Health Promotion For The Adolescent


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Health Promotion For The Adolescent

  1. 1. Health Promotion for the Adolescent (Ages 11-21) Suzanne Green, RN NSG 624
  2. 2. A Time of Changes <ul><li>A time of rapid physical changes </li></ul><ul><li>Growth occurs to reach most of adult height </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Mental growth – understanding logical and abstract thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Moral growth </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in independence </li></ul>
  3. 3. Female Puberty <ul><li>Female puberty usually begins 2 years earlier than males </li></ul><ul><li>Females also have an earlier growth spurt than males </li></ul><ul><li>Breast bud development followed by growth spurt </li></ul><ul><li>Onset of menstruation approximately 2 years after appearance of breast buds </li></ul><ul><li>Axillary and pubic hair </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat glands and sebaceous glands more active </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty should begin by 13 years </li></ul>
  4. 4. Male Puberty <ul><li>Thinning of scrotal sac and enlargement of testicles </li></ul><ul><li>Ejaculation is a milestone </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal emissions may occur and are normal </li></ul><ul><li>Facial hair </li></ul><ul><li>Pubic hair </li></ul><ul><li>Voice deepens </li></ul><ul><li>Growth spurt </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty should begin by 14 years </li></ul>
  5. 5. Potential Physical Problems of Puberty <ul><li>Scoliosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S-Shaped curvature of the spine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scoliosis screening recommended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early intervention is important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body image is an important issue for adolescents! </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Objectives for Adolescents <ul><li>Reduce prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents ages 12-19 </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the incidence of suicide and injurious suicide attempts among adolescents ages 15-19 </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce deaths caused by motor vehicle accidents among youths ages 15-24 </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the proportion of high school seniors who associate risk of physical or psychological harm with heavy use of alcohol, regular use of marijuana, and experimentation with cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the proportion of adolescents in grades 9-12 who abstain from intercourse or use condoms if sexually active </li></ul>
  7. 7. Immunizations for Adolescents
  8. 8. Health Perception-Health Management Pattern <ul><li>Adolescents have fewer acute illnesses than younger children and fewer chronic illnesses than adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Should still be seen by their provider regularly to monitor physical and psychological changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing good health habits now will develop patterns that can last a lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch out for risk-taking behaviors. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern <ul><li>Teens are concerned with body image. </li></ul><ul><li>At risk for eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><li>May experiment with new eating habits, such as vegetarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Fast food, soda, and sweets may be consumed in excess </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity in teens is also a problem </li></ul>
  10. 10. Elimination Pattern <ul><li>Renal and GI systems are functionally mature in adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination patterns are consistent with adult patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorders may affect elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Modesty may affect elimination patterns in public places such as school </li></ul>
  11. 11. Activity-Exercise Pattern <ul><li>Lean muscle growth in adolescents result in increased strength and endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Regular exercise should be encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Organized sports promote healthy lifestyle patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Sports physicals are a good opportunity for the practitioner to make contact with the elusive adolescent! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sleep-Rest Pattern <ul><li>Adolescents need an average of 8 hours sleep each night </li></ul><ul><li>Work and other activities put adolescents at risk for sleep deprivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Strive for a good balance to prevent burn-out. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cognitive-Perceptual Pattern <ul><li>Able to think abstractly. </li></ul><ul><li>Reemergence of egocentrism </li></ul><ul><li>Often think they are unique or exceptional, resulting in risk-taking behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents are idealists-often reject traditional ideas such as family beliefs or religion </li></ul><ul><li>Primary developmental role is establishing identity </li></ul><ul><li>Approval of peers is important </li></ul><ul><li>May try on many different roles seeking the right “me” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Self-Perception-Self-Concept Pattern <ul><li>Self-perception and body image are important </li></ul><ul><li>At risk for low self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Praise adolescents for who they are, rather than what they do </li></ul><ul><li>Value the adolescent for his or her unique abilities </li></ul>
  15. 15. Roles-Relationships Pattern <ul><li>Peer group replaces parents as most important influence </li></ul><ul><li>Belonging to the “clique” or “gang” is important to the adolescent </li></ul><ul><li>May conform to the peer group’s style of dress and speech </li></ul><ul><li>Parents can maintain communication with their teen by listening, negotiating, and finding ways to voice concerns in an open, honest way </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sexuality-Reproductive Pattern <ul><li>Adolescents become aware of themselves as sexual human beings </li></ul><ul><li>May become sexually active for a variety of reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking affection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a symbol of maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May question of they are homosexual </li></ul><ul><li>Same-sex experimentation does not necessarily indicate homosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Risks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescent pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STD’s </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Coping-Stress Tolerance Pattern <ul><li>Adolescents often lack the maturity to cope with stresses </li></ul><ul><li>At risk for depression and suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for verbal and non-verbal clues of depression and suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased risk taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alienation from family or peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood swings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preoccupation with death </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Values-Beliefs Pattern <ul><li>Adolescents begin to form moral reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Understand right or wrong </li></ul><ul><li>May know what is right, but choose wrong due to peer pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Often align their beliefs with a particular religion or philosophical school of thought, although their allegiances may change frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Parents, teachers, and health care providers should provide positive role modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce positive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>This is the time in life we may like our children the least and they need us the most! </li></ul>
  19. 19. Safety Issues <ul><li>Accidents are among the leading causes of death and injury during adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor vehicle fatality rate for adolescents is 20 times higher than for any other age group </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage seat belt use </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage to avoid drunk driving, cell phone use while driving, distractions such as too many passengers, changing radio stations, etc. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Safety Issues <ul><li>Sports injuries are common </li></ul><ul><li>Promote use of protective gear </li></ul><ul><li>Practitioners should perform a thorough sports physical </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for teens who may turn to steroids and creatine which may put them at risk for injury and other health problems </li></ul>
  21. 21. Safety Issues <ul><li>Adolescents today face an unprecedented risk of injury due to violence </li></ul><ul><li>May feel pressure to join gangs or carry weapons to protect themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Teens who are valued and nurtured by caring adults are less at risk to turn to violence </li></ul>
  22. 22. Safety Issues <ul><li>Substance use and abuse can be a significant problem for teens </li></ul><ul><li>Includes alcohol, drugs and tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Health care providers and parents should watch for signs </li></ul>