EnglishLanguageArts 8CommonCoreCoachGEORGIAFirst Edition
2ContentsLesson 1: Reading Fiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Listen and Learn excerpt f...
3Lesson 6: Reading Drama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97Listen and Learn A Grand Geyser. . . ...
4Lesson 10: Writing Informative Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1611. Get Ready: Take Notes on Research . . . . . ....
Lesson1Lesson 1 • Reading Fiction 5ESSENTIAL QUESTIONHow do stories teach usabout human nature?ReadingFictionLook at this ...
ConsiderListen and Learn6 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionALLUSION An allusion is areference to a person, place, orevent from li...
Listen and LearnANALOGY An analogy is acomparison that shows thesimilarities between two things.An analogy can help reader...
8 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionDIALOGUE AND PLOTIn many stories, dialogue(conversation betweencharacters) serves to move thep...
Listen and LearnLesson 1 • Reading Fiction 9INFERENCE An inference is aguess based on evidence in atext. Becky agrees to t...
10 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionAt last Becky’s frail limbs refused to carry her farther.She sat down. Tom rested with her, a...
Listen and LearnThe village was illuminated; nobody went to bed again;it was the greatest night the little town had ever s...
12 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionListen and LearnComprehension CheckLook back in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer to see how Tom t...
Lesson 1 • Reading Fiction 13Listen and LearnVocabularyUse the word map below to help you define and use one of the highli...
Consider14 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionShare and LearnTHEME Look at thedescription of Jo inparagraph 1. Underlinephrases tha...
Share and LearnLesson 1 • Reading Fiction 15ALLUSION Circle thename of the magazine inparagraph 3 that Jo mighthave read f...
16 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionHUMOR Underline thedescription of the humordirected against Jo inparagraph 9.POINT OF VIEW Wh...
Share and LearnLesson 1 • Reading Fiction 1710 When she went again, Mr. Dashwood was alone, whereatshe rejoiced. Mr. Dashw...
18 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionSUMMARY How wouldyou summarize the secondinteraction between Jo andMr. Dashwood?20 “Very well...
Lesson 1 • Reading Fiction 19Share and LearnAnchor Standard Discussion QuestionsDiscuss the following questions with your ...
Share and LearnRead another story, “Striking Out,” independently. Apply what you learnedin this lesson and check your unde...
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Georgia Common Core Coach CCGPS Edition, English Language Arts, Grade 8

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The total CCGPS package, built from the ground up—in full color.

Reading and writing lessons that are genre-specific and differentiated enable learners to meet the rigors of the CCGPS.

Georgia Common Core ELA Coach has been built from the ground up using an integrated approach that suits the philosophy of the Common Core Georgia Performance Standards. Both comprehensive and easy to use, it provides grade-level-appropriate content at a new depth of instruction.

Student texts are organized around reading and writing genres and cover all CCGPS in logical clusters, in the context of reading selections or examples of writing types. Reading lessons use modeled passages and writing and language units use 'mentor texts' to exemplify and teach skills. All lessons are structured around the research-proven model of gradual release, including explicit teacher-led instruction, collaborative peer work, and independent practice.

Georgia Common Core Coach delivers:

Clear lessons to help your students master achievements emphasized by
the CCGPS, including expectations for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language conventions
Anchor standards set the instructional path toward College and Career Readiness (CCR)

Grade-specific CCGPS define cumulative progression and end-of-year requirements; CCR anchor standards define cross-disciplinary literacy expectations that students must meet if they are to find success in college or workforce training programs.

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Georgia Common Core Coach CCGPS Edition, English Language Arts, Grade 8

  1. 1. EnglishLanguageArts 8CommonCoreCoachGEORGIAFirst Edition
  2. 2. 2ContentsLesson 1: Reading Fiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Listen and Learn excerpt from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer . . . . . . . . . 6Share and Learn excerpt from Little Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Read On Your Own Striking Out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Online HandoutLesson 2: Writing Responses to Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . .211. Get Ready: Brainstorm a Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292. Organize: Introduction, Supporting Paragraphs, and Conclusion . 323. Draft: Formal Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344. Peer Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365. Revise: Vary Sentence Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406. Edit: Spelling Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427. Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Lesson 3: Reading Literary Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47Listen and Learn An Unbreakable Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48Share and Learn Bridges with a History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Read On Your Own Brave Bessie Coleman. . . . . . . . Online HandoutLesson 4: Writing Personal Narratives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611. Get Ready: Brainstorm a Topic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672. Organize: Topic, Details, and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703. Draft: Use Transitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724. Peer Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745. Revise: Use Precise Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786. Edit: Use Verbals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807. Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84Lesson 5: Reading Historical Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85Listen and Learn A Place to Protect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86Share and Learn On the Lewis and Clark Trail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92Read On Your Own The Second Warof Independence. . . . . . . . . . . . . Online HandoutCommon CoreGeorgia PerformanceStandards (GPS)RL.8.1; RL.8.2; RL.8.3;RL.8.4; RL.8.5; RL.8.6;RL.8.9; RL.8.10; SL.8.1;L.8.4.a, d; L.8.5W.8.1.a−e;W.8.4;W.8.5;W.8.6;W.8.7;W.8.8;W.8.9.a;W.8.10; SL.8.1;L.8.2.c; L.8.3.a; L.8.4.c; L.8.6RI.8.1; RI.8.2; RI.8.3;RI.8.4; RI.8.5; RI.8.10;SL.8.1; L.8.5.cW.8.3.a−e;W.8.4;W.8.5;W.8.6;W.8.10; SL.8.1;L.8.1.a; L.8.4.a, d; L.8.5.b;L.8.6RI.8.1; RI.8.3; RI.8.5; RI.8.9;RI.8.10; SL.8.1; L.8.4.c; L.8.6;RH.6-8.1; RH.6-8.2; RH.6-8.3;RH.6-8.4; RH.6-8.5; RH.6-8.7;RH.6-8.8; RH.6-8.9; RH.6-8.10
  3. 3. 3Lesson 6: Reading Drama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97Listen and Learn A Grand Geyser. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98Share and Learn The Surprise Patriot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104Read On Your Own Learning to Fly . . . . . . . . . . . . . Online HandoutLesson 7: Reading Poetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111Listen and Learn Endymion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112Share and Learn The Lady of Shalott. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116Read On Your Own A Worn-Out Pencil / A Water-Color /A Dream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Online HandoutLesson 8: Writing Fictional Narratives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1231. Get Ready: Brainstorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1292. Organize: Introduction, Plot, Climax, and Resolution. . . . . . . . . . . 1323. Draft: Use Dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1344. Peer Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1365. Revise: Use Sensory Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1406. Edit: Verb Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427. Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146Lesson 9: Reading Scientific and Technical Texts. . . . . . .147Listen and Learn Let it Burn? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148Share and Learn Wealth in the Rain Forests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154Read On Your Own A Fire-Friendly Tree. . . . . . . . . . Online HandoutCommon CoreGeorgia PerformanceStandards (GPS)RL.8.2; RL.8.3; RL.8.4; RL.8.5;RL.8.6; RL.8.10; SL.8.1; L.8.5.cRL.8.1; RL.8.2; RL.8.4; RL.8.5;RL.8.6; RL.8.9; RL.8.10; SL.8.1W.8.3.a−e;W.8.4;W.8.5;W.8.6;W.8.10; SL.8.1;L.8.1.b, d; L.8.3.a;L.8.4.a; L.8.6RI.8.1; RI.8.2; RI.8.3; RI.8.5;SL.8.1; L.8.4.c; L.8.6;RST.6-8.1; RST.6-8.2;RST.6-8.3; RST.6-8.4;RST.6-8.5; RST.6-8.7;RST.6-8.8; RST.6-8.9;RST.6-8.10
  4. 4. 4Lesson 10: Writing Informative Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1611. Get Ready: Take Notes on Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1672. Organize: Introduction, Supporting Paragraphs, and Conclusion . 1743. Draft: Use Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1764. Peer Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1785. Revise: Word Choice and Tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1826. Edit: Verb Mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1847. Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188Lesson 11: Reading Persuasive Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . .189Listen and Learn Day of Infamy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190Share and Learn Captive Breeding to Save a Species. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196Read On Your Own Voting at Sixteen . . . . . . . . . . . Online HandoutLesson 12: Writing Opinion Pieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2031. Get Ready: Brainstorm a Topic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2092. Organize: Introduction, Support, and Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2123. Draft: Use Transitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2144. Peer Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2165. Revise: Use Formal Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2206. Edit: Use Punctuation to Indicate Breaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2227. Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226Writing Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244Common CoreGeorgia PerformanceStandards (GPS)W.8.2.a−d, f;W.8.4;W.8.5;W.8.6;W.8.7;W.8.8;W.8.9.b;W.8.10; SL.8.1; L.8.1.c, d;L.8.3.a; L.8.4.b; L.8.6RI.8.4; RI.8.6; RI.8.8; RI.8.9;RI.8.10; SL.8.1; RH.6-8.6;RH.6-8.7; RH.6-8.8;RH.6-8.9; RST.6-8.6;RST.6-8.7; RST.6-8.8W.8.1.a−e;W.8.2.e;W.8.4;W.8.5;W.8.6;W.8.10; SL.8.1;L.8.2.a, b; L.8.3.a; L.8.5.c;L.8.6
  5. 5. Lesson1Lesson 1 • Reading Fiction 5ESSENTIAL QUESTIONHow do stories teach usabout human nature?ReadingFictionLook at this group of teens.What can people’s actions tell youabout them?
  6. 6. ConsiderListen and Learn6 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionALLUSION An allusion is areference to a person, place, orevent from literature or history.Authors use allusions to providecontext or to summarize an idea.The name “Aladdin’s Palace” isan allusion to the Middle Easternfolk tale “Aladdin,” in which amischievous boy is tricked by asorcerer and trapped in a cave.He is freed by a genie, and apalace is built for him.Whymight the author have includedthis allusion? What does it tellyou about Tom?by Mark Twain1 Now to return to Tom and Becky’s share in the picnic.They tripped along the murky aisles with the rest of thecompany, visiting the familiar wonders of the cave—wonders dubbed with rather over-descriptive names, suchas “The Drawing-Room,” “The Cathedral,” “Aladdin’s Palace,”and so on. Presently the hide-and-seek frolicking began, andTom and Becky engaged in it with zeal until the exertionbegan to grow a trifle wearisome; then they wandered downa sinuous avenue holding their candles aloft and reading thetangled webwork of names, dates, post-office addresses, andmottoes with which the rocky walls had been frescoed1(incandle-smoke). Still drifting along and talking, they scarcelynoticed that they were now in a part of the cave whose wallswere not frescoed. They smoked their own names under anoverhanging shelf and moved on. Presently they came to aplace where a little stream of water, trickling over a ledge andcarrying a limestone sediment with it, had, in the slow-dragging ages, formed a laced and ruffled Niagara ingleaming and imperishable stone. Tom squeezed hissmall body behind it in order to illuminate it for Becky’sgratification. He found that it curtained a sort of steepnatural stairway which was enclosed between narrow walls,and at once the ambition to be a discoverer seized him.1frescoed refers to a method of wall-paintingfromThe Adventures ofTom SawyerHow can curiosity be both positive and negative?What can a dangerous situation reveal about someone’scharacter?ARCHETYPE An archetype isa character who follows aspecific pattern of behavior.Tom Sawyer is an archetype ofa mischievous boy whose desirefor adventure gets him introuble.When Tom sees thenatural stairway, “the ambitionto be a discoverer seized him.”What do you think Tom will donext? Will his actions havepositive or negative results?The Adventures ofTom Sawyer
  7. 7. Listen and LearnANALOGY An analogy is acomparison that shows thesimilarities between two things.An analogy can help readersvisualize characters, events,or objects in a story. In thisparagraph, the author comparesstalactites to a man’s leg.Whatdo you learn about thestalactites from this analogy?Becky responded to his call, and they made a smoke-mark for future guidance, and started upon their quest.They wound this way and that, far down into the secretdepths of the cave, made another mark, and branched offin search of novelties to tell the upper world about. In oneplace they found a spacious cavern, from whose ceilingdepended a multitude of shining stalactites2of the lengthand circumference of a man’s leg; they walked all about it,wondering and admiring, and presently left it by one ofthe numerous passages that opened into it. . . . Under theroof vast knots of bats had packed themselves together,thousands in a bunch; the lights disturbed the creaturesand they came flocking down by hundreds, squeaking anddarting furiously at the candles. Tom knew their ways andthe danger of this sort of conduct. He seized Becky’s handand hurried her into the first corridor that offered; and nonetoo soon, for a bat struck Becky’s light out with its wingwhile she was passing out of the cavern. The bats chasedthe children a good distance; but the fugitives plunged intoevery new passage that offered, and at last got rid of theperilous things. Tom found a subterranean lake, shortly,which stretched its dim length away until its shape waslost in the shadows. He wanted to explore its borders, butconcluded that it would be best to sit down and restawhile, first. Now, for the first time, the deep stillness ofthe place laid a clammy hand upon the spirits of thechildren. Becky said:“Why, I didn’t notice, but it seems ever so longsince I heard any of the others.”“Come to think, Becky, we are away downbelow them—and I don’t know how far awaynorth, or south, or east, or whichever it is.We couldn’t hear them here.”2stalactites icicle-shapeddeposits hanging from theroof of a caveLesson 1 • Reading Fiction 7
  8. 8. 8 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionDIALOGUE AND PLOTIn many stories, dialogue(conversation betweencharacters) serves to move theplot (what happens in a story)forward.Tom says to Becky, “If[the bats] put our candles out itwill be an awful fix. Let’s trysome other way, so as not to gothrough there,” and Beckyagrees.What happens as a resultof this dialogue? How does itmove the plot forward?5 Becky grew apprehensive.“I wonder how long we’ve been down here, Tom?We better start back.”“Yes, I reckon we better. P’raps we better.”“Can you find the way, Tom? It’s all a mixed-upcrookedness to me.”“I reckon I could find it—but then the bats. If they putour candles out it will be an awful fix. Let’s try some otherway, so as not to go through there.”10 “Well. But I hope we won’t get lost. It would be soawful!” and the girl shuddered at the thought of the dreadfulpossibilities.They started through a corridor, and traversed it insilence a long way, glancing at each new opening, to see ifthere was anything familiar about the look of it; but theywere all strange. Every time Tom made an examination,Becky would watch his face for an encouraging sign, and hewould say cheerily:“Oh, it’s all right. This ain’t the one, but we’ll come to itright away!”But he felt less and less hopeful with each failure, andpresently began to turn off into diverging avenues at sheerrandom, in desperate hope of finding the one that waswanted. He still said it was “all right,” but there was such aleaden dread at his heart that the words had lost their ringand sounded just as if he had said, “All is lost!” Becky clungto his side in an anguish of fear, and tried hard to keep backthe tears, but they would come. At last she said:“Oh, Tom, never mind the bats, let’s go back that way!We seem to get worse and worse off all the time.”15 “Listen!” said he.Profound silence; silence so deep that even theirbreathings were conspicuous in the hush. Tom shouted. Thecall went echoing down the empty aisles and died out in thedistance in a faint sound that resembled a ripple of mockinglaughter.
  9. 9. Listen and LearnLesson 1 • Reading Fiction 9INFERENCE An inference is aguess based on evidence in atext. Becky agrees to try to havehope if Tom will stop blaminghimself for their situation.Whatcan you infer about Becky’sfeelings for Tom?SUSPENSE Suspense is a stateof uncertainty.An author usessuspense to maintain thereader’s interest and keep thereader wondering about whatwill happen.What are Tomand Becky uncertain about inthe story?“Oh, don’t do it again, Tom, it is too horrid,” said Becky.“It is horrid, but I better, Becky; they might hear us, youknow,” and he shouted again.The “might” was even a chillier horror than the ghostlylaughter, it so confessed a perishing hope. The childrenstood still and listened; but there was no result. Tom turnedupon the back track at once, and hurried his steps. It wasbut a little while before a certain indecision in his mannerrevealed another fearful fact to Becky—he could not findhis way back!20 “Oh, Tom, you didn’t make any marks!”“Becky, I was such a fool! Such a fool! I never thought wemight want to come back! No—I can’t find the way. It’s allmixed up.”“Tom, Tom, we’re lost! we’re lost! We never can get outof this awful place! Oh, why DID we ever leave the others!”She sank to the ground and burst into such a frenzy ofcrying that Tom was appalled with the idea that she mightdie, or lose her reason. . . . Tom begged her to pluck up hopeagain, and she said she could not. He fell to blaming andabusing himself for getting her into this miserable situation;this had a better effect. She said she would try to hope again,she would get up and follow wherever he might lead if onlyhe would not talk like that any more. . . .So they moved on again—aimlessly—simply atrandom—all they could do was to move, keep moving.For a little while, hope made a show of reviving—not withany reason to back it, but only because it is its nature torevive when the spring has not been taken out of it by ageand familiarity with failure.25 By-and-by Tom took Becky’s candle and blew it out.This economy meant so much! Words were not needed.Becky understood, and her hope died again. She knewthat Tom had a whole candle and three or four pieces inhis pockets—yet he must economize.By-and-by, fatigue began to assert its claims; thechildren tried to pay attention, for it was dreadful to thinkof sitting down when time was grown to be so precious,moving, in some direction, in any direction, was at leastprogress and might bear fruit; but to sit down was toinvite death and shorten its pursuit.
  10. 10. 10 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionAt last Becky’s frail limbs refused to carry her farther.She sat down. Tom rested with her, and they talked ofhome, and the friends there, and the comfortable beds and,above all, the light! Becky cried, and Tom tried to think ofsome way of comforting her, but all his encouragementswere grown thread-bare with use, and sounded likesarcasms. Fatigue bore so heavily upon Becky that shedrowsed off to sleep. Tom was grateful. He sat looking intoher drawn face and saw it grow smooth and natural underthe influence of pleasant dreams; and by-and-by a smiledawned and rested there. The peaceful face reflectedsomewhat of peace and healing into his own spirit, and histhoughts wandered away to bygone times and dreamymemories. While he was deep in his musings, Becky wokeup with a breezy little laugh—but it was stricken dead uponher lips, and a groan followed it.“Oh, how COULD I sleep! I wish I never, never hadwaked! No! No, I don’t, Tom! Don’t look so! I won’t sayit again.”“I’m glad you’ve slept, Becky; you’ll feel rested, now,and we’ll find the way out.”30 “We can try, Tom; but I’ve seen such a beautiful countryin my dream. I reckon we are going there.”“Maybe not, maybe not. Cheer up, Becky, and let’s goon trying.”. . . Tuesday afternoon came, and waned to the twilight.The village of St. Petersburg still mourned. The lost childrenhad not been found. . . . Mrs. Thatcher was very ill, and agreat part of the time delirious. . . . Aunt Polly had droopedinto a settled melancholy, and her gray hair had grownalmost white. The village went to its rest on Tuesday night,sad and forlorn.Away in the middle of the night a wild peal burst fromthe village bells, and in a moment the streets were swarmingwith frantic half-clad people, who shouted, “Turn out! turnout! they’re found! they’re found!” . . .CHARACTERIZATION A writerreveals a character’s personalitythrough several elements ofcharacterization—directstatements, action, dialogue,thoughts and emotions, andinteractions with othercharacters.What is revealedabout Tom’s personality whenhe says, “Cheer up, Becky, andlet’s go on trying”? Whichelements of characterizationare being used?POINT OF VIEW Point of viewis the perspective from which astory is told.The three mostcommon points of view are:third-person omniscient (thenarrator knows everything aboutall characters), third-personlimited (the narrator knows thethoughts and feelings of onecharacter), and first person (thenarrator is a character in thestory and uses the personalpronoun “I”).While Tom andBecky are trapped in the cave,we learn that “The village ofSt. Petersburg still mourned.”How does this information revealthe narrator’s point of view?
  11. 11. Listen and LearnThe village was illuminated; nobody went to bed again;it was the greatest night the little town had ever seen. Duringthe first half-hour a procession of villagers filed throughJudge Thatcher’s house, seized the saved ones and kissedthem, squeezed Mrs. Thatcher’s hand, tried to speak butcouldn’t—and drifted out raining tears all over the place. . . .35 Tom lay upon a sofa with an eager auditory about himand told the history of the wonderful adventure, puttingin many striking additions to adorn it withal; and closedwith a description of how he left Becky and went on anexploring expedition; how he followed two avenues as faras his kite-line would reach; how he followed a third tothe fullest stretch of the kite-line, and was about to turnback when he glimpsed a far-off speck that looked likedaylight; dropped the line and groped toward it, pushedhis head and shoulders through a small hole, and sawthe broad Mississippi rolling by!. . . He told how he went back for Becky[;] . . . howhe pushed his way out at the hole and then helped herout; how they sat there and cried for gladness; howsome men came along in a skiff and Tom hailed themand told them their situation and their famishedcondition; how the men didn’t believe the wild tale atfirst, “because,” said they, “you are five miles downthe river below the valley the cave is in”—then tookthem aboard, rowed to a house, gave them supper,made them rest till two or three hours afterdark and then brought them home.IRONY Verbal irony occurswhen a character’s or narrator’swords do not match what isreally meant. Situational ironyoccurs when the outcome of anevent is the opposite of what isexpected.When the narratorsays that Tom “told the historyof the wonderful adventure,”which type of irony isoccurring? Why?THEME A story’s theme is thegeneral idea about life that itreveals. One of this story’sthemes is that it is much easierto get into trouble than out ofit. How does the story revealthis general idea about life?What are some other themesin the story?Lesson 1 • Reading Fiction 11
  12. 12. 12 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionListen and LearnComprehension CheckLook back in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer to see how Tom thinks and behavesduring the story. Think about how the author presents Tom through the narrator’s eyes.Use the graphic organizer to develop a character sketch of Tom Sawyer.what he thinks what he doeswhat the narrator sayswhat he sayswhat other characters thinkTom Sawyer
  13. 13. Lesson 1 • Reading Fiction 13Listen and LearnVocabularyUse the word map below to help you define and use one of the highlighted vocabularywords from the Share and Learn reading or another word your teacher assigns you.atmospherediscomfituredauntedballastcountenanceaffableabashedMy wordSynonyms AntonymsDefinition Other formsMy sentence
  14. 14. Consider14 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionShare and LearnTHEME Look at thedescription of Jo inparagraph 1. Underlinephrases that show thatthis story is about herpursuit of a dream.ARCHETYPE Whichphrase in paragraph 1best describes a type ofcharacter you might see inother stories?ANALOGY Circle thename of the fairy talecharacter in paragraph 2that Jo is compared to.Explain how the author issaying the two charactersare similar.by Louisa May Alcott1 Though very happy in the social atmosphere about her, andvery busy with the daily work that earned her bread and made itsweeter for the effort, Jo still found time for literary labors. Thepurpose which now took possession of her was a natural one to apoor and ambitious girl, but the means she took to gain her endwere not the best. She saw that money conferred power, moneyand power, therefore, she resolved to have, not to be used forherself alone, but for those whom she loved more than life. Thedream of filling home with comforts, giving Beth everything shewanted, from strawberries in winter to an organ in her bedroom,going abroad herself, and always having more than enough, so thatshe might indulge in the luxury of charity, had been for years Jo’smost cherished castle in the air.1The prize-story experience had seemed toopen a way which might, after long travelingand much uphill work, lead to thisdelightful chateau en Espagne.2But thenovel disaster quenched her courage for atime, for public opinion is a giant whichhas frightened stouter-hearted Jacks onbigger beanstalks than hers. But the“up again and take another” spiritwas as strong in Jo as in Jack, so shescrambled up on the shady side thistime and got more booty, but nearlyleft behind her what was far moreprecious than the moneybags.1castle in the air a metaphor meaning thatthis was Jo’s greatest dream2delightful chateau en Espagne another referenceto Jo’s dream of having a comfortable homefromLittle WomenHow is the main character in this story similar to and differentfrom Tom Sawyer?What various features of being young do these two charactersillustrate?fromfromLittle Women
  15. 15. Share and LearnLesson 1 • Reading Fiction 15ALLUSION Circle thename of the magazine inparagraph 3 that Jo mighthave read for fashion tips.CHARACTER Circle thewords and phrases inparagraph 5 that theauthor uses to describeMr. Dashwood.SETTING Based on thedetails in paragraph 3,what words would youuse to describe thenewspaper office?INFERENCE What can youinfer about Jo’s feelings inparagraphs 5 through 7?She took to writing sensation stories,3for in those dark ages,even all-perfect America read rubbish.4She told no one, butconcocted a “thrilling tale”, and boldly carried it herself toMr. Dashwood, editor of the Weekly Volcano. She had never readSartor Resartus, but she had a womanly instinct that clothespossess an influence more powerful over many than the worthof character or the magic of manners. So she dressed herself inher best, and trying to persuade herself that she was neitherexcited nor nervous, bravely climbed two pairs of dark and dirtystairs to find herself in a disorderly room, a cloud of cigar smoke,and the presence of three gentlemen, sitting with their heelsrather higher than their hats, which articles of dress none ofthem took the trouble to remove on her appearance. Somewhatdaunted by this reception, Jo hesitated on the threshold,murmuring in much embarrassment.“Excuse me, I was looking for the Weekly Volcano office.I wished to see Mr. Dashwood.”5 Down went the highest pair of heels, up rose the smokiestgentleman, and carefully cherishing his cigar between his fingers,he advanced with a nod and a countenance expressive of nothingbut sleep. Feeling that she must get through the matter somehow,Jo produced her manuscript and, blushing redder and redderwith each sentence, blundered out fragments of the little speechcarefully prepared for the occasion.“A friend of mine desired me to offer—a story—just as anexperiment—would like your opinion—be glad to write more ifthis suits.”While she blushed and blundered, Mr. Dashwood had takenthe manuscript, and was turning over the leaves with a pair ofrather dirty fingers, and casting critical glances up and down theneat pages.“Well, you can leave it, if you like. We’ve more of this sort ofthing on hand than we know what to do with at present, but I’llrun my eye over it, and give you an answer next week.”3sensation stories stories that may involve characters whose actions arenot admirable4rubbish refers to literature that is poorly written or has no moral value
  16. 16. 16 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionHUMOR Underline thedescription of the humordirected against Jo inparagraph 9.POINT OF VIEW Whatdoes paragraph 9 tell youabout the point of view ofthe narrator?Now, Jo did not like to leave it, for Mr. Dashwood didn’t suither at all, but, under the circumstances, there was nothing forher to do but bow and walk away, looking particularly tall anddignified, as she was apt to do when nettled or abashed. Justthen she was both, for it was perfectly evident from the knowingglances exchanged among the gentlemen that her little fiction of“my friend” was considered a good joke, and a laugh, producedby some inaudible remark of the editor, as he closed the door,completed her discomfiture. Half resolving never to return, shewent home, and worked off her irritation by stitching pinafores5vigorously, and in an hour or two was cool enough to laugh overthe scene and long for next week.5pinafores garments worn over dresses or skirts, popular among girls inthis time period
  17. 17. Share and LearnLesson 1 • Reading Fiction 1710 When she went again, Mr. Dashwood was alone, whereatshe rejoiced. Mr. Dashwood was much wider awake than before,which was agreeable, and Mr. Dashwood was not too deeplyabsorbed in a cigar to remember his manners, so the secondinterview was much more comfortable than the first.“We’ll take this, if you don’t object to a few alterations. It’stoo long, but omitting the passages I’ve marked will make it justthe right length,” he said, in a businesslike tone.Jo hardly knew her own MS6again, so crumpled andunderscored were its pages and paragraphs, but feeling as atender parent might on being asked to cut off her baby’s legsin order that it might fit into a new cradle, she looked at themarked passages and was surprised to find that all the moralreflections—which she had carefully put in as ballast for muchromance—had been stricken out.“But, Sir, I thought every story should have some sort of amoral, so I took care to have a few of my sinners repent.”Mr. Dashwood’s editorial gravity relaxed into a smile, for Johad forgotten her “friend”, and spoken as only an author could.15 “People want to be amused, not preached at, you know.Morals don’t sell nowadays.” Which was not quite a correctstatement, by the way.“You think it would do with these alterations, then?”“Yes, it’s a new plot, and pretty well worked up—languagegood, and so on,” was Mr. Dashwood’s affable reply.“What do you—that is, what compensation—” began Jo, notexactly knowing how to express herself.“Oh, yes, well, we give from twenty-five to thirty for things ofthis sort. Pay when it comes out,” returned Mr. Dashwood, as ifthat point had escaped him.6MS an abbreviation of the word manuscriptCOMPARE ANDCONTRAST FICTIONCompare and contrast howTom and Jo each handlestressful situations in thetwo stories. How are theyalike and different?CHARACTERIZATIONWhat do Mr. Dashwood’sactions in paragraph 14 tellyou about his personality?CONTEXT CLUES Whatcontext clues in paragraph12 can help you determinethe meaning of ballast?
  18. 18. 18 Lesson 1 • Reading FictionSUMMARY How wouldyou summarize the secondinteraction between Jo andMr. Dashwood?20 “Very well, you can have it,” said Jo, handing back the storywith a satisfied air, for after the dollar-a-column work, eventwenty-five seemed good pay.“Shall I tell my friend you will take another if she has onebetter than this?” asked Jo, unconscious of her little slip of thetongue, and emboldened by her success.“Well, we’ll look at it. Can’t promise to take it. Tell her tomake it short and spicy, and never mind the moral. What namewould your friend like to put on it?” in a careless tone.“None at all, if you please, she doesn’t wish her name toappear and has no nom de plume,”7said Jo, blushing in spiteof herself.“Just as she likes, of course. The tale will be out nextweek. Will you call for the money, or shall I send it?” askedMr. Dashwood.25 “I’ll call. Good morning, Sir.”As she departed, Mr. Dashwood put up his feet, with thegraceful remark, “Poor and proud, as usual, but she’ll do.”7nom de plume a French term meaning “pen name”; a name the authorchooses to be called instead of using his or her given name
  19. 19. Lesson 1 • Reading Fiction 19Share and LearnAnchor Standard Discussion QuestionsDiscuss the following questions with your peer group. Then record your answers in thespace provided.1. Jo goes through a lot of trouble to get her story published, yet she decides not to takecredit for it. What does this decision reveal about Jo’s values? Support your answer withevidence from the text.2. The narrator describes Jo’s second interview as “much more comfortable” than the first.Does Jo grow to like Mr. Dashwood? What is Jo’s opinion of him by the end of thepassage? Support your answers with evidence from the text.
  20. 20. Share and LearnRead another story, “Striking Out,” independently. Apply what you learnedin this lesson and check your understanding.Read On Your OwnComprehension Check1. How would you describe Jo based on what she does in the story? What character traitsdoes she reveal through her actions?2. Summarize Jo’s dreams and her plan to make those dreams come true.3. One of the themes of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is about taking responsibility. Howdoes this theme appear in Little Women?20 Lesson 1 • Reading Fiction

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