Presentation to the Youth
Media Council
April 15th , 2008
Media Use among
6- to -9 year-olds
Jennifer Kotler, Sesame Works...
Background
&
Objectives
Why did we conduct this research?
To better understand the early
elementary school audience as we
...
Design
Study 1: Survey of mothers with children
6 – 9 year olds
(1,249 telephone interviews)
Nov-Dec 2006
Conducted by Rus...
Our Key Questions for Moms
1. Where do children spend their days?
2. To what degree are children using various media?
3. W...
1. Where do children spend their days?
5
The overwhelming majority of children are enrolled in public
schools
83
10
3 2 2
Public school Private (religious)
Private...
The majority of children go home to a parent after school;
Only 17% in an ‘after school program’
31
69 70
83 85
90
98
2
2
...
2. To what degree are children using
various media?
8
While the majority of parents have cell phones, very few say
their child uses them; Similar pattern with Internet and Ipod...
8
20
32
58
69
80
77
85
95
13
37
42
58
83
60
73
86
98
7
28
37
62
67
71
78
87
96
TV Cable/Satellite Cell Phone Internet Lear...
4
28
21
56
74
50
65
75
97
6
21
32
56
72
7979
86
96
14
25
49
66
70
91
86
89
98
TV Cable/Satellite Cell Phone Internet Learn...
5%
12%
20%
32%
52%
24% 9%
48%
24%
28%
40%
16% 13%
11%
20%
33%
21% 20%
7%
24%
15% 10%
2%
21%
11%
Read Watch TV Play Video
G...
18%
10%
39%
17%
52%20%
5%
15%
7%
19%
28%
14%
12%
12%23%
25%
19%
37%
12%
49%
14%
27%
6%
10%
13%
Read Watch TV Play Video
Ga...
3. Internet Use:
Who are Internet users and how are
they using it?
14
45%
84%
46%
86%
30%
9%
20%
6%
13%
13%
2%10%
3%
14%
4%6% 2%
4%
3%
Internet at
Home
No Internet at
Home
Internet at
Home
No ...
45% 48%
41%
46%
55%
39%
30% 28%
31% 20%
17%
22%
13% 14%
13%
10%
14%
10% 10% 12%
14% 14%
18%
1%
6% 4% 8%
12%
3%3%
Weekday
T...
Among those with Internet access at home, African American
children spend more time on the Internet
0.88
1.10
1.49
1.81
1....
The majority of children who spend time on the Internet do so
to play games; Though ‘research for school’ is in the top 3
...
Doing research for school increases with age more than any other
online activity.
Scale: 1-never, 2=less than once a week,...
African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to use the
Internet for research than Whites
Scale: 1-never, 2=less than o...
Conclusions & Implications of Research with Moms
Majority of 6 -9 year olds are in public schools during the day and retur...
Our Key Questions for Children
1. What media do children have in the home and how often are
they spending time with variou...
92%90%99%50%86%81%% Free or Reduced Lunch
0%0%4%0%1%0%% Other/Unknown
0%0%0%11%0%0%% Asian
<1%<1%6%60%24%1%% White
99%98%0...
We created a check for validity of the data
• 6 questions were added to the group survey about games, computer programs,
w...
About 38% of the children said they visited the non-existent
“KIDVID” website.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Watch videos...
1. What media do children have in
their home and how do they spend
their time with various media?
26
All children have televisions in their homes and at least ¾ of them
have one in their bedrooms
17%20%34%7%*Do you have the...
Watching TV, reading for school, and listening to music were
more frequent activities than using the computer or going on
...
A small number of children with valid data said they have EVER emailed,
visited MySpace or watched videos on YouTube
25%42...
2. How often are they spending time
with particular games and websites?
30
Mario & Sonic are the most popular video games of those we asked
about.
*There were statistically significant differences ...
Cartoon Network, Disney & Nickelodeon are the most popular websites.
Webkinz and Clubpenguin have a small percentage of vi...
3. What are children’s favorite TV
shows, games & websites?
33
Hannah Montana was the favorite specific show for girls, while Sponge Bob
was the favorite show for boys.
3%4%1%High Schoo...
Boys enjoy sports related videogames, whereas girls chose a variety of
traditional video games as favorites.
2%5%0%HS Musi...
For favorite websites, girls like Disney.com the best, whereas boys like
CartoonNetwork.com the best.
3%3%4%My Space
4%6%3...
Conclusions & Implications of Research with Children
1) Children are more likely to overstate ownership and use of newer m...
Overall Conclusions & Implications
• Be aware of today’s media use as we prepare for
tomorrow.
• While TV remains the numb...
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Media Usage Among 6 to 9 Year Olds

  1. 1. Presentation to the Youth Media Council April 15th , 2008 Media Use among 6- to -9 year-olds Jennifer Kotler, Sesame Workshop jennifer.kotler@sesameworkshop.org
  2. 2. Background & Objectives Why did we conduct this research? To better understand the early elementary school audience as we prepare to bring back The Electric Company in an ever-changing media marketplace Quantitative look at: 1. Media availability in the home 2. Time spent with media 3. Children’s media preferences 2
  3. 3. Design Study 1: Survey of mothers with children 6 – 9 year olds (1,249 telephone interviews) Nov-Dec 2006 Conducted by Russell Research Study 2: In person interviews with 6 – 9 year olds in three locations (300 interviews and/or group surveys) Nov-Dec 2007 Conducted by Sesame Workshop staff How did we design the research? Two related studies: 3
  4. 4. Our Key Questions for Moms 1. Where do children spend their days? 2. To what degree are children using various media? 3. Who is using the Internet and how are they using it? 4
  5. 5. 1. Where do children spend their days? 5
  6. 6. The overwhelming majority of children are enrolled in public schools 83 10 3 2 2 Public school Private (religious) Private (non-religious) Home school Other 6
  7. 7. The majority of children go home to a parent after school; Only 17% in an ‘after school program’ 31 69 70 83 85 90 98 2 2 8 3 4 3 1 1 11 3 2 2 1 0 5 12 6 5 3 2 1 62 5 13 7 6 3 0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Parent at home after school Art, Music, Sports Relative After School Program Sibling Care Babysitter Self Care Never Less than once a week About once a week Few times a week Almost Everyday 7
  8. 8. 2. To what degree are children using various media? 8
  9. 9. While the majority of parents have cell phones, very few say their child uses them; Similar pattern with Internet and Ipod 9 23 36 59 71 75 77 85 96 9 23 31 40 48 75 77 85 96 1 14 17 52 65 55 81 93 16 TV Cable or Satellite Cell Phone Internet Learning Toys Game Boy Ipod VOD Treo In home Parent Uses Child Uses 9
  10. 10. 8 20 32 58 69 80 77 85 95 13 37 42 58 83 60 73 86 98 7 28 37 62 67 71 78 87 96 TV Cable/Satellite Cell Phone Internet Learning Toy Game Boy Ipod VOD Treo Caucasian African American Hispanic African Americans are least likely to have access to the Internet in their homes 10
  11. 11. 4 28 21 56 74 50 65 75 97 6 21 32 56 72 7979 86 96 14 25 49 66 70 91 86 89 98 TV Cable/Satellite Cell Phone Internet Learning Toy Game Boy Ipod VOD Treo less than 25k 25k-74k more than 75k Low income is greatest barrier to home Internet access and other modern media (Cable, Cell Phone, Game Boy, Ipod, Treo) 11
  12. 12. 5% 12% 20% 32% 52% 24% 9% 48% 24% 28% 40% 16% 13% 11% 20% 33% 21% 20% 7% 24% 15% 10% 2% 21% 11% Read Watch TV Play Video Games Watch DVDs Use Internet 2 Hours or more 1 - 2 Hours 1 Hour - 30 Minutes 30 Minutes or less None Media Use: Weekday (Total) Television and reading dominate on weekdays; Half of these kids use the Internet 12
  13. 13. 18% 10% 39% 17% 52%20% 5% 15% 7% 19% 28% 14% 12% 12%23% 25% 19% 37% 12% 49% 14% 27% 6% 10% 13% Read Watch TV Play Video Games Watch DVDs Use Internet 2 Hours or more 1 - 2 Hours 1 Hour - 30 Minutes 30 Minutes or less None Media Use: Weekend (Total) TV and DVD usage picks up dramatically on the weekends with less reading 13
  14. 14. 3. Internet Use: Who are Internet users and how are they using it? 14
  15. 15. 45% 84% 46% 86% 30% 9% 20% 6% 13% 13% 2%10% 3% 14% 4%6% 2% 4% 3% Internet at Home No Internet at Home Internet at Home No Internet at Home 2 Hours or more 1 - 2 Hours 1 Hour - 30 Minutes 30 Minutes or less None Internet Use Weekday Weekend Only a small percentage of children who do not have Internet access at home use the Internet in other places. 15
  16. 16. 45% 48% 41% 46% 55% 39% 30% 28% 31% 20% 17% 22% 13% 14% 13% 10% 14% 10% 10% 12% 14% 14% 18% 1% 6% 4% 8% 12% 3%3% Weekday Total Weekday Dialup Weekday Broadband Weekend Total Weekend Dial up Weekend Broadband 2 Hours or more 1 - 2 Hours 1 Hour - 30 Minutes 30 Minutes or less None Internet Use Weekday Weekend Those kids with Broadband use the Internet only a bit more often 16
  17. 17. Among those with Internet access at home, African American children spend more time on the Internet 0.88 1.10 1.49 1.81 1.02 1.15 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 weekday weekend Caucasian African American Hispanic 6=More Than 4 Hours, 5=3 To Less Than 4 Hours, 4= 2 To Less Than 3 Hours 3=1 To Less Than 2 Hours, 2=Between 30 Minutes To 1 Hour, 1=30 Minutes Or Less, 0=No Use Heavy users No Use 17
  18. 18. The majority of children who spend time on the Internet do so to play games; Though ‘research for school’ is in the top 3 11 29 40 52 62 70 79 78 80 89 92 97 97 11 18 15 15 8 9 5 8 6 3 2 1 0 23 23 14 14 9 10 7 5 5 3 3 1 1 39 24 21 15 14 8 6 9 7 3 2 0 2 16 7 9 5 7 3 3 1 2 2 1 1 0 P laying G am es D ow nloading from W ebsites R esearch P ictures M usicP roductInfo E m ail C lips from S how s W atching V ideos W atching T V S how s InstantM essaging W eb pageC hatR oom s Everyday or Almost Every Day Few Times a Week Once a Week Less than Once a Week Never Base: children who typically go online on weekdays or weekends 18
  19. 19. Doing research for school increases with age more than any other online activity. Scale: 1-never, 2=less than once a week, 3=once a week, 4=few times a week, 5=everyday or almost everyday Base: children who typically go online on weekdays or weekends 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 6 year olds 7 year olds 8 year olds 9 year olds Playing Games Research Music Product Info Email Everyday Never 19
  20. 20. African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to use the Internet for research than Whites Scale: 1-never, 2=less than once a week, 3=once a week, 4=few times a week, 5=everyday or almost everyday 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Playing G am es D ow nloading from W ebsitesR esearch Pictures M usicProductInfo Em ail C lips from Show s W atching Videos W atching TV Shows InstantM essagingW eb pageC hatR oom s Caucasian African American Hispanic Everyday Never 20
  21. 21. Conclusions & Implications of Research with Moms Majority of 6 -9 year olds are in public schools during the day and return home to a parent after school. Only 17% of kids are in an ‘after school’ program, and these kids are equally as likely to be from high income as they are to be from lower income families. Not surprisingly low income is a huge barrier to Internet access at home, and very few of those who do not have Internet access seek it out elsewhere. These kids are young, and currently are mainly using the Internet to play games, and increasingly with age to do research for school. Very few are emailing. Almost every household has a television and children spend most of their media time with television. 21
  22. 22. Our Key Questions for Children 1. What media do children have in the home and how often are they spending time with various media? 2. How often do they spend time with particular games and websites? 3. What are their favorite games and websites? 22
  23. 23. 92%90%99%50%86%81%% Free or Reduced Lunch 0%0%4%0%1%0%% Other/Unknown 0%0%0%11%0%0%% Asian <1%<1%6%60%24%1%% White 99%98%0%6%11%0%% Latino <1%<1%90%21%64%99%% African American 58%72%45%83%60%86%% meeting standards in reading 372485217711220882Number of children in school CityCityRuralSuburbanCityCityType of locale SouthSouthMidwestMidwestNortheastNortheastLocation School 6School 5School 4School 3School 2School 1 Demographics of the schools and areas where the children were interviewed N=300, majority 2nd graders (some 1st and 3rd ) 53% girls, 47% boys 23
  24. 24. We created a check for validity of the data • 6 questions were added to the group survey about games, computer programs, websites that do not exist in order to assess the validity of children’s answers overall. • Note, 31% of the children did not get to the questions which ask about non- existent games, but of the 69% of the children with enough data to assess validity: • 56% of the children said that they played or used at least one of these non- existing games, programs or sites • There were NO differences in valid data by gender or whether children were individually interviewed. • Several analyses, therefore, are separated out by those with “cleaner” or “more valid” data compared to those without valid data. • Overall, 31% didn’t have enough data to tell if it their responses were valid or not, 30% had “clean” data and 39% had “non-valid” data. 24
  25. 25. About 38% of the children said they visited the non-existent “KIDVID” website. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Watch videos on Kidvid Post on Kidvid Googoobops Lavitron Hippoteam Boswirth A lot A Few Times Once or Twice 25
  26. 26. 1. What media do children have in their home and how do they spend their time with various media? 26
  27. 27. All children have televisions in their homes and at least ¾ of them have one in their bedrooms 17%20%34%7%*Do you have the Internet in your room? 25%28%47%13%*Do you have a computer in your room? 32%36%39%24%*Do you have your own cell phone? 36%43%55%21%*Do you have your own iPod or MP3 Player? 60%66%69%49% *Do you have a videogame console like Xbox 360, PS3, or Wii? 60%68%63%49%*Does anyone in your home own an IPOD or MP3 player? 62%68%66%52% *Do you have a portable video game player (Nintendo DS, Gameboy Advance, PSP)? 63%66%59%62%Do you have the Internet at home? 65%61%62%72%Do you have newspapers in your home? 65%65%45%71%Do you have magazines in your home? 73%77%68%69%Do you have a computer at home? 80%83%88%72%Do you have a TV in your bedroom? 90%91%86%91%Do you have books in your home? 92%94%83%93%Does anyone in your home own a cell phone 100%100%100%100%Do you have a TV at home? AverageNon-Valid Data Not Enough DataClean Data *There were statistically significant differences between those with clean data and those with non-valid data for the activities with * next to them. 27
  28. 28. Watching TV, reading for school, and listening to music were more frequent activities than using the computer or going on the Internet 2.162.701.452.32Go on the internet 2.593.002.182.60Use a computer 2.713.062.362.70Play Video games 3.003.132.902.98Read books for fun 3.103.243.092.98Watch DVDs 3.113.252.893.20Listen to Music 3.283.213.403.23Read books for school 3.423.563.173.54Watch TV Average Non-Valid Data Not enough dataClean Data *There were statistically significant differences between those with clean data and those with non-valid data for the bolded activities Scale: 1=never, 2=once or twice a week, 3=a few x per week, 4=many x week 28
  29. 29. A small number of children with valid data said they have EVER emailed, visited MySpace or watched videos on YouTube 25%42%7%Post videos on "You tube" 29%46%12% Post my own stuff on "My space" website 30%45%14% Have gotten music from i-tunes or napster 37%54%19%Visit the "myspace" website 43%62%23%IM with friends and family 44%60%28%Watch youtube 47%65%29%Email friends and family 73%82%64%Listen to music from the computer 85%88%82%Listen to music from the radio AverageNon-Valid dataClean data *There were statistically significant differences between those with clean data and those with non-valid data for all activities. 29
  30. 30. 2. How often are they spending time with particular games and websites? 30
  31. 31. Mario & Sonic are the most popular video games of those we asked about. *There were statistically significant differences between those with clean data and those with non-valid data for all games. 28%47%8%Brain Age 31%49%12%NHL 32%50%13%Nintendogs 32%43%21%Tetris 37%49%24%Guitar Hero 39%57%21%Viva Pinata 40%60%20%Wii Sports 43%57%29%Dance Dance Revolution 54%68%40%Pokemon 66%79%52%Pacman/Ms. Pacman 66%76%56%Sonic 67%80%55%Mario AverageNon-Valid dataClean data 31
  32. 32. Cartoon Network, Disney & Nickelodeon are the most popular websites. Webkinz and Clubpenguin have a small percentage of visitors. 15%29%1%Askjeeves 18%33%3%National Geographic 19%36%2%Exploratorium 22%41%3%Webkinz 22%35%10%Club Penguin 25%43%8%American Girl 30%46%14%KidsWB 33%40%25%Barbie 39%61%17%Turbonick 39%53%25%Lego 42%63%22%Harry Potter 65%83%48%Nickelodeon 69%79%60%Disney 69%81%57%Cartoon Network AverageNon-Valid dataClean dataName *There were statistically significant differences between those with clean data and those with non-valid data for all websites. This chart is for children who have EVER visited the website. 32
  33. 33. 3. What are children’s favorite TV shows, games & websites? 33
  34. 34. Hannah Montana was the favorite specific show for girls, while Sponge Bob was the favorite show for boys. 3%4%1%High School Musical 4%6%1%That’s so Raven 4%5%2%Zach and Cody 5%3%7%Nickelodeon 9%4%14%Cartoon Network 10%17%3%Hannah Montana 11%20%3%Disney 15%13%17%SpongeBob AverageGirlsBoys 34
  35. 35. Boys enjoy sports related videogames, whereas girls chose a variety of traditional video games as favorites. 2%5%0%HS Musical 4%8%0%Bratz 5%9%1%Pacman 6%6%7%Sonic 8%9%7%Mario 9%1%16%Sports Related AverageGirlsBoys 35
  36. 36. For favorite websites, girls like Disney.com the best, whereas boys like CartoonNetwork.com the best. 3%3%4%My Space 4%6%3%TV Show 5%7%3%PBS 9%3%14%Nick 10%4%17%Cartoon Network 22%35%8%Disney AverageGirlsBoys 36
  37. 37. Conclusions & Implications of Research with Children 1) Children are more likely to overstate ownership and use of newer media (Computers, Internet, Videogames, Handhelds) than they are their use of television which suggests the “cool” factor of new media over television. 2) Overall, over half of the children had internet access in their homes. 3) Mario & Sonic are popular video games. 4) Websites most often visited by children of this age are associated with television programming (i.e. Cartoonnetwork, Disney.com, Nickelodeon). 5) Girls are particularly fond of Disney (Hannah Montana & High School Musical) whereas boys like Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon (Spongebob). 37
  38. 38. Overall Conclusions & Implications • Be aware of today’s media use as we prepare for tomorrow. • While TV remains the number one medium, we do see a significant increase in new technology among this age. • Digital divide still factors into Internet and computer use, however, once ownership is established, there is evidence that minorities may be using the such technology for more educational purposes than their White counterparts. • We are creating The Electric Company for multiple platforms to ensure that we reach children with what they have, where they are, and where they will be. 38

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