Georgia Common Core Support Coach, CCGPS Edition, Target: Reading Comprehension, Grade 4

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Georgia Common Core Support Coach, CCGPS Edition, Target: Reading Comprehension, Grade 4

  1. 1. www.triumphlearning.comPhone: (800) 338-6519 • Fax: (866) 805-5723 • E-mail: customerservice@triumphlearning.comFirst EditionTarget4FirstEditionTargetDevelopedExclusivelyfortheCCSSReadingComprehension4ReadingComprehensionMaster the skills and strategies you needto comprehend complex texts!TARGET ReadingComprehensionFocus on> Biographies> Dramas> HistoricalNonfiction> Myths> Fables> Poetry> ScientificNonfiction> Short Stories> Technical TextsT131GAISBN-13: 978-1-62362-040-09 7 8 1 6 2 3 6 2 0 4 0 09 0 0 0 0GEORGIAGEORGIA
  2. 2. ContentsFictionLesson 1: Myths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5The Gift of Fire Determine the Theme • Describe a Character. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8How Coyote Brought Fire to the Animal People Patterns across Cultures • Plot and Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16How Coyote Stole Fire from the Skookums Compare and Contrast • Allusions to Mythology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Read on Your Own  King Midas and the Golden Touch. . . . 32Lesson 2: Short Stories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Things That Go Thump in the Night Draw Inferences • Idioms, Adages, and Proverbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40What Are Friends For? Draw Conclusions • Point of View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48Read on Your Own  The Wolf Who Cried Boy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Lesson 3: Drama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61The Case of the Missing Ring Make Predictions • Elements of Drama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64The Money Goes Missing Summarize • Character Motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Read on Your Own  Eloisa’s Best Friend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80Lesson 4: Poetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87The Wind and the Moon  Visualize • Elements of Poetry. . . . . . 90The Wind Tapped Like a Tired Man / Winter Determine the Theme • Figurative Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98Read on Your Own  A Bird Came Down the Walk. . . . . . . . . 104RL.4.2, RL.4.3, RL.4.4,RL.4.7, RL.4.9, RL.4.10,RF.4.3.a, L.4.3.a, L.4.4.b,L.4.4.cRL.4.1, RL.4.6, RL.4.10,RF.4.3.a, RF.4.4.c, L.4.4.a,L.4.4.b, L.4.5.bRL.4.2, RL.4.3, RL.4.5,RL.4.10, RF.4.3.a, RF.4.4.c,L.4.4.a, L.4.4.bRL.4.2, RL.4.5, RL.4.9,RL.4.10, L.4.3.a, L.4.5.a,L.4.5.cCommon Core GeorgiaPerformance Standards(CCGPS)2Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_FM_TOC.indd 2 4/22/13 7:06 PM
  3. 3. NonfictionLesson 5: Historical Nonfiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109Genre Model: Letter from a Chinese RailroadWorker  Main Idea and Details • Firsthand Account. . . . . . . . . . . . . 112Building the Transcontinental Railroad Summarize • Secondhand Account. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120Read on Your Own The Vasa: A Mighty Ship Recovered . 128Lesson 6: Scientific Nonfiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133Coral Reefs: Amazing Ecosystems Cause and Effect • Reasons and Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136Sea Horses: Unique Creatures of the Sea Draw Conclusions • Text Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144Read on Your Own  Killer Plants!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152Lesson 7: Technical Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157Trapped!  Sequence • Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160Making Maple Syrup  Main Idea and Details • Bar Graphs . . . . . . 168Try Eating in Space Paraphrase • Text Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176Read on Your Own  Curling: The Roaring Game . . . . . . . . . 184Lesson 8: Literary Nonfiction: Biography andAutobiography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191Abraham Lincoln: A Biography Draw Inferences • Time Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194Genre Model: Rebecca Fire Fox: A Sculptor of Wood Biography vs. Autobiography • Text Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202Read on Your Own  Gertrude Ederle: Queen of the Waves. . 210Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217RI.4.2, RI.4.3, RI.4.4, RI.4.6,RI.4.10, L.4.4.c, L.4.6RI.4.4, RI.4.5, RI.4.8, RI.4.9,RI.4.10, L.4.5.c, L.4.6RI.4.2, RI.4.4, RI.4.5, RI.4.7,RI. 4.10, RF.4.4.c, L.4.4.a,L.4.4.c, L.4.6RI.4.1, RI.4.5, RI.4.6, RI.4.7,RI.4.10, RF.4.4.c, L.4.3.a,L.4.4.aCommon Core GeorgiaPerformance Standards(CCGPS)3Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_FM_TOC.indd 3 4/22/13 7:06 PM
  4. 4. ToolsGraphic Organizers and Close Reading WorksheetsLesson 1: MythsThe Gift of Fire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223How Coyote Brought Fireto the Animal People . . . . . . . . . . . . 225How Coyote Stole Fire fromthe Skookums. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227Lesson 2: Short StoriesThings That Go Thumpin the Night. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229What Are Friends For?. . . . . . . . . . . . . .231Lesson 3: DramaThe Case of the Missing Ring. . . . . . . . . 233The Money Goes Missing. . . . . . . . . . . . 235Lesson 4: PoetryThe Wind and the Moon. . . . . . . . . . . . 237The Wind Tapped Likea Tired Man / Winter . . . . . . . . . . . . 239Lesson 5: Historical NonfictionGenre Model: Letter from a ChineseRailroad Worker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241Building the TranscontinentalRailroad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243Lesson 6: Scientific NonfictionCoral Reefs: Amazing Ecosystems. . . . . 245Sea Horses: Unique Creaturesof the Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247Lesson 7: Technical TextsTrapped!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249Making Maple Syrup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251Try Eating in Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253Lesson 8: Literary Nonfiction:Biography and AutobiographyAbraham Lincoln: A Biography. . . . . . . 255Genre Model: Rebecca Fire Fox:A Sculptor of Wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2574Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_FM_TOC.indd 4 4/22/13 7:06 PM
  5. 5. Lesson 7TechnicalTextsTechnical texts provide information about science or technologytopics and use terms with meanings specific to those topics. They explainwhat happens and why it happens, or they describe how to do somethingor how something works in step-by-step order. For example, you might readan article about how a gardener, like the one in the photo below, pollinatesflowers. What kind of information do you think you might learn?Skills FocusTrapped!Sequence DiagramsMaking Maple SyrupMain Idea and Details Bar GraphsTry Eating in SpaceParaphrase Text StructureTechnical Texts 157Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 157 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  6. 6. Practice the SkillFirst Read SequenceSequence is the order in which things happen. Technical texts oftendescribe a series of events or steps in a process. The order of steps isimportant so that the procedure works or the product comes out right.For example, an article about how photo lab technicians print pictureswould include steps in the printing process.You can look for clue words that tell about the sequence. Words likefirst, next, then, and finally signal the order in which things happen.Try It Read this paragraph.An igloo is a snow house that looks like a ball cut in half. Here’s howpeople make one. First, they mark off a circle in the snow and dig blocksof snow from the area inside it. The snow needs to be deep and tightlypacked. Next, they place the blocks around the edge of the circle. Theylayer the blocks of snow, trimming them so that they lean in towardthe center. Then, when the walls are high enough to form a dome,they place a block in the center to close the space at the top. Finally,they create an entrance by digging a hole in the shape they want andcovering it with ice blocks. This is how they get in and out of the house.Discuss Think about sequence to help you understand how tobuild an igloo. Look for clue words that help you figureout the order of the steps in the paragraph. Doubleunderline the clue words.As you read, complete the Sequence Chart on page 249.158  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 158 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  7. 7. Practice the SkillSecond Read DiagramsTechnical texts use visuals to help explain information or showa process. One type of visual information is a diagram. A diagramis a drawing that shows the parts that make up something or howsomething works. A diagram usually has a title, labels, and a caption.The title says what the diagram is about. The labels name parts ofthe drawing, while the caption gives more information about whatis shown. For example, a diagram of a rain forest would show thedifferent levels that plants grow to, with each level labeled. A captionwould give more information about each level.Try It Look at this diagram.TadpoleAdult frogFrogletThe Life Cycle of a FrogEggsWhen a froglet losesits tail, it becomesan adult frog.Discuss Underline the title of the diagram. Circle the labels thatname the stages in the life cycle of a frog. Draw a boxaround the caption that gives information about when afroglet becomes an adult frog.As you read, record your answers to questions about diagrams onthe Close Reading Worksheet on page 250.Trapped! 159Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 159 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  8. 8. In what way arepeople the greatestthreat to whales?Whales are large, powerful animals. In fact, blue whalesand humpback whales are the largest animals on Earth. So youmight think that these giants would be safe from most types ofdanger. Unfortunately, that’s not true.Whales face many threats to their survival. Long ago,people all over the world began to hunt and kill whales. Theycalled this whaling. The whales provided valuable products,like oil and whalebone, that were used for important thingslike lighting and clothing. But whaling greatly reduced thewhale populations. Eventually, people realized that whaleswere in danger of dying out. They began to work to protectwhales and other ocean animals. As a result, laws were passedthat made whaling illegal.However, whaling isn’t the only threat to whales. Whenwhales swim, rest, or look for food in coastal areas, ships maycrash into them. Although this happens by accident, it is stilla big problem. Another threat is that polluted, or dirty, waterscan poison whales. Fish may die, too, which reduces thewhales’ food supply.123Purpose for ReadingRead along with your teacher. Each time, read for a different purpose.First Read Focus on understanding the sequence of events.Second Read Focus on using diagrams.Third Read Focus on evaluating the article critically.Trapped!160  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 160 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  9. 9. What grows on theheads of right whales?Circle the word inthe label and in thecaption.What part is at the tailend of the right whale?Circle the word in thediagram.Why is going on awhale watch a popularactivity?What Is Entanglement?When people visit the northeastern coast of the UnitedStates, they may go on a whale watch. A whale watch takespeople out into the ocean for the purpose of seeing whales.If the tourists are lucky, they’ll get to see right whales andhumpback whales breaching, or leaping out of the water.Unfortunately, there is also a large fishing industry in thisregion. As a result, workers put many fishing lines and lobstertraps in the cold waters there. Accidents can happen when thewhales get trapped in the fishing gear.When a whale swims into waters where fishing lines andropes exist, it risks becoming tangled or tied up. This is calledentanglement. Entanglement is a very serious problem. Theropes work like a trap. When a whale becomes caught in theropes, it often can’t swim, eat, or even breathe. If the ropeswrap around the whale very tightly, they can cut into its skin.The cuts can get infected and cause the whale to die. Even if awhale is able to free itself, pieces of rope may stay attached toits body. This can be dangerous for the whale.456A right whale is easyto recognize becauseit doesn’t have adorsal fin on its backlike other whales do.It has large growthson its head calledcallosities.Right WhalecallositiesflippersflukesTrapped! 161Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 161 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  10. 10. floating linesbuoylobster trapHow can lobster trapsharm a whale? Circlethe text in the diagramthat tells you.How Does Entanglement Happen?Sometimes, fishing ropes wrap loosely around the whales,and they are able to free themselves. But often they can’t.Lobster traps are connected to one another by lines orropes and are lowered into the ocean. The lines are attached toan endline that leads to a buoy, or float, on the surface. Whenwhales swim into this area, they can easily become tangledor trapped in the ropes. The ropes can get stuck in a whale’smouth or wrap around its flippers or tail. Look at the diagrambelow. It shows how whales can swim into the lobster linesand get tangled up.Scientists found out that more and more whales were beingtrapped in fishing gear, so they developed methods for freeingthe whales. One place where this work is done is the Centerfor Coastal Studies in Provincetown, Massachusetts. In 1984,workers there developed a plan for freeing the whales. Sincethen, they have freed many whales. The team at the centeris the only one on the East Coast of the United States that isapproved to disentangle, or free, the whales from ropes.789A whale canget entangledin floating ropesattached tolobster traps.162  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 162 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  11. 11. How Are the Whales Freed?When the center hears about a whale in danger, its teamgoes into action. The first step is to check and see how seriousthe entanglement is and what the weather conditions are like.Workers must decide if the conditions are right for a rescue.Bad weather makes it more difficult to help a trapped animaland can be dangerous for the rescuers, too.Next, the rescue team might attach transmitters to a buoy,which is connected to the ropes that are trapping the animal.This type of equipment sends signals and allows workers totrack the whale’s movement and location in the ocean.Then, the rescuers try to get the whale to settle down andstay still. They use a method called kegging. The rescuersattach kegs, or barrels, to the ropes around the whale. The kegskeep the whale afloat and prevent it from diving or movingaway. Kegging tires the whale, and a tired whale is more likelyto stay still while workers try to free it.Finally, the rescuers are ready to cut the lines that havetrapped the whale. They have to work very carefully. Theydo not want to hurt the whale or themselves as they makethe cuts. Workers also make sure that they cut all the lines. Ifthey don’t, the whale might swim off with pieces of line stillattached to it, and that can cause problems for the animallater on.Other animals may also receive help from the rescue team.While rescuers are working to save a whale, they might finddolphins, porpoises, seals, and sea turtles that have becomeentangled. These animals are lucky if the team members findthem when out on a mission.1011121314What do rescuers dofirst when they learnof an entanglement?Write the answer onthe Sequence Chart.Find the sequence wordin paragraph 11.Whatis the second step inthe rescue process?Write the answer onthe Sequence Chart.Find the sequenceword in paragraph 12.What is the third stepin the rescue process?Write the answer onthe Sequence Chart.Find the sequenceword in paragraph 13.What is the last stepin the rescue process?Write the answer onthe Sequence Chart.Trapped!  163Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 163 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  12. 12. In what way doesentanglement presentdangers to peopleas well as whales?SupportHow does the articlesupport the ideathat solutions to bigproblems often requirecooperation frommany different people?What Are the Dangers and Solutions?Freeing whales can be a tricky business. Rescue workerscan be injured if they collide with a whale. They also riskgetting caught in the fishing lines. And it’s dangerous forhuman beings to be in frigid ocean waters for any lengthof time. So rescue workers must carefully check out eachsituation. Once they have all the facts, they can decide if theconditions are safe enough for them to continue with a rescue.Because entanglement can be a danger for both the whalesand the rescue workers, scientists have a new goal. They wantto prevent these accidents from happening in the first place.One way to achieve this is to change the way fishing lines andlobster traps are used. People in the fishing industry, scientists,and government officials have been working together onthis problem and have made two important suggestions.First, fishing lines should be made of better material—strongenough to do the job, but weak enough to break if a whalebrushes against them. Second, fishing lines should stay on theocean floor instead of floating in the water.Rescue workers have successfully saved many whales.Hopefully, in the future, fewer whales will become trapped.151617This whalewas injured bya fishing line.164  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 164 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  13. 13. Vocabulary: Technology TermsA technology term is one that is important to understanding aparticular topic in a technical text. You will find these words in textbooksand articles. The words are often printed in bold, or dark, print.Try It Read this sentence from “Trapped!”If the tourists are lucky, they’ll get to see right whales and humpbackwhales breaching, or leaping out of the water.Discuss In this sentence, the author provides a meaning forbreaching—“leaping out of the water.” If the definitiondoes not appear in the text, you can sometimes use contextclues to help you figure out the meaning. For example,in the sentence “You can crop the picture to cut out theunknown people on the side,” the context clues for cropare “cut out” and “unknown people.”The following words are used in “Trapped!” Find the words inthe article, and look for context clues that help you understand theirmeaning. Write a definition for each word, and use it in a sentence.1. entanglement, p. 1612. transmitters, p. 1633. kegging, p. 163Trapped! 165Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 165 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  14. 14. Practice the SkillFirst Read Main Idea and DetailsThe main idea is the most important idea in a selection. It tells whatthe selection is mostly about. Supporting details are the pieces ofinformation that support, or tell more about, the main idea. Supportingdetails tell who, what, when, where, how, or why something happens.For example, the main idea of a paragraph might be that it is importantto take care of pets. Details could include when to feed them, how toexercise them, and why you should play with them.Every selection has a main idea. Each paragraph has a main idea,too. The main idea might or might not be stated directly in the text. Ifthe main idea is not stated, you must think about what the selection orparagraph is mostly about.Try It Read this paragraph.Bamboo is a very useful plant. It’s an important source of food forboth people and animals. People eat the young shoots and seed of theplant. Pandas eat shoots, leaves, and stems. The giant pandas of Chinaeat bamboo all day long. Bamboo is also a strong building material. Itis used to make homes in China. It is also used to make furniture, toys,and cooking tools. It’s even used to make clothing!Discuss Think about the main idea and supporting details. Askyourself, “What is this paragraph mostly about?” Look forthe main idea, and circle it. Then ask yourself, “What detailstell me more about the main idea?” Underline the details.As you read, complete the Main Idea and Details Chart on page 251.166  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 166 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  15. 15. Practice the SkillSecond Read Bar GraphsAnother type of visual information used in technical texts is a bargraph. A bar graph uses narrow columns of different lengths to showinformation. This type of graph is used to display or compare differentamounts. For example, you could use a bar graph to show the favoritefoods of all the students in a class. The highest bar would show the mostpopular food, and the lowest bar would show the least popular food.A bar graph usually has a title that explains the purpose of the graph.It also has numbers that help you understand what each bar shows andlabels that explain what is being compared.Try It Look at this bar graph.Snowfall Amounts for Chicago, 2007–2012Years2007–2008 2008–2009 2009–2010 2010–2011 2011–2012Inches010203040506070Discuss What is the title of the bar graph? For what years does thebar graph show snowfall amounts? Which time period hadthe least amount of snow? Draw a box around the bar thatshows you this amount.As you read, record your answers to questions about bar graphson the Close Reading Worksheet on page 252.Making Maple Syrup 167Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 167 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  16. 16. What is the mainidea of paragraph 3?Write the main ideaon the Main Ideaand Details Chart.Which detailssupport the mainidea in paragraph 3?Write the details onthe Main Idea andDetails Chart.No one really knows when and where people discoveredhow to make maple syrup and sugar. Myths tell how NativeAmericans in North America learned about sap running inmaple trees. But we have no written facts to support the ideathat they were the ones who discovered how to use the sap tomake maple syrup.We do know that by the 1700s, both Native Americans andEuropean explorers were boiling sap in large, heavy kettlesto make syrup. They also made solid chunks of maple sugar.Maple sugar was useful because it was easy to carry and wouldlast for a long time.By the late 1860s, the maple syrup industry had begun.Farmers would make syrup for their families and sell what wasleft over. By this time, they had better tools that made the taskeasier. For example, farmers had metal spouts they could putinto maple trees. Sap would pour out of the spouts. They alsohad metal containers in which to collect the sap.123Purpose for ReadingRead along with your teacher. Each time, read for a different purpose.First Read Focus on finding main ideas and details.Second Read Focus on using bar graphs.Third Read Focus on evaluating the article critically.MakingMapleSyrupSugar maplesin the fall168  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 168 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  17. 17. 800Syrup Production, 2012ThousandsofGallonsMaine0100200300400500600New Hampshire Ohio New York Vermont700StatesUse the bar graph tofigure out which stateproduced the greatestamount of maple syrupin 2012. How muchsyrup was produced?Use the bar graph tofigure out which twostates produced aboutthe same amount ofmaple syrup. Howmany gallons dideach of these statesproduce?Why do you think the2011 season was greatfor syrup production?Weather and ProductionMaple syrup is produced where maple trees grow and theweather is favorable. Canada and parts of the northern UnitedStates have both the maple trees and the right type of weather.As a result, they are the countries that produce the mostmaple syrup.Since the weather is not exactly the same every year, someyears are better than others for making maple syrup. Forexample, the 2011 season was great for syrup production. Thatyear, the United States produced almost 2.8 million gallons ofsyrup. Vermont produced more than 1 million gallons, morethan any other state. New York was second, and Maine wasthird in syrup production.The 2012 season was not as good. In the winter of2011 to 2012, the weather conditions were very unusual, andlate winter temperatures were much warmer than normal.This weather affected how the sap ran in maple trees. Lesssyrup was produced in the spring of 2012 than in the seasonbefore. Some maple syrup producers even decided not to taptheir trees and gather sap to make maple syrup. The UnitedStates produced less than 2 million gallons of syrup. Vermontproduced 750,000 gallons, much less than what was producedthe year before.456Making Maple Syrup 169Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 169 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  18. 18. Wisconsin Syrup Production, 2010–2012Years2010 2011 2012ThousandsofGallons050100150200What is the mainidea of paragraph 10?Write the main ideaon the Main Idea andDetails Chart.Which details supportthe main idea inparagraph 10? Writethe details on theMain Idea andDetails Chart.Look at the bar graph.In which year was theleast amount of syrupproduced in Wisconsin?Trees and SapSeveral types of maple trees produce sap. Sugar, black,silver, and red maples are the ones used most frequently. Thesap from sugar maples generally has more sugar than the sapfrom other trees.Maple trees have trunks that are made up of several layers.Sapwood is the layer in which water moves up from the rootsto the leaves. During late summer and fall, maple trees beginto store a substance called starch in the sapwood layer. Thestarch stays in the sapwood as long as the air temperature iscolder than 40 degrees Fahrenheit. When air temperatures goabove 40 degrees, the starches are changed to sugar. The sugarthen moves into the tree’s sap.As the seasons change and winter becomes spring, airtemperatures rise. Higher temperatures cause pressure tobuild inside the trees. The pressure makes the sap flow, ormove in a steady and continuous way. The sap usually flowsfor about three to six weeks.Air temperature continues to affect the flow of sap. Sapflows best when nighttime temperatures go below freezing,or 32 degrees Fahrenheit. Daytime temperatures should bewarmer than 40 degrees. The rise and fall of temperaturesis required for sap to continue to flow for several weeks.78910The state ofWisconsin hassugar maplesand weather thatare favorable forsyrup production.170  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 170 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  19. 19. How Maple Syrup Is MadeMany people living in syrup-producing states collectsap and produce syrup. They follow the process below tomake syrup.Workers find maple trees that have a trunk that is at leastten inches in diameter. In each tree they drill a hole that isalmost one-half inch wide and about two inches deep. Thisprocess is called tapping. They are careful to make sure thatthe hole is tipped down a bit so that the sap will flow out easily.Next, workers place a spout with a hook into the hole. It’simportant that the spout is in tight enough so it can’t be pulledout easily, but not so tight that it cracks the tree. Then theyhang a metal or plastic bucket with a cover on the hook.As soon as the sap starts to flow, workers prepare to boil it.They use a large pot and an outdoor stove or fireplace to boilthe sap. When they have enough sap to almost fill the pot, theyplace it over the fire. They are careful not to fill it too high, orthe sap might boil over.Number of Taps Per TreeWidth of Tree in Inches Number of Taps10–17 118–24 225 or more 311121314Why might it be a goodidea to have a cover onthe bucket?This chart shows howworkers use the sizeof a tree to figure outhow many taps theycan safely put into it.Making Maple Syrup 171Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 171 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  20. 20. Why should you put anopen jar of maple syrupinto the refrigerator? DefendUse information fromthe article to defendthe idea that having asuccessful maple syrupbusiness depends on thecooperation of nature. As the sap boils down, more is added to the pot. If thereis less than two inches of sap in the pot, it might burn. Thebuckets are checked daily, and more sap is added. Workerstake turns watching the pot, since sap can quickly boil and burn.The sap becomes maple syrup when it reaches 7.1 degreesabove the temperature of boiling water. A tool such as a candythermometer is used to measure the temperature of theboiling sap.When the syrup reaches the right temperature, it is strainedto remove any tiny pieces of sugar. To do this, syrup is pouredthrough clean material, such as wool. The hot syrup is pouredinto clean containers and sealed. Syrup should be stored in acool, dry place. Once a jar of syrup is opened, it should be keptin the refrigerator.Larger businesses are able to produce greater amountsof syrup. To do this, they tap many trees and attach a tube tothe spout on each tree. Sap flows out the spout and throughthe tube. It is collected in one central bin. The sap is put intospecial pans that are attached to a heat source. Gradually,water in the sap evaporates, or turns into a gas in the air. Soonthe sap turns into the delicious, thick syrup that you put onpancakes.15161718172  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 172 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  21. 21. Vocabulary: Reference MaterialsTwo reference materials you can use to help you learn about words area dictionary and a glossary. A dictionary is a book in which words are listedalphabetically with their meanings, pronunciations, and other information.A glossary is an alphabetical list of difficult words or technical termsand their meanings. It can usually be found at the end of a book. If youcome across an unknown term in a technical text, you would first lookit up in the glossary. If there is no glossary or you cannot find the termthere, then check a dictionary.Try It Read this sentence from “Making Maple Syrup.”Higher temperatures cause pressure to build inside the trees.If you do not know what the word pressure means, look it up in adictionary. Decide which meaning is being used in the sentence.Discuss Brainstorm using other meanings of pressure in sentences.Find these words in the article. Look up each word in a dictionary tofind out what it means. Write the definition of the word as it is used inthe article. Then use each word in a sentence.1. sap, p. 1682. spouts, p. 1683. thermometer, p. 172Making Maple Syrup 173Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 173 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  22. 22. Practice the SkillFirst Read ParaphraseWhen you paraphrase, you retell what you have read in your ownwords. Technical texts often contain new and unfamiliar information.You need to reread carefully and think about what you have read. Thentry to explain this complex information in your own words. For example,you might restate the sentence “The caterpillar gets bigger throughmolts in which it sheds its skin” as “Each time a caterpillar sheds its skin,it gets bigger.”Paraphrasing is different from summarizing because summarizingonly includes the main idea and important details. When youparaphrase, you don’t have to worry about length as long as you retellthe text in your own words. Here are some tips to help you paraphrase.First, read the selection carefully. Then, read it again and look for wordsor phrases that you don’t understand. When you think you understandthose words or phrases, say or write your ideas in your own words.Try It Read this paragraph.Water striders are insects that live on the surface of a pond. Theyhave little bunches of hair on the bottoms of their legs. The hairs trapair, and that helps to keep the insect from sinking.Discuss Now try to paraphrase what you have read. Retell theparagraph in your own words.As you read, record your answers about paraphrasing on the CloseReading Worksheet on page 253.174  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 174 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  23. 23. Practice the SkillSecond Read Text StructureAuthors use text structures to organize their writing. One textstructure is called problem and solution. A problem is an issue, anda solution is what is used or done to solve that problem. An authormight state a problem and then provide possible solutions or discussseveral problems and the ways that each has been solved. For example,an author might write an article about the pollution caused by plasticbottles and include some solutions for how to avoid this.When you read problem-and-solution texts, watch how the authororganizes the writing. Look for problems. Then find how the problemswere solved. Often the writer will use the words problem and solutionin the text, and you can use these words as clues.Try It Read these paragraphs.Some apartment dwellers have a problem—they’re not allowed tohave a dog. If they love dogs, they can try being a dog sitter. This way,they can have dogs to love, just not to live with.But what if the people don’t know anybody with dogs? They mayneed to advertise in order to get customers. They could put up a flyer ata pet store or post an ad on an Internet job board.Discuss What problems are discussed in these paragraphs? Circlethe problems. Now look for the ways that the problems canbe solved. Underline the solutions.As you read, complete the Problem-and-Solution Chart on page 254.Try Eating in Space 175Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 175 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  24. 24. Try Eating inSpaceReread the thirdand fourth sentencesin paragraph 2.Paraphrase thesentences in your ownwords.Why was John Glenngiven a tube ofapplesauce to eat on aspace mission?In 1962, John Glenn was the first U.S. astronaut to eat on amission in space. His “meal” was applesauce squeezed froma tube. Since that time, astronauts have asked for meals likethe ones they eat at home. They need energy to stay active andhealthy while on a space mission. Since food is an importantpart of our lives, why shouldn’t astronauts want good foodwhen they’re on a mission?Scientists have had to figure out ways to make sure thatastronauts get healthy, tasty meals in space. Spaceships don’thave much storage space, and they don’t carry refrigerators.Also, astronauts live in a low-gravity environment on aspaceship. Gravity is the natural force that causes things tofall toward Earth. In space, the pull of gravity is less than it ison Earth, so people and objects float up and are suspended inspace. This creates all kinds of problems for eating in space.12Purpose for ReadingRead along with your teacher. Each time, read for a different purpose.First Read Focus on paraphrasing information from the article.Second Read Focus on problem-and-solution text structure.Third Read Focus on evaluating the article critically.176  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 176 4/25/13 3:19 PM
  25. 25. Paraphrase the secondand third sentences inparagraph 5.In paragraph 5, theauthor describesa problem—norefrigeration.Whatsolutions does theauthor give? Writethe solutions onthe Problem-and-Solution Chart.Storage and SafetySpaceships don’t have many cabinets to store food, likehome kitchens do. Instead, they have small areas for storingfood. Scientists had to find ways to prepare foods that wouldfit into these small areas. They achieved this by makingindividual food packages and sending up just enough for theexpected length of a mission. Enough food is sent for twoadditional days, in case missions are extended due to badweather on Earth, which would make reentry dangerous.Astronauts can’t take out the trash, which means thatthey have to store trash in the spaceship. To do this, they usemachines to compact the trash bags. These machines pressand squeeze bags of trash until they are much smaller.Since spaceships may not have refrigerators, scientistsprepare foods in ways that make them safe to store and eatwithout refrigeration. One way they do this is to dehydrate,or remove the water, from foods before they are packaged.The dryness prevents the growth of bacteria. These foods arestabilized and will remain safe even without refrigeration.Astronauts add water before they eat or drink the foods. Juices,soups, eggs, and cereals are prepared this way.Another way to prepare food is to cook the foods first onEarth and then put the cooked foods into cans. Astronautscan just open the cans and eat foods like tuna fish and fruit.Other foods, such as beef stew and soups, are heated in awarming oven.3456Dehydrated foodTry Eating in Space 177Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 177 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  26. 26. Salt and peppercause problems forastronauts in space.How have scientistssolved the problem?Write the solution onthe Problem-and-Solution Chart.It’s All about TasteMany astronauts say that foods often taste different inspace. The experience of being in low gravity may affect sensessuch as taste and smell. Astronauts add hot sauce and otherspicy seasonings to their food. These seasonings give theirfood an extra kick!Salt and pepper can make food taste better, but it’s noteasy to use these items in space. On Earth, people can shakesalt or pepper on food, and it lands on the food. But whenastronauts shake salt or pepper, it flies into the air. Pepper upthe nose can make astronauts sneeze. Flying salt can damagethe equipment. Scientists discovered a way to prevent thisfrom happening. They mix salt with water, and they combinepepper with oil. Then they put the liquids into bottles.Astronauts use droppers to put salt and pepper into their foodinstead of shaking it.Astronauts have favorite foods, and they want thesefoods when on a space mission. Scientists at NASA will askthe astronauts for their favorite food choices. Then theyprepare the foods and have the astronauts sample them. Theastronauts taste and rate each type of food. A score of 1 means“no good,” but a score of 9 means “we love it.” Only foods thatget a score of 6 or higher will be part of the astronauts’ menus.789NASA stands for NationalAeronautics and SpaceAdministration. Thisgovernment agency isresponsible for spaceexploration and research.178  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 178 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  27. 27. Hold Onto Your Seat ... and Your Fork!Low gravity is the reason why silverware will float off atable and into space. Scientists have developed methods forpreventing this from happening. They have designed specialfood trays that contain straps, magnets, and fabric fasteners.The straps go around an astronaut’s lap and hold the tray inplace. Magnets hold forks, knives, spoons, and scissors, whichthe astronauts use to open food packages. The fabric fastenershold food containers onto the tray.Astronauts also learn to hold and eat foods carefully, sothey don’t fly off a plate into space. An astronaut will cut smallopenings in food packages. Then he or she holds the packageclose to his or her mouth so that the food doesn’t have totravel far. Eating scrambled eggs in space requires carefulconcentration!Some types of foods crumble, such as bread and crackers.The crumbs they form float away in low gravity. Astronautshave discovered that tortillas work much better than bread.They can spread peanut butter and jelly on a tortilla and makea tasty PB and J. Or they can put rice, beans, and cheese in atortilla and roll it up to make a meal in a wrap.101112In paragraph 10, youlearn that silverwarefloats in space.Whathave scientists doneto solve this problem?Write the solution onthe Problem-and-Solution Chart.How do tortillas helpsolve the problemof crumbs in space?Try Eating in Space 179CC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 179 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  28. 28. Paraphrase the lasttwo sentences of thearticle.How does SandraMagnus solve theproblem of foodsand cooking toolsfloating into space?Write your answer onthe Problem-and-Solution Chart.ApplyBased on what youlearned about eatingin a low-gravityenvironment, whatother activities would bedifficult to do while inspace? Explain.Cooking on the International Space StationIn 2000, astronauts began traveling to the InternationalSpace Station (ISS). The ISS is a laboratory in space whereastronauts from around the world live and work. Oneastronaut, Sandra Magnus, has tried cooking on the spacestation. This activity is nothing like cooking on Earth. In akitchen here, chefs and other people put foods, seasonings,and tools on a counter and start cooking. You can probablyimagine what happens to these items in the low-gravityenvironment of the space station.Magnus solved the problem of floating foods and toolsby using duct tape. This type of tape is strong, sticky, andwaterproof. Magnus puts strips of duct tape on the counter andplaces tools on top of them. The tape keeps her food and toolsfrom floating away. She also places pieces of trash on a strip oftape, rolls it up, and puts it in the trash bag.Magnus uses another handy tool—plastic bags—when shecooks. She puts all of her ingredients into a plastic bag. Thenshe places the bag on a strip of duct tape and mashes itemswhile they are inside the bag. She also uses a plastic bag as abowl and uses her hand to mix ingredients inside it.Scientists have discovered smart ways to prepare,package, and cook healthy, tasty foods for astronauts. Theyare continuing to experiment with food, such as growinghydroponic vegetables in space—a way to grow producewithout soil. This is one way to ensure astronauts will be ableto eat nutritious meals far from home.13141516Sandra Magnus cookingaboard the InternationalSpace Station180  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 180 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  29. 29. Vocabulary: Context Clues and Multiple-Meaning WordsContext clues are words near an unfamiliar word that give hints toits meaning. These words may be in the same sentence as the unfamiliarword or in surrounding sentences. Some words in English have morethan one meaning. They are called multiple-meaning words. You mustuse context clues to figure out which meaning is intended.Try It Read this sentence from “Try Eating in Space.”In 1962, John Glenn was the first U.S. astronaut to eat on a missionin space.The word space has more than one meaning. Underline the contextclues that help you figure out the correct meaning.Discuss Brainstorm different meanings of the word space.Find the following multiple-meaning words in the article. Look forthe context clues that help you understand what each word means. Thenwrite a definition for each word, and use it in a sentence.1. compact, p. 1772. shake, p. 1783. counter, p. 180Try Eating in Space 181Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 181 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  30. 30. Respond to Text: Text Structure: Problemand Solution“Trapped!” discusses how scientists have come up with a procedurefor rescuing whales that have been trapped in fishing lines. Scientistscontinue to face challenging problems in carrying out this procedure.Try It Think about what you learned about problems and solutionsfrom reading this technical text.Discuss What problems are discussed in “Trapped!”? Which one doyou think is the most challenging? How successful havescientists been in solving this problem? Your responsesshould be based on evidence from the text.On Your Own State the problem that you think is themost challenging to solve, and tell why. Then explain howscientists have used knowledge and creativity to solve theproblem. Include facts and details from the text in yourexplanation. Use the next page to help you plan your response.Then write your paragraph on a separate sheet of paper.Checklist for a Good ResponseA good paragraph✔ states the problem you think is the most challenging.✔ explains why you think this is the most challengingproblem.✔ describes how scientists have creatively solved the problem.✔ includes facts and details from the text.✔ shows your understanding of the problem and solutions.✔ includes a topic sentence, supporting ideas, and aconcluding sentence.182  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 182 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  31. 31. My Review of Problem and SolutionText Structure1. Topic Sentence I think the problem ofhas been the most challenging one to solve because.2. Detail Sentences The sentences of your paragraph should includefacts and details that explain how scientists have solved this problem.Use this chart to organize your ideas.Problem SolutionsScientists have developed several waysto try to solve this problem.Some of the solutions include:•••3. Concluding Sentence Your final sentence should sum up details andshow how scientists have creatively solved this problem.On a separate sheet of paper, write your paragraph.Trapped! 183Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 183 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  32. 32. Paraphrase Rereadthe last sentence inparagraph 2.Thinkabout how you wouldretell the informationin your own words.Read on Your OwnRead the article independently three times, using the skills you havelearned. Then answer the Comprehension Check questions.First Read Practice the first-read skills you learned in this lesson.Second Read Practice the second-read skills you learned in this lesson.Third Read Think critically about the article.Curling: The Roaring GameIf you were asked to list the winter sports you know, youwould probably include skiing, skating, and ice hockey. Youmay have played these sports or watched them on television.You probably wouldn’t include the sport of curling. But curlingis also a winter sport. Like hockey, curling is played on ice. Ithas become so popular that it is now an Olympic sport. Still,many people do not know much about curling.The goal of curling is to slide a large stone down the ice intoa circle-shaped target. The team that gets its stone closest tothe center of the circle scores a point. Curling has been calledthe “roaring game” because the stone makes a roaring soundas it slides along the ice.Curling was first played in the 1500s, when players gottogether and threw stones over a frozen pond. Today, curlersslide special stones with handles over an ice surface and useequipment called brooms to help move the stones. Curling hasdeveloped into a real sport.123In 1998, curling became an official sport in the Winter Olympics.184  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 184 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  33. 33. HouseThis is the goal,or target,on the ice.TeePlayers try to getstones into the houseand close to the tee.Hog lineStones must crossthe hog lines.HackThis is where playerspush off to slidedown the ice.Diagram of a Curling SurfaceDiagrams What isthe target on a curlingsurface called? Circlethe label.Thencircle the label for thecenter of the target.The first one has beendone for you.Text Structure Thinkabout a problemthat might affect acurling match andhow the problem hasbeen addressed.Main Idea andDetails Think aboutthe main idea inparagraph 6.Thenthink about the detailsthat support themain idea.The Curling SurfaceA curling match is played on a sheet of ice that is about 146feet long and 14 feet wide. This is called the curling surface, orsheet. At each end of the surface is a goal, or target, called thehouse. In the center of each house is a small circle called thetee. Players try to slide each stone as close to the tee as they can.A hack is a ledge frozen into the ice behind each house.Players put one foot on the hack and push off with the otherfoot. Hog lines are boundaries drawn across the ice surfacein front of each house. Stones must slide over the hog lines inorder to stay in play.The ice for a curling match is colder than the ice used fora hockey game because this keeps the surface hard. If the iceisn’t hard enough, it can cause a problem. When the stoneshit the ice, they might make holes in it. Holes in the surfacecan affect how the stones move on the ice. Also, before everycurling match, someone sprays the ice with tiny drops of water.When the drops freeze, they form tiny pebbles on the ice. Thistype of surface helps the stones move.456Curling: The Roaring Game 185Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 185 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  34. 34. Critical ThinkingThink about why theskip throws last ina match.Positions, Clothing, and EquipmentTwo teams of four players each take part in a curling match.Each player plays one of four positions: lead, second, third,and skip. The skip is also the captain and best player of theteam. This player decides on the team’s plan and points outwhere players should try to place their stones. The lead is thefirst player to throw stones for his or her team. After the leadthrows, the other players throw in this order: second, third, skip.Players on a curling team wear special shoes that helpthem move. One shoe has a slider on the sole, which helps theplayers slide easily when they are sweeping, or brushing theice to make it smooth. The other shoe has a piece that grips theice, which holds players up and keeps them from falling.Stones and brooms are the basic equipment used in acurling match. Curling stones are made of a type of rockknown as granite. The stones are round and curved in on thebottom. This part is called the cup. Players use a handle on topof the stones to pick them up and throw them. The stones aremade in several different colors. The brooms look like regularbrooms but can have different types of brushes. The brushesare made of animal hair or human-made threads that arelike hair.789Curling stones are madeof polished granite sothey slide easily acrossthe ice.186  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 186 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  35. 35. Sequence Underlinethe words that giveclues about thesequence of events ina curling end.Critical ThinkingThink about whatskills you need to bea curler.How the Game Is PlayedA curling match is made up of ten periods called ends.Here’s how a match works. First, the lead player on a teamthrows a stone down the ice toward the house. Next, two otherplayers slide down the ice ahead of the stone and use broomsto sweep the ice. This action helps the stone move faster overthe ice. Players leave the stone where it stops.Then, the lead player throws a second stone and repeatsthe activity. When he or she finishes, the lead player on theother team takes a turn and throws two stones. The playerwhose stone is closest to the tee wins and gets a point. Sinceeach team throws eight stones, a team can score as many aseight points in an end. Players continue taking turns until eachplayer on a team has the chance to throw two stones.The players then begin to play the next end. This time theythrow stones toward the other house. The team with the mostpoints after ten ends wins the match. If there is a tie score, theteams play another end to break the tie.101112Players use the broomto sweep the ice andto help them keeptheir balance. Someplayers use the broomto point out where ateammate should aimthe stone.Curling: The Roaring Game 187CC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 187 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  36. 36. Some Men’s World Championship Winners, 1959–2012NumberofWinsCountryUSA0123456Scotland Sweden Switzerland NorwayBar Graphs Whatdoes the bar graphbelow show? Howmany times has theU.S. men’s team won?Draw a box aroundthe information in thegraph and the text.Critical ThinkingThink about thequalities of curlingthat make it anexciting game to playand to watch.The Olympics and More!Today, curling is played in many places around the world.Children, teens, and adults play on teams at ice rinks. Curlingclubs invite new members to come and learn what the sportis all about. They want people to have fun so that they’ll wantto come back and play. Experienced curlers teach newcomershow to move quickly and safely on the ice surface, how tobalance as they slide, and how to brush the ice effectively.Many countries have teams that are good enough to playin championship matches. One big event is the World CurlingChampionships. The best curling teams in the world play inthis event every year. The U.S. men’s team has won this eventfour times, and the U.S. women’s team has won three times.The best teams in the world can now compete in theOlympics. This wasn’t always the case. Back in 1924, men’steams did play curling matches in the Olympics. But after that,curling was played just for show in the Olympics. Finally, in1998, curling became an official Olympic sport again. Sincethat time, both men’s and women’s teams compete.131415188  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 188 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  37. 37. Comprehension Check1. What is the main idea of the section “How the Game Is Played”?What details support this main idea?2. In your own words, describe a curling surface. Use information fromthe diagram and the text.3. What has caused a problem in curling matches? Explain how thisproblem is now prevented.Curling: The Roaring Game 189Duplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 189 4/25/13 3:20 PM
  38. 38. 4. Read this sentence from the article.A curling match is played on a sheet of ice that is about146 feet long and 14 feet wide.What does the word match mean as it is used in this sentence?5. Read this sentence from the article.Curling has developed into a real sport.Look up the word developed in a dictionary. Write the definition,and use the word in a sentence.6. According to the bar graph, which men’s teams have won thegreatest number of World Curling Championship events?190  Lesson 7  •  Technical TextsDuplicatinganypartofthisbookisprohibitedbylaw.©2014TriumphLearning,LLCCC13_ELA_G4_SE_L07_157-190.indd 190 4/25/13 3:20 PM

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