Following the Sports Fan with Arbitron’s PPM


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A presentation entitled Following the Sports Fan with Arbitron’s PPM, was given at the Advertising Research Foundation’s (ARF) AM 6.0 conference held in 2011. A study using Arbitron Portable People Meter™ (PPM™) service was presented. The presentation was given by Glenn Enoch- VP, Integrated Media Research at ESPN Inc., Kelly Johnson- Director, Media and Promotion Research at ESPN Inc., & Lung Huang- VP, National Account Services at Arbitron Inc.

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  • Why is ESPN interested in radio? A better question might be, why isn’t everybody interested in radio? We calculated about a year and a half ago that perhaps a quarter of all media use in a day is radio listening, and one out of every six minutes spent with ESPN was done through radio. Now, this is a combination of sources and methodologies, and the proportions would be somewhat different if we did the same exercise today, but the point is that radio is roughly comparable to the Internet in terms of both users and minutes, yet the email newsletters I get talk about digital media every day, and rarely about radio.At ESPN, we understand that radio represents an enormous amount of usage by sports fans and is a critical channel of information about the sports they follow. We were glad to have the opportunity to get a look at use of ESPN content on both TV and radio during football season.ESPN Radio is also a way for us to connect with our fans locally.
  • This project is part of our ESPN XP initiative. ESPN XP, which was originally announced at the ARF Re:Think conference in March 2010, encompasses all of our cross-platform research. It has three main goals: to move cross-platform research from a special project (it is clearly still a special project!) to a standard practice, shared sources and methods across the industry. Second, to help advertisers and agencies to create media plans that follow consumers throughout the day, on the best available platform. Third, we are not trying to replace existing currencies, we are trying to get them to work together.
  • Now, if all we wanted to do was know how people were spending their time on various media platforms, that would be pretty easy. We could take minutes from those existing measures, and stack them up. We did that during our first ESPN XP project, researching the 2010 World Cup. Here, we took gross minutes of viewing from our Nielsen-measured in-home TV audiences, and added gross minutes of viewing from our digital platforms, as measured by Omniture. This shows a lift of 17% in time spent with ESPN. If all we care about is minutes, that’s easy!
  • What’s hard in the field of cross-platform research is how the various users of each platform overlap. How many TV viewers use the Internet in a day? How many digital media users are Internet-Only, Mobile-Only, or use both? There are lot of ways for these groups to intersect, and our existing measures can’t really help us here.
  • What’s even harder is to get an accurate read on the overlapping user groups, and then figure out how they contribute to the minutes of usage!
  • Yet, that has been our approach to cross-platform research from the beginning, even before ESPN XP. First, we break the users down into their cells of media use (create a behavioral segmentation). In this case, imagine that A is TV, B is Radio, C is Internet and D is Mobile. A person could use TV only, or Radio only, or Internet Only or Mobile Only; or, could use TV plus Radio, TV plus Internet, TV plus Mobile….Then, we take these discrete user groups and account for their usage of each medium. How much time does the TV plus Radio user spend with TV, and with Radio? ….and so on.
  • The project we did with Arbitron on football consumption had four basic elements: viewing to TV, and listening to radio, in-home use of media and out-of-home usage of media.
  • Those four elements overlap to produce 15 user/usage cells. In this diagram, T is TV viewing, R is radio listening, 1 is in-home usage and 2 is out-of-home usage. So, the “T1” group only watched TV, and only in-home. The “R2” group only listened to radio, and only did so out-of-home. The “T12” group only watched TV, and did so both in-home and out-of-home. The “T12/R2” group watched TV in home and out of home, and also listened to radio out of home (but not in-home). The TR12 group, in the middle, showed used both platforms in both locations.
  • This is not to be confused with R2D2.
  • Arbitron was successful in breaking their sample into the 15 discrete user groups, and accounting for their usage of ESPN TV and radio programming. This table is a little complex, so let’s examine the results of the study one step at a time…
  • …starting with the Users of each platform. Arbitron showed that 95 million persons watched football programs on ESPN, and 26 million listened to ESPN radio affiliates. Our net Reach over the month was 99 million. (And so forth for different demos.)
  • Now, we’re looking at shared and exclusive Reach over the two platforms. Still the same 99 million net users, but here we see that 74 million only watched ESPN on TV, 4 million only listened on radio, and 22 million used both TV and radio.So, radio provides ESPN with an exclusive reach of 4.2 million persons, 3.5 million adults, and 1.8 million adult men, over what we deliver on TV. Or, to look at it a different way, between one-quarter and one-third of panelists listened to our radio programming, and most of those were also TV viewers.
  • The other two elements of the project dealt with location, in-home and out-of-home. Again, the same 99 million net users, but we’re showing that 85 million used our content in the home, and 61 million were using the content out-of-home.
  • This is shared and exclusive Reach by location. Among our 99 million net audience, 38 million only consumed our content in-home, 15 million only consumed out-of-home, and the largest group (47 million) consumed both in-home and out-of-home.In other words, out-of-home consumption provides ESPN with an exclusive reach of 14.5 million persons, 12.4 million adults, and 6.1 million adult men, over what we deliver in-home. Between 60-70 percent of panelists showed out-of-home consumption, and about half of them showed both in-home and out-of-home behavior.
  • Now, let’s put platform and location together. Our TV Reach was 95 million persons. Most of these (85%) showed in-home consumption — just 15% viewed TV in out-of-home locations only. The in-home viewers were split pretty evenly between those who only viewed in-home, and those who viewed both in-home and out-of-home.Our radio Reach was 26 million persons. Most of these (84%) showed out-of-home consumption — just 16% listened to radio in in-home locations only. The out-of-home Only group was just a quarter of listeners, most people listened to radio both in-home and out-of-home.
  • Finally, let’s look at incremental Reach in a different way. The Arbitron study showed that we reach 69 million adults through in-home TV viewing, and 45 million through out-of-home TV viewing. We also have a reach of 23 million through radio.Our 69 million Reach with in-home TV encompasses persons who view only in-home TV and those who also have other behaviors. However, this project shows that persons who only consume ESPN content through out-of-home TV viewing, or radio, add an exclusive Reach of 15.5 million persons — a lift of 23% over our in-home TV Reach.
  • We mentioned at the start of our talk that the hardest thing to do is to derive minutes of usage from discrete groups of users. However, time is the most important element of the analysis, for this reason:We have already shown that multi-platform users represent 22% of our net Reach, and that multi-location users represent 47% of the net Reach.However, that 22% of multi-platform users account for 43% of total minutes of usage, and that 47% of multi-location users account for 74% of total minutes of usage. These two groups of users are pulling much more than their weight in minutes of usage.
  • The reason that multiplatform users have a greater share of usage is that they are spending more time viewing and listening. The Arbitron data show that the average multiplatform user spent 12 and a half hours with our content, far more than persons who only viewed us on TV or only listened on radio.They’re not only spending more time because they are using two platforms — the multiplatform user is spending almost twice as much time watching TV than the TV-only user, and almost three times as much time listening to radio than the radio-only user.
  • Same thing with themultilocation user, who is averaging 9 hours 44 minutes with our content, far more than the in-home-only user and the out-of-home-only user. Again, the multilocation user is spending almost twice as much time consuming media in the home compared to the in-home-only user, and over three times as much time consuming media out of home as the out-of-home-only user.
  • So now let’s leave users behind and look at a simple pie of usage. According to the Arbitron study, about three-quarters of our gross minutes of usage came from in-home TV. Out-of-home consumption of TV and radio accounted for 21% of all minutes.As we started, we talked about how important radio was to ESPN, accounting for 16% of total consumption, and here we see that it accounted for 17% of all minutes in this study.
  • A couple of slides ago, we showed how out-of-home TV and radio added 23% to the reach of in-home TV alone. They not only add users, they also add usage. Here, we see that OOH TV and radio add 40% lift over our in-home TV minutes. Like all of our ESPN XP projects, this helps us quantify our audience “beyond the ratings.”
  • What are the differences between these user/usage groups? One way we can assess this is by looking at audience composition by gender and age. In the left-hand graph, you see that radio has a larger proportion of males than TV. We also found that OOH TV has the greatest proportion of females — we theorize that this is groups of friends getting together in locations where football coverage is on. OOH radio has the greatest proportion of males, and we think that this is consumption by men in cars or at work, while in-home consumption of radio may be more likely to include female family members.In the right-hand graph, you see that radio has fewer kids and teens, and a larger proportion of middle-aged and older adults, compared to TV. In-Home TV has the largest proportion of persons aged 6-17, because they are more likely to use TV than terrestrial radio and because they are more likely to be consuming in-home with other family members. OOH radio has the largest proportion of persons aged 25-49 while in-home radio has the largest proportion of persons aged 50+. This reflects greater out-of-home location and opportunity for middle-aged persons — clearly older persons are more likely to be in-home listeners.
  • Now we’re back to our original table. Still pretty daunting…
  • …so let’s rank the groups by the percent of usage that they account for. The top five cells account for 77% of all users, and 92% of the usage of the ESPN content that was measured in this study.
  • The top group is the T12’s – the group that watches TV both in-home and out-of-home, but did not listen to radio. They are a large group, making up over a quarter of all users, and they have above-average usage (426 minutes vs 352 min average), so they account for almost a third of the usage of ESPN content.The second group is the TR12’s, who use both TV and radio, both in-home and out-of-home. They are a relatively small group (8% of users) but have the heaviest usage of any group, averaging 1106 minutes each, so they end up doing almost a quarter of the usage.#3 is the T1’s, who only have in-home TV usage. They are the largest group in terms of users, but they have below-average usage (221 minsvs 352 mins), so although they are over a third of users, they have about a fifth of the usage.The next two groups have both TV and radio usage, and mix of in-home and OOH. They are small in the number of users, but have very high usage, so they pull more than their weight in terms of usage.Then there are the remaining ten groups, who have a lot of persons but very little usage.
  • Now let’s look at each of the groups, and where their usage comes from. The T1’s are the easiest – 100% of their minutes come from in-home TV viewing.The T12’s are pretty similar, except about one-fifth of their TV viewing is done out-of-home. Because they have almost twice as many minutes of usage as the T1’s, they actually spent more time watching football content on ESPN at home than the T1 group.The TR12’s have the most varied consumption. About 60% was TV viewing, and 40% was radio listening. However, notice that although they exhibit all four of our behaviors, most of their TV viewing was done in-home, and most of their radio listening was done OOH.The T1/R12 group is pretty similar, only missing OOH TV viewing, and the distribution of minutes was pretty similar to the TR12’s.However, the T12/R2 group is most like the T12’s. 93% of their usage is TV viewing, and only 7% goes to OOH radio.The rest of the groups have a predictably varied mix of usage.
  • What kinds of viewers and listeners are in each of these groups? If we line up the top five groups by gender, we see that the TV-only groups have the largest proportion of female viewers, and the groups with radio usage and more OOH consumption have a higher male composition, which fits what we saw earlier about platform use and location by demo.
  • Now the five groups are ranked roughly by increasing age. The T1’s have a mix of younger and older viewers, and the smallest percent of middle-aged respondents. As we add more radio, and more OOH use, we get a higher percent of Persons 25+ and Persons 25-49.
  • Following the Sports Fan with Arbitron’s PPM

    1. 1. Following the Sports Fan withArbitron’s PPM Glenn Enoch Kelly Johnson Lung Huang VP, Integrated Director, Media and VP, National Media Research Promotion Research Account Services ESPN, Inc. ESPN, Inc. Arbitron Inc.
    2. 2. Arbitron, Inc. • Media and market research company founded over 50 years ago • Currently measuring media in over 280+ markets in the U. S. and Puerto Rico. • One of the two companies selected by the Coalition for Innovative Media Measurement (CIMM) for a three-screen test2
    3. 3. Overview • A ESPN and Arbitron November 2010 study measured consumption on ESPN national cable television and radio: – Football games and studio programs on TV • ESPN • ESPN2 • ESPNews – ESPN local radio stations (Total Day) • Arbitron reported: – In-home estimates – Out-of-home estimates – Platform duplication3
    4. 4. PPM Measurement • The study leveraged data collected by the Arbitron Portable People Meter™ (PPM™) service. – Panel of 42,000 consumers in 39 markets – Panelists carry a cell-phone-like device that automatically and continuously captures a panelist’s exposure to encoded, audio-based media, no matter where it occurs.4
    5. 5. How the PPM Service Works 1. PPM encoding 2. The meter, worn by individuals, 3. Data collected by solution identifies stores all acoustically captured the meter are sent broadcast and encoded audio signals that these to Arbitron online content consumers are exposed to5
    6. 6. Why Radio? Radio Radio 16% 24% 76% 84% Percent of Minutes Percent of Minutes Total Media Use ESPN Media Use Source: Nielsen, Arbitron, comScore, MRI Avg Month 4Q 20096
    7. 7. • Move Cross-Platform Research from a special project to a standard practice • Inform media plans with predictive measures and consumer insights • Link to existing media currencies and ad performance research7
    8. 8. Minute-Stacking is Easy ESPN/ABC World Cup Gross Viewing (Minutes, Millions) 34,237 942 948 2,970 Digital = 17% Lift ESPN Mobile 29,377 TV Matches Source: Nielsen (TV), Omniture (Digital)8
    9. 9. Net Reach is Hard Mobile Internet TV Audio Print9
    10. 10. Getting Minutes From User Segments Is Even Harder Audio+Internet 29 minutes TV Only 30 minutes Five Platforms 45 minutes TV+Audio+ Internet 38 minutes TV+Int+ Mob+Print TV + Mobile 41 minutes 34 minutes10
    11. 11. Our Approach to Cross-Media Analysis Break users down into Account for their usage cells of media use of each medium (Behavioral Segmentation) A B C D A B C D A B 6 4 C 1 AB AC AD D AB 3 5 8 AC 1 9 BC BD CD AD BC 4 3 7 4 BD 6 1 ABCACD BCD ABD CD 5 9 ABC 6 5 8 AB ACD 4 4 7 BCD 7 2 6 CD ABD 5 2 8 21 a/k/a “Research Sudoku”11
    12. 12. Four Elements of Arbitron Project TV In-Home Radio Out-of-Home12
    13. 13. 15 User/Usage Cells T: TV R: Radio T1/R2 R1/T2 TR1 T1 R1 1: In Home T12/R1 T1/R12 T12 TR12 R12 2: Out of Home T12/R2 T2/R12 T2 TR2 R2 T1 TV Only, In Home Only TR1 TV and Radio, In Home Only T12/R1 No OOH Radio T2 TV Only, Out of Home Only TR2 TV and Radio, OOH Only T12/R2 No In Home Radio R1 Radio Only, In Home Only T12 TV Only, In Home and OOH T1/R12 No OOH TV R2 Radio Only, Out of Home Only R12 Radio Only, In Home and OOH T2/R12 No In Home TV T1/R2 TV In Home, Radio OOH R1/T2 Radio In Home, TV OOH TR12 TV and Radio, In Home and OOH13
    14. 14. Not to be confused with R2D214
    15. 15. 15 User/Usage Cells Group P6+ (000) Reach% Users% Avg Mins Usage% T1 35,318 26.9% 33.8% 221 22.3% T2 12,389 7.4% 12.5% 43 1.5% R1 1149 0.8% 1.1% 39 0.1% R2 1,462 0.8% 1.5% 22 0.1% TR1 1,740 1.3% 1.7% 321 1.6% TR2 683 0.2% 0.7% 81 0.2% T12 25,984 12.3% 27.1% 426 31.6% R12 1,595 1.1% 1.6% 202 0.9% T12/R1 1099 0.6% 1.1% 538 1.7% T12/R2 2,617 1.0% 2.8% 570 4.3% T1/R12 4,937 2.9% 5.0% 694 9.8% T2/R12 728 0.4% 0.8% 230 0.5% T1/R2 1,964 1.0% 2.0% 286 1.6% T2/R1 240 0.1% 0.2% 58 0.0% TR12 7,526 2.5% 8.2% 1106 23.8% ALL USERS 99,431 59.5% 100.0% 352 100.0%15
    16. 16. Reach By Platform 99.4 95.2 84.3 80.8 Millions TV 41.7 43.4 Radio Total 25.7 22.5 14.0 Persons 6+ Persons 18+ Men 18+16
    17. 17. Shared-Exclusive Reach Reach (Millions) Radio Exclusive Reach • 4.2 Million Persons 99.4 • 3.5 Million Adults 4.2 84.3 • 1.8 Million Men 21.5 3.5 19.0 Radio Only Percent of Total Users 43.4 Both 1.8 Radio Radio 73.7 12.3 TV Only Radio Exclusive Shared 61.8 Persons 6+ 26% 4% 22% 29.4 Persons 18+ 27% 4% 23% Males 18+ 32% 4% 28% P6+ P18+ M18+17
    18. 18. Reach By Location 99.4 84.9 84.3 71.9 Millions 61.2 In Home 53.5 43.4 OOH 37.3 30.2 Total Persons 6+ Persons 18+ Men 18+18
    19. 19. Shared-Exclusive Reach Reach (Millions) Out of Home Exclusive Reach • 14.5 Million Persons 99.4 • 12.4 Million Adults 14.5 84.3 • 6.1 Million Men 12.4 46.7 OOH Only Percent of Total Users 41.1 43.4 Both Out of OOH OOH 6.1 IH Only Home Exclusive Shared 24.1 Persons 6+ 62% 15% 47% 38.2 30.8 Persons 18+ 63% 15% 48% 13.2 Males 18+ 69% 14% 55% P6+ P18+ M18+19
    20. 20. Reach By Platform By Location TV Radio 15% 16% 26% 44% 41% 58% In-Home Only IH+OOH OOH Only In-Home Only IH+OOH OOH Only20
    21. 21. OOH TV/Radio Add Reach ESPN Content Reach (P18+ 000) 1,470 3,498 Exclusive Reach 10,505 15.5 million (+23%) 68,800 OOH TV+Radio Only 40,347 44,998 Radio Only OOH TV Only 22,468 28,453 IH TV+Other IH TV Only In-Home TV OOH TV Radio P18+ (000)21
    22. 22. Why Time Is Important Platform Location 4% 1% 2% 15% 22% 43% 47% 74% Radio Only OOH Only Both Both 74% TV Only IH Only 55% 38% 24% Users% Usage% Users% Usage%22
    23. 23. Time Spent with TV, Radio Multiplatform Users Have Greater Time Spent ESPN Content – Persons 18+ (h:mm/month) TV Radio Total TV Only 4:37 4:37 Radio Only 1:41 1:41 TV + Radio 7:57 4:31 12:28 TV + Radio% 64% 36%23
    24. 24. Time Spent by Location Multilocation Users Have Greater Time Spent ESPN Content – Persons 18+ (h:mm/month) In Out of Total Home Home In Home Only 3:51 3:51 Out of Home Only 0:44 0:44 In Home + OOH 7:11 2:33 9:44 In Home + OOH % 74% 26%24
    25. 25. Percent of Minutes by Platform/Location 10% 7% In Home TV 11% OOH TV In-Home Radio OOH Radio 73%25
    26. 26. Lift over In-Home TV “Beyond the Ratings” 31.7 +40% 5.5 24% 3.6 16% Radio OOH TV In-Home TV 22.6 Minutes (Billions) Lift over IH TV26
    27. 27. Audience Composition Gender Age Total Mins 70% 30% Total Mins 19% 42% 39% OOH TV 66% 34% IH TV 23% 46% 31% IH TV 69% 31% OOH TV 21% 41% 38% IH Radio 76% 24% OOH Radio 8% 51% 41% OOH Radio 85% 15% IH Radio 10% 35% 55% Male Female P6-24 P25-49 P50+27
    28. 28. 15 User/Usage Cells Group P6+ (000) Reach% Users% Avg Mins Usage% T1 35,318 26.9% 33.8% 221 22.3% T2 12,389 7.4% 12.5% 43 1.5% R1 1,149 0.8% 1.1% 39 0.1% R2 1,462 0.8% 1.5% 22 0.1% TR1 1,740 1.3% 1.7% 321 1.6% TR2 683 0.2% 0.7% 81 0.2% T12 25,984 12.3% 27.1% 426 31.6% R12 1,595 1.1% 1.6% 202 0.9% T12/R1 1,099 0.6% 1.1% 538 1.7% T12/R2 2,617 1.0% 2.8% 570 4.3% T1/R12 4,937 2.9% 5.0% 694 9.8% T2/R12 728 0.4% 0.8% 230 0.5% T1/R2 1,964 1.0% 2.0% 286 1.6% T2/R1 240 0.1% 0.2% 58 0.0% TR12 7,526 2.5% 8.2% 1106 23.8% ALL USERS 99,431 59.5% 100.0% 352 100.0%28
    29. 29. 15 User/Usage Cells (Ranked by Usage%) Group P6+ (000) Reach% Users% Avg Mins Usage% T12 25,984 12.3% 27.1% 426 31.6% TR12 7,526 2.5% 8.2% 1106 23.8% T1 35,318 26.9% 33.8% 221 22.3% T1/R12 4,937 2.9% 5.0% 694 9.8% T12/R2 2,617 1.0% 2.8% 570 4.3% T12/R1 1,099 0.6% 1.1% 538 1.7% T1/R2 1,964 1.0% 2.0% 286 1.6% TR1 1,740 1.3% 1.7% 321 1.6% T2 12,389 7.4% 12.5% 43 1.5% R12 1,595 1.1% 1.6% 202 0.9% T2/R12 728 0.4% 0.8% 230 0.5% TR2 683 0.2% 0.7% 81 0.2% R1 1,149 0.8% 1.1% 39 0.1% R2 1,462 0.8% 1.5% 22 0.1% T2/R1 240 0.1% 0.2% 58 0.0% ALL USERS 84,273 71.5% 100.0% 375 100.0%29
    30. 30. Users and Usage Users (P6+ Millions) Usage (Avg Minutes) Usage% T12 26.0 426 31.6% TR12 7.5 1106 23.8% T1 35.3 221 22.3% T1/R12 4.9 694 9.8% T12/R2 2.6 570 4.3% Rest 23.0 125 8.2% Total 99.4 Million 352 Minutes30
    31. 31. Usage By Platform/Location Usage (Avg Minutes) of Minutes Percent T12 426 81% 19% TR12 50% 1106 9% 14% 26% T1 221 100% T1/R12 56% 694 21% 23% T12/R2 570 73% 20% 7% Rest 125 49% 24% 14% 13% Total IH 352 Minutes IH Radio TV OOH TV OOH Radio31
    32. 32. Users (Audience Composition) Gender T1 (22%) 45% 55% T12 (32%) 54% 46% More Radio, More OOH = T1/R12 (10%) 60% 40% More Male T12/R2 (4%) 67% 33% TR12 (24%) 74% 26% Rest (8%) 50% 50% Male Female32
    33. 33. Users (Audience Composition) Age T1 (22%) 29% 34% 37% Young + Old T12 (32%) 24% 42% 34% T12/R2 (4%) 18% 47% 35% T1/R12 (10%) 19% 41% 40% TR12 (24%) 14% 48% 37% Middle-Aged Rest (8%) 25% 41% 34% P6-24 P25-49 P50+33
    34. 34. Summary • Arbitron – Passive electronic measurement of TV and radio – Ability to distinguish in-home and out-of-home usage – Large sample size • ESPN – Users/Usage analysis: Behavioral segmentation with minutes – Fit Arbitron project into larger ESPN XP initiative – Both TV and Radio content during month34
    35. 35. Summary • Created a “usage pie” – 73% of usage was in-home TV – Radio = 17% – OOH = 21% • TV mostly in-home users (41% both in-home/OOH) • Radio mostly OOH users (58% both in-home/OOH) • Radio and out-of-home contribute greater P25+ and P25-49 audiences • Multiplatform and multilocation users are heavier consumers of ESPN content35
    36. 36. Summary • The four elements (Radio, TV, In-Home, Out-of-Home) produce 15 user/usage cells • Five of the cells contribute 77% of users, 92% of usage • Able to measure exclusive Reach and usage from Radio and out-of-home – Radio Only = 4.2 million persons – Out-of-Home Only = 14.5 million persons – Radio or OOH TV vs In-Home TV: • Reach = 15.5 million persons (+23%) • Minutes = 9.1 billion minutes (+40%)36
    37. 37. Follow Us on Twitter @ESPNResearch