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Media Usage Among 6 to 9 Year Olds

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Presentation to the ARF Youth Council

Presentation to the ARF Youth Council

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  • 1. Media Use among 6- to -9 year-olds Presentation to the Youth Media Council April 15th , 2008 Jennifer Kotler, Sesame Workshop jennifer.kotler@sesameworkshop.org
  • 2. 2 Why did we conduct this research? To better understand the early elementary school audience as we Background prepare to bring back The Electric Company in an ever-changing media & marketplace Objectives Quantitative look at: 1. Media availability in the home 2. Time spent with media 3. Children’s media preferences
  • 3. 3 How did we design the research? Two related studies: Study 1: Survey of mothers with children 6 – 9 year olds (1,249 telephone interviews) Nov-Dec 2006 Conducted by Russell Research Design Study 2: In person interviews with 6 – 9 year olds in three locations (300 interviews and/or group surveys) Nov-Dec 2007 Conducted by Sesame Workshop staff
  • 4. 4 Our Key Questions for Moms 1. Where do children spend their days? 2. To what degree are children using various media? 3. Who is using the Internet and how are they using it?
  • 5. 5 1. Where do children spend their days?
  • 6. 6 The overwhelming majority of children are enrolled in public schools Public school Private (religious) Private (non-religious) Home school Other 83 10 3 2 2
  • 7. 7 The majority of children go home to a parent after school; Only 17% in an ‘after school program’ Never Less than once a week About once a week Few times a week Almost Everyday 100% 3 0 0 1 5 7 6 2 13 3 1 5 2 3 12 2 4 6 3 80% 3 11 8 62 2 60% 98 90 83 85 40% 5 69 70 1 2 20% 31 0% Parent at home Art, Music, Relative After School Sibling Care Babysitter Self Care after school Sports Program
  • 8. 8 2. To what degree are children using various media?
  • 9. 9 While the majority of parents have cell phones, very few say their child uses them; Similar pattern with Internet and Ipod In home Parent Uses Child Uses 96 96 93 85 85 81 77 77 75 75 71 65 59 55 52 48 40 36 31 23 23 16 17 14 9 9 1 TV Cable or Cell Phone Internet Learning Game Boy Ipod VOD Treo Satellite Toys
  • 10. 10 African Americans are least likely to have access to the Internet in their homes Caucasian African American Hispanic 98 95 96 85 86 87 83 80 77 78 73 71 69 67 60 62 58 58 42 37 37 32 28 20 13 8 7 TV Cable/Satellite Cell Phone Internet Learning Toy Game Boy Ipod VOD Treo
  • 11. 11 Low income is greatest barrier to home Internet access and other modern media (Cable, Cell Phone, Game Boy, Ipod, Treo) less than 25k 25k-74k more than 75k 97 96 98 91 89 86 86 79 79 75 74 72 70 65 66 56 56 50 49 32 28 25 21 21 14 6 4 TV Cable/Satellite Cell Phone Internet Learning Toy Game Boy Ipod VOD Treo
  • 12. 12 Television and reading dominate on weekdays; Half of these kids use the Internet Media Use: Weekday (Total) 2% 11% 15% 10% 7% 2 Hours or more 24% 11% 20% 21% 20% 1 - 2 Hours 28% 16% 13% 33% 1 Hour - 30 Minutes 40% 24% 30 Minutes or less 48% 21% 52% None 24% 9% 32% 20% 12% 5% Read Watch TV Play Video Watch DVDs Use Internet Games
  • 13. 13 TV and DVD usage picks up dramatically on the weekends with less reading Media Use: Weekend (Total) 6% 13% 14% 2 Hours or more 27% 12% 23% 49% 19% 12% 1 - 2 Hours 14% 19% 1 Hour - 30 Minutes 37% 28% 15% 30 Minutes or less 25% 12% 20% 52% None 10% 39% 7% 5% 18% 17% 10% Read Watch TV Play Video Watch DVDs Use Internet Games
  • 14. 14 3. Internet Use: Who are Internet users and how are they using it?
  • 15. 15 Only a small percentage of children who do not have Internet access at home use the Internet in other places. Internet Use 3% 3% 6% 2% 4% 4% 10% 2% 2 Hours or more 9% 14% 6% 13% 1 - 2 Hours 13% 30% 1 Hour - 30 Minutes 20% 84% 86% 30 Minutes or less None 45% 46% Internet at No Internet at Internet at No Internet at Home Home Home Home Weekday Weekend
  • 16. 16 Those kids with Broadband use the Internet only a bit more often Internet Use 3% 3% 1% 4% 6% 8% 10% 10% 12% 2 Hours or more 14% 14% 12% 18% 13% 14% 10% 1 - 2 Hours 13% 14% 28% 17% 30% 1 Hour - 30 Minutes 31% 20% 22% 30 Minutes or less 55% None 45% 48% 46% 41% 39% Weekday Weekday Weekday Weekend Weekend Weekend Total Dialup Broadband Total Dial up Broadband Weekday Weekend
  • 17. 17 Among those with Internet access at home, African American children spend more time on the Internet Heavy users 6.00 Caucasian African American Hispanic 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.81 1.49 1.10 1.15 0.88 1.02 1.00 No Use 0.00 weekday weekend 6=More Than 4 Hours, 5=3 To Less Than 4 Hours, 4= 2 To Less Than 3 Hours 3=1 To Less Than 2 Hours, 2=Between 30 Minutes To 1 Hour, 1=30 Minutes Or Less, 0=No Use
  • 18. 18 The majority of children who spend time on the Internet do so to play games; Though ‘research for school’ is in the top 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 1 0 1 0 2 7 5 7 2 1 1 0 9 3 3 8 6 9 7 3 2 16 3 15 7 5 5 14 10 6 24 21 5 8 14 9 9 Everyday or Almost Every 8 Day 39 14 23 15 Few Times a Week 15 97 97 89 92 Once a Week 79 78 80 18 70 23 62 Less than Once a Week 52 40 11 29 Never 11 s s s fo ng es w ge s h s s te ic eo l w ai m re rc In ho us am si gi pa ho m id oo ea tu eb sa ct S M E V G ic S tR eb du es V W es P g m ng T W in R ro ha tM m fro g ch P yi in C fro la an at s ch P lip W ng st at C In di W oa nl ow D Base: children who typically go online on weekdays or weekends
  • 19. 19 Doing research for school increases with age more than any other online activity. Playing Games Research Music Product Info Email Everyday 5.00 4.50 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 Never 1.00 6 year olds 7 year olds 8 year olds 9 year olds Scale: 1-never, 2=less than once a week, 3=once a week, 4=few times a week, 5=everyday or almost everyday Base: children who typically go online on weekdays or weekends
  • 20. 20 African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to use the Internet for research than Whites Caucasian African American Hispanic Everyday 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 Never 1 ng es os o s ic es s ge s h es l ai ow nf ow m rc us gi am de sit Em pa ur tI oo ea sa Sh Sh M Vi eb ct uc G eb tR es es Pi W TV od g m g W R tM in ha in f ro Pr m ch ay g C an fro in s at Pl lip ch st W ng In C at di W oa nl ow D Scale: 1-never, 2=less than once a week, 3=once a week, 4=few times a week, 5=everyday or almost everyday
  • 21. 21 Conclusions & Implications of Research with Moms Majority of 6 -9 year olds are in public schools during the day and return home to a parent after school. Only 17% of kids are in an ‘after school’ program, and these kids are equally as likely to be from high income as they are to be from lower income families. Not surprisingly low income is a huge barrier to Internet access at home, and very few of those who do not have Internet access seek it out elsewhere. These kids are young, and currently are mainly using the Internet to play games, and increasingly with age to do research for school. Very few are emailing. Almost every household has a television and children spend most of their media time with television.
  • 22. 22 Our Key Questions for Children 1. What media do children have in the home and how often are they spending time with various media? 2. How often do they spend time with particular games and websites? 3. What are their favorite games and websites?
  • 23. 23 Demographics of the schools and areas where the children were interviewed N=300, majority 2nd graders (some 1st and 3rd) 53% girls, 47% boys School 1 School 2 School 3 School 4 School 5 School 6 Location Northeast Northeast Midwest Midwest South South Type of locale City City Suburban Rural City City Number of children in school 882 220 711 217 485 372 % meeting standards in reading 86% 60% 83% 45% 72% 58% % African American 99% 64% 21% 90% <1% <1% % Latino 0% 11% 6% 0% 98% 99% % White 1% 24% 60% 6% <1% <1% % Asian 0% 0% 11% 0% 0% 0% % Other/Unknown 0% 1% 0% 4% 0% 0% % Free or Reduced Lunch 81% 86% 50% 99% 90% 92%
  • 24. 24 We created a check for validity of the data • 6 questions were added to the group survey about games, computer programs, websites that do not exist in order to assess the validity of children’s answers overall. • Note, 31% of the children did not get to the questions which ask about non- existent games, but of the 69% of the children with enough data to assess validity: • 56% of the children said that they played or used at least one of these non- existing games, programs or sites • There were NO differences in valid data by gender or whether children were individually interviewed. • Several analyses, therefore, are separated out by those with “cleaner” or “more valid” data compared to those without valid data. • Overall, 31% didn’t have enough data to tell if it their responses were valid or not, 30% had “clean” data and 39% had “non-valid” data.
  • 25. 25 About 38% of the children said they visited the non-existent “KIDVID” website. 50 45 40 35 30 A lot 25 A Few Times Once or Twice 20 15 10 5 0 Watch videos on Post on Kidvid Googoobops Lavitron Hippoteam Boswirth Kidvid
  • 26. 26 1. What media do children have in their home and how do they spend their time with various media?
  • 27. 27 All children have televisions in their homes and at least ¾ of them have one in their bedrooms Not Enough Clean Data Data Non-Valid Data Average Do you have a TV at home? 100% 100% 100% 100% Does anyone in your home own a cell phone 93% 83% 94% 92% Do you have books in your home? 91% 86% 91% 90% Do you have a TV in your bedroom? 72% 88% 83% 80% Do you have a computer at home? 69% 68% 77% 73% Do you have magazines in your home? 71% 45% 65% 65% Do you have newspapers in your home? 72% 62% 61% 65% Do you have the Internet at home? 62% 59% 66% 63% *Do you have a portable video game player (Nintendo DS, Gameboy Advance, PSP)? 52% 66% 68% 62% *Does anyone in your home own an IPOD or MP3 player? 49% 63% 68% 60% *Do you have a videogame console like Xbox 360, PS3, or Wii? 49% 69% 66% 60% *Do you have your own iPod or MP3 Player? 21% 55% 43% 36% *Do you have your own cell phone? 24% 39% 36% 32% *Do you have a computer in your room? 13% 47% 28% 25% *Do you have the Internet in your room? 7% 34% 20% 17% *There were statistically significant differences between those with clean data and those with non-valid data for the activities with * next to them.
  • 28. Watching TV, reading for school, and listening to music were 28 more frequent activities than using the computer or going on the Internet Not enough Non-Valid Clean Data data Data Average Watch TV 3.54 3.17 3.56 3.42 Read books for school 3.23 3.40 3.21 3.28 Listen to Music 3.20 2.89 3.25 3.11 Watch DVDs 2.98 3.09 3.24 3.10 Read books for fun 2.98 2.90 3.13 3.00 Play Video games 2.70 2.36 3.06 2.71 Use a computer 2.60 2.18 3.00 2.59 Go on the internet 2.32 1.45 2.70 2.16 *There were statistically significant differences between those with clean data and those with non-valid data for the bolded activities Scale: 1=never, 2=once or twice a week, 3=a few x per week, 4=many x week
  • 29. 29 A small number of children with valid data said they have EVER emailed, visited MySpace or watched videos on YouTube Clean data Non-Valid data Average Listen to music from the radio 82% 88% 85% Listen to music from the computer 64% 82% 73% Email friends and family 29% 65% 47% Watch youtube 28% 60% 44% IM with friends and family 23% 62% 43% Visit the "myspace" website 19% 54% 37% Have gotten music from i-tunes or napster 14% 45% 30% Post my own stuff on "My space" website 12% 46% 29% Post videos on "You tube" 7% 42% 25% *There were statistically significant differences between those with clean data and those with non-valid data for all activities.
  • 30. 30 2. How often are they spending time with particular games and websites?
  • 31. 31 Mario & Sonic are the most popular video games of those we asked about. Clean data Non-Valid data Average Mario 55% 80% 67% Sonic 56% 76% 66% Pacman/Ms. Pacman 52% 79% 66% Pokemon 40% 68% 54% Dance Dance Revolution 29% 57% 43% Wii Sports 20% 60% 40% Viva Pinata 21% 57% 39% Guitar Hero 24% 49% 37% Tetris 21% 43% 32% Nintendogs 13% 50% 32% NHL 12% 49% 31% Brain Age 8% 47% 28% *There were statistically significant differences between those with clean data and those with non-valid data for all games.
  • 32. 32 Cartoon Network, Disney & Nickelodeon are the most popular websites. Webkinz and Clubpenguin have a small percentage of visitors. Name Clean data Non-Valid data Average Cartoon Network 57% 81% 69% Disney 60% 79% 69% Nickelodeon 48% 83% 65% Harry Potter 22% 63% 42% Lego 25% 53% 39% Turbonick 17% 61% 39% Barbie 25% 40% 33% KidsWB 14% 46% 30% American Girl 8% 43% 25% Club Penguin 10% 35% 22% Webkinz 3% 41% 22% Exploratorium 2% 36% 19% National Geographic 3% 33% 18% Askjeeves 1% 29% 15% *There were statistically significant differences between those with clean data and those with non-valid data for all websites. This chart is for children who have EVER visited the website.
  • 33. 33 3. What are children’s favorite TV shows, games & websites?
  • 34. 34 Hannah Montana was the favorite specific show for girls, while Sponge Bob was the favorite show for boys. Boys Girls Average SpongeBob 17% 13% 15% Disney 3% 20% 11% Hannah Montana 3% 17% 10% Cartoon Network 14% 4% 9% Nickelodeon 7% 3% 5% Zach and Cody 2% 5% 4% That’s so Raven 1% 6% 4% High School Musical 1% 4% 3%
  • 35. 35 Boys enjoy sports related videogames, whereas girls chose a variety of traditional video games as favorites. Boys Girls Average Sports Related 16% 1% 9% Mario 7% 9% 8% Sonic 7% 6% 6% Pacman 1% 9% 5% Bratz 0% 8% 4% HS Musical 0% 5% 2%
  • 36. 36 For favorite websites, girls like Disney.com the best, whereas boys like CartoonNetwork.com the best. Boys Girls Average Disney 8% 35% 22% Cartoon Network 17% 4% 10% Nick 14% 3% 9% PBS 3% 7% 5% TV Show 3% 6% 4% My Space 4% 3% 3%
  • 37. 37 Conclusions & Implications of Research with Children 1) Children are more likely to overstate ownership and use of newer media (Computers, Internet, Videogames, Handhelds) than they are their use of television which suggests the “cool” factor of new media over television. 2) Overall, over half of the children had internet access in their homes. 3) Mario & Sonic are popular video games. 4) Websites most often visited by children of this age are associated with television programming (i.e. Cartoonnetwork, Disney.com, Nickelodeon). 5) Girls are particularly fond of Disney (Hannah Montana & High School Musical) whereas boys like Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon (Spongebob).
  • 38. 38 Overall Conclusions & Implications • Be aware of today’s media use as we prepare for tomorrow. • While TV remains the number one medium, we do see a significant increase in new technology among this age. • Digital divide still factors into Internet and computer use, however, once ownership is established, there is evidence that minorities may be using the such technology for more educational purposes than their White counterparts. • We are creating The Electric Company for multiple platforms to ensure that we reach children with what they have, where they are, and where they will be.