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Amfibi dan reptil

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  • 1. Comparative AnatomyComparative Anatomy Vertebrate Classification:Vertebrate Classification: Amphibians and ReptilesAmphibians and Reptiles Note Set 3Note Set 3 Chapter 3Chapter 3
  • 2. ReptilesReptiles  Mesozoic Era (Jurassic Period)- Age of ReptilesMesozoic Era (Jurassic Period)- Age of Reptiles  Extinction took place at end of Paleozoic era with placodermsExtinction took place at end of Paleozoic era with placoderms Figure 5.1: Carboniferous Period.
  • 3.  Labyrinthodont amphibians led to stem reptiles-Labyrinthodont amphibians led to stem reptiles- cotylosaurscotylosaurs  Which gave rise to all reptiles and mammalsWhich gave rise to all reptiles and mammals Figure 5.2: Cotylosuars, stem reptiles.
  • 4. Phylogeny of Amniote GroupsPhylogeny of Amniote Groups Figure 5.3
  • 5. Reptile CharacteristicsReptile Characteristics  True clawsTrue claws  Amniotic eggsAmniotic eggs  NoNo metamorphosismetamorphosis  12 pairs of cranial nerves12 pairs of cranial nerves  Single occipital condyleSingle occipital condyle Figure 5.4: Dragon Figure 5.5: Reptile egg.
  • 6. Reptile Oral CavityReptile Oral Cavity Tooth typeTooth type  AcrodontAcrodont  Tooth on surface of jawTooth on surface of jaw  Ex: fish andEx: fish and SphenodonSphenodon (tuatara)(tuatara)  PleurodontPleurodont  Tooth attached on medialTooth attached on medial surface of jawsurface of jaw  Ex: lizards and snakesEx: lizards and snakes  ThecodontThecodont  Teeth embedded in socket inTeeth embedded in socket in jaw bonejaw bone  Ex: crocodileEx: crocodile Figure 5.6: Jaw cross section .
  • 7. Skull TypeSkull Type Reptiles are diversified by skull typeReptiles are diversified by skull type  Anapsid- lack temporal fossaAnapsid- lack temporal fossa  Diapsid- two temporal fossaDiapsid- two temporal fossa  One dorsal and one ventralOne dorsal and one ventral  Synapsid- single, lower temporalSynapsid- single, lower temporal fossafossa  Gives rise to mammal-like reptilesGives rise to mammal-like reptiles Figure 5.7 Figure 5.8: Sarcopterygii scull.
  • 8. Reptilian SubclassesReptilian Subclasses  AnapsidaAnapsida  OrderOrder TestudinesTestudines ((ChelodinaChelodina))  Ex: turtlesEx: turtles  DiapsidaDiapsida  Major reptilesMajor reptiles  OrderOrder SquamataSquamata  Ex: lizards and snakesEx: lizards and snakes  SuborderSuborder SerpentesSerpentes;; SauriaSauria  OrderOrder SphenodonSphenodon  Ex: tuataraEx: tuatara  OrderOrder CrocodilliaCrocodillia  SynapsidaSynapsida  Mammal-like reptilesMammal-like reptiles  Suborder PelycosauriaSuborder Pelycosauria  Suborder TherapsidaSuborder Therapsida
  • 9. Stem ReptilesStem Reptiles Figure 5.9. Figure 5.10
  • 10. Dinosaur GroupsDinosaur Groups Morphological character of pelvisMorphological character of pelvis makes distinctionmakes distinction  SaurischiansSaurischians  Triradiate pelvisTriradiate pelvis  Lizard-likeLizard-like  OmithischiansOmithischians  Tetraradiate pelvisTetraradiate pelvis  Bird-likeBird-like Figure 5.11: Pelvic of two dinosaur groups.
  • 11.  SaurischiansSaurischians  Gives rise to dominantGives rise to dominant reptilesreptiles  Birds evolvedBirds evolved  Parallel convergenceParallel convergence Figure 5.12: Reptilia Cladogram. Dinosaur GroupsDinosaur Groups (cont.)(cont.)
  • 12. BirdsBirds  ArcheopteryxArcheopteryx- bird fossil- bird fossil recordrecord  Feathers and teethFeathers and teeth presentpresent Figure 5.13: Archeopteryx fossil.
  • 13. BirdsBirds (cont.)(cont.)  Keeled sternum inKeeled sternum in birds that flybirds that fly Figure 5.14: (a) Archaeopteryx (b) pigeon.
  • 14. Literature CitedLiterature Cited Figure 5.1- http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/CarbonifPeriod.htmlFigure 5.1- http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/CarbonifPeriod.html Figure 5.2-Figure 5.2- http://departments.umw.edu/biol/www/Wieland/Biol425/Reptile_Phylogeny.gifhttp://departments.umw.edu/biol/www/Wieland/Biol425/Reptile_Phylogeny.gif Figure 5.3- http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Phylogeny_of_Amniota.htmFigure 5.3- http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Phylogeny_of_Amniota.htm Figure 5.4- http://www.tucan.net/ImageGallery/gallery.php?id=14Figure 5.4- http://www.tucan.net/ImageGallery/gallery.php?id=14 Figure 5.5-Figure 5.5- http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookDiversity_9.htmlhttp://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookDiversity_9.html Figure 5.6- http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?cls=17&cat=1796&articleid=2812Figure 5.6- http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?cls=17&cat=1796&articleid=2812 Figure 5.7- http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~rhmiller/chordates1/Chordates1.htmFigure 5.7- http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~rhmiller/chordates1/Chordates1.htm Figure 5.8- http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/140Sarcopterygii/140.400.htmlFigure 5.8- http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/140Sarcopterygii/140.400.html Figure 5.9, 5.11 & 5.14- Kent, George C. and Robert K. Carr. Comparative Anatomy ofFigure 5.9, 5.11 & 5.14- Kent, George C. and Robert K. Carr. Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates. 9th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2001.the Vertebrates. 9th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Figure 5.10-Figure 5.10- http://pharyngula.org/~pzmyers/MyersLab/teaching/Bi104/l02/amniotelin.htmlhttp://pharyngula.org/~pzmyers/MyersLab/teaching/Bi104/l02/amniotelin.html Figure 5.12- http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinoclassification/Figure 5.12- http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinoclassification/ Figure 5.13-Figure 5.13- http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookDiversity_9.htmlhttp://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookDiversity_9.html