.com/photos/81223571@N00/3074025679 CC-BY-SA
  71. 71. 73 http://www.flickr.com/photos/37984062@N03/3495256118 CC-BY-SA Platforms…
  72. 72. …not just services http://www.flickr.com/photos/benzado/3968712449 CC-BY
  73. 73. 75 https://www.flickr.com/photos/statuelibrtynps/6276757947/ CC BY
  74. 74. 76NASA, ESA, and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team: http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2009/25/image/f/format/large_web/ what we can’t yet imagine …to discover

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