'Technology in the Lives of Children'


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"Technology in the Lives of Our Children." Presented for St. Elizabeth Parish, Kansas City, Missouri, April 30th, 2013.

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'Technology in the Lives of Children'

  1. 1. Technology in the Livesof Our ChildrenSocial, Behavioral, and Neurological Developmental ConcernsApril 23, 2013 (c) 2013 Tyler D. Staples MS LMLP1Tuesday, April 23, 13
  2. 2. BehavioralNeurologicalSocial2Tuesday, April 23, 13
  3. 3. The Facts✤ Rideout, Vandewater & Wartella (2003): Today’s average household has✤ three T.V.’s,✤ three DVD players,✤ two video game consoles,✤ three iPods,✤ two cell phones, and✤ one computer.✤ Children average 6.5 hours of T.V. and/or video game time per day.✤ 65% of children have a television in their bedroom.✤ Roberts DF, Foehr UG, Rideout VJ, & Brodie M (1999).✤ Children 0-2 years old watch ~2.2 hours of T.V. a day.✤ Children 3-5 years old watch ~4.5 hours✤ Canadian study: Parents spend ~3.5 minutes a week participating in meaningfulconversation with their children (Turcotte, 2006)3Tuesday, April 23, 13
  4. 4. Effect of Screen Timeon Social Development4Tuesday, April 23, 13
  5. 5. Social Media &Social Development✤ Hogan, B. (2013): Too much social media damages strong relationships.✤ Media Multiplexity Theory: A theory that suggests that there is a clear linkbetween the number and frequency of use of media channels used tocommunicate through and the strength of relationship ties.✤ originally posed in 2005, during height of email, chat and telephonecommunications.✤ theory tested by researchers on current status of communications.✤ Findings? A higher number/frequency of use of media channelsshowed no correlation with social development and relationshipsatisfaction.✤ In fact, in some instances, relationship satisfaction was lower, and socialdevelopment was poorer.✤ Hogan, B.: May be a cut-off point after which the number of communicationoutlets has no or even negative impact on social development and overallrelationship satisfaction.5Tuesday, April 23, 13
  6. 6. Facebook &Real-Life Consequences✤ University of Colorado: “Un-friending” on Facebook causes strain on real-liferelationships.✤ 40% of individuals will intentionally avoid another person if they’d been “un-friended” by them; another 10% would prefer to avoid the other person, butmay not follow through.✤ more common among women✤ Even if “re-friended,” would still harbor negative feelings towards theindividual that initially “un-friended” them✤ Reason for such negative social consequence? The individual “un-friended”equates to form of social exclusion.✤ Why is this important?✤ Most Facebook users don’t realize the consequences of decisions made onlinereach far beyond cyberspace.6Tuesday, April 23, 13
  7. 7. Internet Use and Addiction &Social/Personality Features✤ Chak & Leung (2004): The greater the internet use, the greater the level ofshyness in child and adolescent participants.✤ AND vise versa.✤ Additionally, pathological shyness showed to be a reliable predictor ofinternet addiction.✤ AND vise versa.✤ The strongest effect measured of high internet use: Locus of Control (LoC)✤ LoC = Perceived control over own behavior.✤ Internal LoC = Person feels in control of own behavior.✤ External LoC = Person feels other elements have more control over theirbehavior (for ex., chance or luck or karma).✤ The higher the level of internet use...✤ ...significantly lower Internal LoC✤ ...significantly higher External LoC✤ Why? May be due to neurological effects of media use.✤ (more on that later)7Tuesday, April 23, 13
  8. 8. Social8Tuesday, April 23, 13
  9. 9. Effect of Screen Timeon Behavioral Development9Tuesday, April 23, 13
  10. 10. Educational T.V. &Behavior Development✤ University of Washington - Seattle: Educational television improves child behavior✤ Upping the “educational value” of the television program is correlated with greaterpositive correlation gains.✤ Caveat: Consensus is still that children watch too much T.V.✤ Behavioral gains “have a limit” -- amount of television should be limited; above acertain amount of time, the behavioral gains are eliminated.✤ Top-recommended shows as per the research?✤ Sesame Street✤ Dora the Explorer✤ Curious George✤ Reasons?✤ Pro-social themes✤ cooperation✤ actions-consequences✤ Educational material✤ numbers & letters✤ reason & logic10Tuesday, April 23, 13
  11. 11. Video Games &Aggressive Behavior✤ Iowa State University: Definite link between violent video games and youth violenceand delinquency.✤ Positive correlation even when controlled for history of violence and psychopathictraits.✤ common criticism of research: “Likely not video games; likely sociopathictendencies already present with the child instead.”✤ Linked to severe violence.✤ i.e. gun violence and battery.✤ Also strongly linked to “mild violence,” including...✤ bullying✤ teasing✤ hitting✤ name-calling✤ Frequency of play and linking for video games compounds associated violence evenmore.✤ Caveat: Can’t blame violent behavior on any single factor; often is multi-facetedproblem that takes place over a long time.11Tuesday, April 23, 13
  12. 12. Texting, Social Networking &Academic Development✤ Walsh, J.L. (2013): Texting, social networking and other media usage linked to pooracademic development and performance.✤ Studied mostly adolescent populations✤ High school freshmen girls spend as many as 12 hours a day engaged in somemedia usage (texting, music, et alia)✤ The greater the amount of media usage, the lower the academic performance✤ particularly true for texting and social networking use✤ Why? Simple...✤ Engaging in media use that mimics genuine social connections (like textingand Facebooking) become rewarding and, indeed more interesting thanschoolwork.✤ Imagine it like this: If students were allowed to talk during lectures, there’slittle doubt that they would rather talk then listen.✤ Texting and social networking using mobile devices are not much differentthat socializing in class -- but is easier to hide.12Tuesday, April 23, 13
  13. 13. BehavioralSocial13Tuesday, April 23, 13
  14. 14. Effect of Screen Timeon Neurological Development14Tuesday, April 23, 13
  15. 15. Television Viewing &Later Antisocial Behavior✤ Study published in Archives of Disease in Childhood (2013): 5 year-olds who watch 3or more hours of television a day have significantly higher risk for antisocial behaviorsby age 7.✤ Includes behaviors such as stealing, fighting, bullying, etc.✤ Playing games on television had no additional effect (i.e. had same effect as simpletelevision viewing)✤ Earlier study: Childhood television watching associated with adult antisocialbehavior, including extreme criminality.✤ The Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFC): Are of the brain located just behind the eyebrows thatis involved in sensory integration, in representing the affective value of reinforcers, andin decision-making.✤ Strenziok and colleagues (2010): Bloodflow to the OFC significantly reduced duringtelevision-watching.✤ During childhood, prolonged under-activity of regions of the brain leads to stunteddevelopment.✤ Including OFC.✤ Seguin (2004): Reduced activity to OFC linked to antisocial behaviors in adults.15Tuesday, April 23, 13
  16. 16. Television &Neurological Development✤ Three factors found to be associated with successful neurological development:✤ physical activity✤ physical connection with others✤ meaningful emotional connection and attachment with others✤ “Baby T.V.” viewing linked to general cognitive delays (Thakkar, Garrison & Christakis,2006).✤ Has no educational value.✤ “Mindless” stimulation of sights and sounds.✤ 2000: France banned television programming designed for children under the age of3 years old.✤ 2001: American Academy of Pediatrics released official recommendation that nochild less than 2 years of age watch any television or video game.✤ Christakis and colleagues (2004): each hour of TV watched daily between the ages of 0and 7 years equates to a 10% increased chance of attention problems by age 7.16Tuesday, April 23, 13
  17. 17. Video Games &Neurological Development✤ Violent video game play also linked to decreased bloodflow in the Orbitofrontal Cortex.✤ However, when played in moderation, not all video games are bad.✤ Greenfield (1984): When played in moderation (~30min/day, or ~1 hour every otherday) Video games involving strategy, working memory and increased hand-eyecoordination increase bloodflow overall to the frontal cortex (including OFC).✤ Increased activity in this area linked to...✤ increased working memory✤ increased executive functioning (for ex., planning)✤ increased impulse control✤ increased decision-making✤ Also linked to...✤ decreased reaction time (quicker ability to react)✤ improved peripheral vision✤ Found in several following studies✤ (Lintern & Kennedy, 1984; Metalis, 1985; Gagnon, 1985; Dorval & Pepin, 1986;Drew and Waters, 1986; McClurg & Chaille, 1987; Orosy-Fildes & Allan, 1989...)✤ How do you know what video games fit this category? Play them!17Tuesday, April 23, 13
  18. 18. BehavioralNeurologicalSocial18Tuesday, April 23, 13
  19. 19. BehavioralNeurologicalSocial19Tuesday, April 23, 13
  20. 20. NeurologicalSocial BehavioralDiscussionResearch20Tuesday, April 23, 13
  21. 21. Minimizing the NegativeEffect(s) of Screen Time21Tuesday, April 23, 13
  22. 22. NeurologicalSocial BehavioralResearch22Tuesday, April 23, 13
  23. 23. Recommendations forProfessionals✤ Family physicians and pediatricians are urged by child psychologyspecialists to encourage their clients/families to adopt an in-homeprogram to reduce technology exposure to children.✤ School policy is now starting to become directly involved in thelimitation of media use.✤ However, some media use is actually encouraged, rather thanclassroom interaction models.✤ School policy-makers must become more directly involved with allaspects of media use, not just specific ones (for ex., cell phone use)✤ Must ALSO make use of applicable and current research.✤ (biggest problem with current school policy)✤ Parents are the foundation of all child development, however...23Tuesday, April 23, 13
  24. 24. Recommendations forCaregivers✤ The number one moderator for the negative effects of media use: Parentalsupervision.✤ For example, research has shown that children watching violent moviescan increase aggressive impulses.✤ This negative effect is almost completely eliminated in the merepresence of a primary caregiver.✤ No significant correlation was found at all when parents discussed“potentially harmful” scenes (for ex., violence, sex) with their childrenduring or after they were happening.✤ Second moderator: Treating media use as a privilege rather than a right.✤ Use “token economy” systems in the home for media use.✤ Use “rewards/consequences” systems in the home for media use.✤ And remember: If you’re not sure if certain video games/television showsare appropriate...play/watch them yourself!24Tuesday, April 23, 13
  25. 25. ?25Tuesday, April 23, 13
  26. 26. Research CitedChak, M.Sc. & Leung, L (2004). Shyness and Locus of Control as Predictors of Internet Addiction and Internet Use. CyberPsychology &Behavior, 7, 5, 559-570.Seguin, J.R. Neurocognitive elements of antisocial behavior: Relevance of an orbitofrontal cortex account. Brain Cognition. 2004 June; 55(1):185–197.Strenziok M, Krueger F, Pulaski SJ, Openshaw AE, Zamboni G, van der Meer E, Grafman J.J Adolesc Health. 2010 Jun;46(6):607-9. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.11.196. Epub 2010 Jan 13.“Do television and electronic games predict children’s psychological adjustment? Longitudinal research using the UK Millennium CohortStudy.” Archives of Disease in Childhood 2013; doi 10.1136/archdischild-2011-301508Lifespan. "Texting, social networking and other media use linked to poor academic performance." ScienceDaily, 11 Apr.013. Web. 19 Apr. 2013.Christakis DA, Zimmerman FJ, DiGiuseppe DL, & McCarty CA (2004). Early television exposure and subsequentattentional problems in children. Pediatrics. 113 (4): 708-713.“Children, adolescents and television.” American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education. Pediatrics.2001; 107 (2): 423-426.Insel TR & Young LJ (2001). The neurobiology of attachment. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2: 129-136.Korkman M (2001). Introduction to the special issue on normal neuropsychological development in the school-age years.Developmental Neuropsychology. 20 (1):325-330.Turcotte, M (2006). Time spent with family during a typical workday 1986 to 2005. Statistics Canada. Catalogue No.11-008. Available from: http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/11-008-XIE/2006007/pdf/11-008-XIE20060079574.pdf.“France pulls plug on TV shows aimed at babies [CBC online article Wednesday August 20, 2008]. Retrieved from:http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2008/08/20/french-baby.html.Thakkar RR, Garrison MM, Christakis DA (2006). A systematic review for the effects of television viewing by infants andpreschoolers. Pediatrics. 2006; 118: 2025-2031.Rideout VJ, Vandewater EA, & Wartella EA (2003). Zero to six: electronic media in the lives of infants, toddlers andpreschoolers. Menlo Park (CA): Kaiser Family Foundation.“Educational TV Tied to Fewer Behavior Problems.” Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article2013/02/18/us-educational-tv-idUSBRE91H0OD20130218"Facebook Unfriending Has Real Life Consequences; Many Avoid Unfrienders In Real Life." Medical News Today.Retrieved from <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/255872.php?utm_medium=referral&utm_source=pulsenews.>“Violent Video Games Are a Risk Factor for Criminal Behavior and Aggression, New Evidence Shows.” Science Daily.Retrieved from <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130326121605.htm>Roberts DF, Foehr UG, Rideout VJ, & Brodie M (1999). Kids and media @ the millennium: A comprehensive nationalanalysis of children’s media use. Menlo Park (CA): Kaiser Family Foundation.26Tuesday, April 23, 13
  27. 27. NeurologicalSocial BehavioralResearch Discussion27Tuesday, April 23, 13
  28. 28. For Questions orMore Information...Tyler D. Staples MS LMLP PLPCLicensed Masters Level PsychologistLicensed Practicing Counselor (P)tstaples@kidstlc.org(913) 324-3635tylerdstaples@gmail.com(913) 269-962128Tuesday, April 23, 13
  29. 29. Technology in the Livesof Our ChildrenSocial, Emotional, and Neurological Developmental ConcernsApril 23, 2013 (c) 2013 Tyler D. Staples MS LMLP29Tuesday, April 23, 13