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11 mollusca

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11 mollusca

  1. 1. Phylum MolluscaPhylum Mollusca
  2. 2. Phylum MolluscaPhylum Mollusca  ProtostomesProtostomes  Lophotrochozoan groupLophotrochozoan group  Eucoelomates (coelomates)Eucoelomates (coelomates) Tridacna squamosa Tridacna gigas
  3. 3. Phylum MolluscaPhylum Mollusca  Soft BodiedSoft Bodied  ShelledShelled  Some withoutSome without  CephalizationCephalization  Sensory organsSensory organs  MouthsMouths  Body DivisionsBody Divisions  Visceral MassVisceral Mass  Head-FootHead-Foot  MantleMantle Tonicella lineata
  4. 4. Phylum MolluscaPhylum Mollusca  Complete digestive tractComplete digestive tract  Digestive glandsDigestive glands  Specialized feedingSpecialized feeding structuresstructures  Circulatory systemCirculatory system  Heart (2 chambers)Heart (2 chambers)  Open system in mostOpen system in most groupsgroups  Closed in cephalopodsClosed in cephalopods  Coelom restricted to pericardium in most casesCoelom restricted to pericardium in most cases Octopus briareus
  5. 5. Phylum MolluscaPhylum Mollusca  Advanced nervous systemAdvanced nervous system  BrainBrain  Sensory organsSensory organs  Eyes (simple and camera)Eyes (simple and camera)  Sensory papillaeSensory papillae  Excretory systemExcretory system  Kidney-like nephridiaKidney-like nephridia  ReproductionReproduction  Monoecious and dioeciousMonoecious and dioecious  External developmentExternal development  External & internalExternal & internal fertilizationfertilization
  6. 6. Mollusc PhylogenyMollusc Phylogeny  ~50-80K extant~50-80K extant speciesspecies  ~40K extinct~40K extinct speciesspecies  Fossil recordsFossil records from precambrianfrom precambrian period ofperiod of proterozoic eonproterozoic eon (>570my BP)(>570my BP)
  7. 7. MolluscMollusc PhylogenyPhylogeny  Mantle secretingMantle secreting shellshell  Muscular footMuscular foot  Chambered heartChambered heart
  8. 8. Mollusc TaxonomyMollusc Taxonomy  Major classesMajor classes  PolyplacophoraPolyplacophora ChitonsChitons Chiton tuberculatusChiton tuberculatus lives inlives in the rocky intertidal zonesthe rocky intertidal zones eat algae with its radulaeat algae with its radula 8 shell plates8 shell plates
  9. 9. Mollusc TaxonomyMollusc Taxonomy  Major classesMajor classes  PolyplacophoraPolyplacophora  GastropodaGastropoda Subclasses:Subclasses: ProsobranchiaProsobranchia  Shelled marineShelled marine gastropodsgastropods Atlantic triton’s trumpetAtlantic triton’s trumpet ((Charonia variegataCharonia variegata)) Tiger cowrie (Tiger cowrie (Cypraea tigrisCypraea tigris))
  10. 10. Mollusc TaxonomyMollusc Taxonomy  Major classesMajor classes  PolyplacophoraPolyplacophora  GastropodaGastropoda Subclasses:Subclasses:  ProsobranchiaProsobranchia OpisthobranchiaOpisthobranchia  Sea slugs (marine)Sea slugs (marine) zebra sea goddesszebra sea goddess ((Hypselodoris zebraHypselodoris zebra)) Spotted sea hare (Spotted sea hare (Aplysia dactylomelaAplysia dactylomela Phidiana hiltoni
  11. 11. Mollusc TaxonomyMollusc Taxonomy  Major classesMajor classes  PolyplacophoraPolyplacophora  GastropodaGastropoda Subclasses:Subclasses:  ProsobranchiaProsobranchia  OpisthobranchiaOpisthobranchia PulmonataPulmonata  TerrestrialTerrestrial snails/slugssnails/slugs  FreshwaterFreshwater snailssnails Helminthoglypta walkeriana Giant banana slug (Ariolimax columbians)
  12. 12. Mollusc TaxonomyMollusc Taxonomy  Major classesMajor classes  PolyplacophoraPolyplacophora  GastropodaGastropoda  BivalviaBivalvia  Clams, oysters,Clams, oysters, mussels, scallopsmussels, scallops Bay scallop (Aequipecten irradians) Edible mussels (Mytilus edulis) Ostrea edulis
  13. 13. Mollusc TaxonomyMollusc Taxonomy  Major classesMajor classes  PolyplacophoraPolyplacophora  GastropodaGastropoda  BivalviaBivalvia  CephalopodaCephalopoda  Octopus, squid, nautilusOctopus, squid, nautilus Giant cuttlefish (Giant cuttlefish (Sepia latimanusSepia latimanus)) Nautilus sp Octopus sp
  14. 14. Mollusc TaxonomyMollusc Taxonomy  Major classesMajor classes  PolyplacophoraPolyplacophora  GastropodaGastropoda  BivalviaBivalvia  CephalopodaCephalopoda  Minor classesMinor classes  MonoplacophoraMonoplacophora  SolenogastresSolenogastres  CaudofoveataCaudofoveata
  15. 15. Generalized Mollusc AnatomyGeneralized Mollusc Anatomy
  16. 16. Gastropod FeedingGastropod Feeding ApparatusApparatus
  17. 17. Respiration: GillsRespiration: Gills
  18. 18. Shell Structure & FormationShell Structure & Formation
  19. 19. A Pearl Among the SwineA Pearl Among the Swine
  20. 20. Mollusc Reproduction & DevelopmentMollusc Reproduction & Development  Indirect developmentIndirect development  Larval stagesLarval stages  Trochophore larvaTrochophore larva  Free swimming, ciliated, shell formation beginsFree swimming, ciliated, shell formation begins  Veliger larvaVeliger larva  Free swimming, ciliated velium forms,Free swimming, ciliated velium forms,  Shell/body torsion occursShell/body torsion occurs  SpatSpat  Metamorphic form between veliger and juvenileMetamorphic form between veliger and juvenile  Shell elaboratesShell elaborates
  21. 21. Trochophore LarvaTrochophore Larva
  22. 22. Gastropod Veliger LarvaGastropod Veliger Larva Velia Mouth Shell
  23. 23. Zygote Trochophore Veliger Spat Juvenile Adult
  24. 24. Adult AbaloneAdult Abalone
  25. 25. Class Polyplacophora - chitonsClass Polyplacophora - chitons
  26. 26. Polyplacophoran AnatomyPolyplacophoran Anatomy
  27. 27. ClassClass GastropodaGastropoda The Shell GameThe Shell Game
  28. 28. Class Gastropoda - TorsionClass Gastropoda - Torsion
  29. 29. Gastropod ShellGastropod Shell CoilingCoiling
  30. 30. GastropodGastropod Gill/Mantle CavityGill/Mantle Cavity EvolutionEvolution
  31. 31. Generalized Gastropod AnatomyGeneralized Gastropod Anatomy
  32. 32. Marine GastropodsMarine Gastropods Cowries
  33. 33. Marine GastropodsMarine Gastropods Sea Hare – Aplysia sp
  34. 34. Marine Gastropods - NudibranchMarine Gastropods - Nudibranch
  35. 35. Terrestrial GastropodsTerrestrial Gastropods - Pulmonata- Pulmonata  The mantle cavity servesThe mantle cavity serves as a “lung”as a “lung”  Glandular epidermisGlandular epidermis  Secrete mucus (slime)Secrete mucus (slime) upon which gastropodupon which gastropod glidesglides
  36. 36. Terrestrial Gastropod -Terrestrial Gastropod - PulmonataPulmonata  Slugs lackSlugs lack shellsshells  Mantle thickenedMantle thickened  PneumostomePneumostome  Air intake into mantle cavityAir intake into mantle cavity PneumostomePneumostome
  37. 37. Phylum Mollusca, Class BilvaliaPhylum Mollusca, Class Bilvalia  Two shellsTwo shells  Incurrent & excurrent siphonsIncurrent & excurrent siphons  No cephalizationNo cephalization
  38. 38. Generalized Bivalve AnatomyGeneralized Bivalve Anatomy
  39. 39. Generalized Bivalve AnatomyGeneralized Bivalve Anatomy (XS)(XS)
  40. 40. Bivalve Anatomy (Sagittal)Bivalve Anatomy (Sagittal)
  41. 41. Bivalves are Typically Filter FeedersBivalves are Typically Filter Feeders
  42. 42. Bivalve Life CycleBivalve Life Cycle
  43. 43. Glochidia – Unique Larval Stage ofGlochidia – Unique Larval Stage of Freshwater BivalvesFreshwater Bivalves  Internal fertilizationInternal fertilization  Early development in broodEarly development in brood chamber (region of mantlechamber (region of mantle cavity)cavity)  Release of glochidia veligerRelease of glochidia veliger larvaelarvae  Glochidia attach to gills ofGlochidia attach to gills of fish and are distributedfish and are distributed
  44. 44. Phylum Mollusca, Class CephalopodaPhylum Mollusca, Class Cephalopoda  Closed circulatory systemClosed circulatory system  Shell: lost in Octopus, extremely reduced andShell: lost in Octopus, extremely reduced and enclosed in mantle in squid, planar spiral inenclosed in mantle in squid, planar spiral in NautilusNautilus  CephalizationCephalization  eyeeye  Beak aroundBeak around mouthmouth  Tentacles/armsTentacles/arms
  45. 45. Cephalopod AnatomyCephalopod Anatomy
  46. 46. Squid are the largestSquid are the largest CephalopodsCephalopods
  47. 47. Nautilus AnatomyNautilus Anatomy
  48. 48. Cephalopod EyeCephalopod Eye
  49. 49. MatingMating
  50. 50. Direct Development in CephalopodsDirect Development in Cephalopods
  51. 51. Color & Morphology Changes forColor & Morphology Changes for CamouflageCamouflage

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