Patterson2010

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Re-engineering the scientific journal

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Patterson2010

  1. 1. www.plos.org “Re-engineering the scientific journal” Mark Patterson, Director of Publishing UHMLG Spring Forum: March 1st, 2009 Committed to making the world’s scientific and medical literature a public resource
  2. 2. www.plos.org The functions of journals • Registration – Who’s done what and when? • Certification – Is the work sound? How important is it? • Awareness – The right information to the people who need it • Archiving – Preservation for future generations Roosendaal and Geurts
  3. 3. www.plos.org The life cycle of a research article Journal name is key Publication Research Submission Peer review Rejects 2-3 Experts Is it rigorous? Good enough? Right audience? Takes months/years
  4. 4. www.plos.org www.flickr.com/photos/sewpixie/2374778051/ Journals are a giant sorting mechanism
  5. 5. www.plos.org How can the functions of a journal be re-engineered online? • Awareness – Open access – Discoverability • Certification – What questions need to be asked before publication? – What is best left until after publication? • Registration – Promoting the rapid sharing of information
  6. 6. www.plos.org Awareness Part 1 Open Access
  7. 7. www.plos.org PLoS Founding Board of Directors Harold Varmus PLoS Co-founder and Chairman of the Board President and CEO of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Patrick O. Brown PLoS Co-founder and Board Member Howard Hughes Medical Institute & Stanford University School of Medicine Michael B. Eisen PLoS Co-founder and Board Member Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory & University of California at Berkeley
  8. 8. www.plos.org • Establish high quality journals – put PLoS and open access on the map • Build a more extensive OA publishing operation – an open access home for every paper – achieve sustainability • Make the literature more useful – to scientists and the public PLoS publishing strategy
  9. 9. www.plos.org PLoS Biology October, 2003 PLoS Medicine October, 2004 PLoS Community Journals June-September, 2005 October, 2007 PLoS ONE December, 2006
  10. 10. www.plos.org 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Publications Submissions Growth in submissions and publications
  11. 11. www.plos.org Financial growth % Operating expense covered by operating revenue 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
  12. 12. www.plos.org www.oaspa.org
  13. 13. www.plos.org Awareness Part 2 Discoverability
  14. 14. www.plos.org What is open access? • Free, immediate access online • Unrestricted use
  15. 15. www.plos.org What is open access? • Free, immediate access online • Unrestricted use
  16. 16. www.plos.org What is open access? • Free, immediate access online • Unrestricted use
  17. 17. www.plos.org What is open access? • Free, immediate access online • Unrestricted use
  18. 18. www.plos.org A network of literature Document
  19. 19. www.plos.org A network of literature and data Document Database
  20. 20. www.plos.org www.flickr.com/photos/chris_short/79656776/ Open access • Free, immediate access • Unrestricted reuse
  21. 21. www.plos.org Certification Part 1 What to do before publication
  22. 22. www.plos.org
  23. 23. www.plos.org • Editorial criteria – Scientifically rigorous – Ethical – Properly reported – Conclusions supported by the data • Editors and reviewers do not ask – How important is the work? – Which is the relevant audience? • Use online tools to sort and filter scholarly content after publication, not before PLoS ONE’s Key Innovation – The editorial process
  24. 24. www.plos.org • Inclusive scope – all science and medicine • Encouraging discussion and debate – at PLoS ONE: commenting, rating and annotation – elsewhere: Editorial Board discussion forum; EveryONE blog; Twitter; FriendFeed; Facebook • Streamlined production – publication on every weekday What else is different?
  25. 25. www.plos.org Year Submissions Publications % of annual PubMed 2006* 473 138 0.02% 2007 2497 1231 0.16% 2008 4401 2723 0.34% 2009 6819 4404 0.52% * Started publishing Dec 20th , 2006 Community acceptance – third largest peer-reviewed journal – 50,000 authors – 1000 Academic Editors PLoS ONE – statistics
  26. 26. www.plos.org
  27. 27. www.plos.org Certification Part 2 Adding value after publication
  28. 28. www.plos.org Who cares about measuring research impact? Institutions Researchers (authors and readers) Publishers Funders The public Librarians
  29. 29. www.plos.org How do we measure ‘impact’? The worth of a paper tends to be judged on the basis of the impact factor of the journal in which it was published. Recommended reading: Adler, R., Ewing, J. Taylor, P. Citation statistics. A report from the International Mathematical Union. http://www.mathunion.org/publications/report/citationstatistics/
  30. 30. www.plos.org How could we measure ‘impact’? • Citations • Web usage • Expert Ratings • Social bookmarking • Community rating • Media/blog coverage • Commenting activity • and more… Current technology now makes it possible to add these metrics automatically At the ARTICLE LEVEL, we could track:
  31. 31. www.plos.org Article-Level Metrics at PLoS • A range of additional measures which provide insight into ‘impact’ - not just citations and usage • Metrics/indicators at the article-level, for all journals • Not just for scholarly evaluation – also a way to filter and discover content • The idea is not new, but PLoS is the first publisher to provide this range of data Michael Jensen, The New Metrics of Scholarly Authority, Chronicle of Higher Education, June 15, 2007
  32. 32. (http://tiny.cc/ALM1)
  33. 33. www.plos.org CrossRef Landing Page
  34. 34. www.plos.org
  35. 35. www.plos.org
  36. 36. www.plos.org
  37. 37. www.plos.org citeulike Landing Page
  38. 38. www.plos.org
  39. 39. www.plos.org Postgenomic Landing Page
  40. 40. www.plos.org
  41. 41. Downloading the data http://www.plosone.org/static/plos-alm.zip
  42. 42. Evaluating the (usage) data
  43. 43. Evaluating the (usage) data
  44. 44. Evaluating the (usage) data
  45. 45. www.plos.org Next steps for article-level metrics • More sources for each data type – Citations, blog coverage • New data sources – F1000, Mendeley • Expert analysis and tools • Broader adoption – By publishers – By tenure committees, funders etc • Develop and adhere to standards
  46. 46. www.plos.org Registration Rapid communication of new findings and ideas PLoS Currents
  47. 47. www.plos.org Seeking Lessons in Swine Flu Fight “Another problem is communication. Officials and experts say they have learned a lot about human swine influenza. But relatively little of that information...has been reported and published. Some experts said researchers were waiting to publish in journals, which can take months or longer.” New York Times, August 10th , 2009 Lawrence K. Altman, M.D. PLoS Currents: Influenza Inspiration
  48. 48. www.plos.org • An innovative forum for the rapid exchange of results and ideas • Moderated by expert influenza researchers • Articles are citable • Archiving in PubMed Central PLoS Currents: Influenza Goals
  49. 49. www.plos.org PLoS Currents: Influenza Workflow Google Knol: Author(s) assemble content and control access and editing. Authors submit content to PLoS Currents. PLoS Currents: Moderators control posting of content, commenting and version control. PubMed Central: Immediate transfer from PLoS Currents site; stable identifier and permanent archiving.
  50. 50. www.plos.org
  51. 51. www.plos.org
  52. 52. www.plos.org
  53. 53. www.plos.org Determine as rapidly as possible if the conception, structure and presentation of the submission indicate that it is a legitimate work of science and does not contain any obvious methodological, ethical or legal violations.
  54. 54. www.plos.org From submission to publication in 24 hours
  55. 55. www.plos.org
  56. 56. www.plos.org
  57. 57. www.plos.org
  58. 58. www.plos.org PLoS Currents Influenza • Very fast • Very cheap • Moderated by experts • Citable • Archived at PubMed Central • Indexed in Pubmed Where Next? • Post-publication peer review?
  59. 59. The life cycle of a research article Journal name is keyPublication Research Submission Peer review Rejects 2-3 Experts Is it rigorous? Good enough? Right audience? Takes months/years
  60. 60. New models of scholarly communication Focus on the articlePublication Research Submission Peer review Rejects 2-3 Experts Is it rigorous? Good enough? Right audience? Takes weeks/months Enhanced article Article-level metrics Integrated with data PLoS Currents
  61. 61. www.plos.org The landscape is changing www.flickr.com/photos/keepitsurreal/1884615328/

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