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Chapter 17 world history


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  • 1. The Diversity Of American Colonial Societies 1530-1770 By Teonna Butler pd. 7
  • 2. The Columbian Exchange ❏ A. Demographic Changes - New World people lacked immunity to diseases from Old World -Small pox, measles, diphtheria, typhus, influenza, malaria, yellow fever, pulmonary pleague - Diseases caused native people decline in Spanish & Portuguese
  • 3. The Columbian Exchange ❏ B. Transfer of Plants & Animals - European, Asian, and African food crops were introduced to Americas - Introduction of European livestock influenced environments and cultures of the Americas - Old World livestock destroyed Amerindian farmer crops
  • 4. Spanish America & Brazil ❏ A. State and Church - Spanish crown tried to exert control over Amerindian colonies - Years of neglect and mismanagement Portuguese appointed viceroy to Brazil - Governmental institutions established developed bureaucracies that thwarted economic initiative and political experimentation
  • 5. Spanish America & Brazil - Catholic Church transferred European language, culture, and christian beliefs to New World - Catholic clergy converted Amerindians some secretly kept native beliefs and practices - Catholic clergy protected Amerindians from exploitation and abuse
  • 6. Spanish America & Brazil - Bartolome De Las Casas denounced policies toward Amerindians -Catholic Missionaries frustrated as Amerindian converts blended Christian beliefs -The Church founded universities and secondary schools
  • 7. Spanish America & Brazil ❏ B. Colonial economies - Latin America economies dominated by silver mines and sugar plantations - Spanish economy dominated by Alto Peru (Bolivia) & Peru silver mines -Silver Mining required forced labor led to deforestation and poisoning
  • 8. Spanish America & Brazil - Agricultural economy dominated Spanish America -Spanish settlers used forcedlabor system of Encomienda - The Mita system forced labor
  • 9. Spanish America & Brazil - Portuguese developed African slave- labor sugar plantation system -Brazilian plantation used Amerindian slaves -Silver and sugar integrated American colonial economies to World trade
  • 10. World trade routes
  • 11. Spanish America & Brazil ❏ C. Society in Colonial Latin America - The elite had small number of immigrants large numbers of descendants (creoles) - Under colonial rule cultural diversity differentiation eroded - African descent played roles in Spanish history
  • 12. Spanish America & Brazil - Slaves & free blacks participated in conquest and settlement - Direct slave trade increased the number of blacks declined legal status - Africa retained different cultural identities traditions blended European & Amerindian languages
  • 13. Spanish America & Brazil - Slaves engaged agricultural labor forced to submit discipline & punishments - Portuguese immigrants controlled politics & economy Africans largest ethnic group - Growing population of individuals were known as castas ( Mestizos & Mulattos)
  • 14. English & French Colonies in North America ❏ A. Early English Experiments -Attempts to establish colonies in Americas ended in failure - In 17th century hope colonies proved profitable investments successfully colonized Ireland - Led to new wave of interest in establishing colonies in the New World
  • 15. English & French Colonies in North America ❏ B. The South - The Virginia company established Jamestown on James River 1606 - English Crown took our management in 1624 - Virginia developed tobacco plantation economy with dispersed population
  • 16. English & French Colonies in North America - Plantations in Chesapeake Bay area relied on servants for labor - Planters prefer to invest in slaves: Slaves population increased in 1660 -Virginia administered governor by representatives in House of Burgesse
  • 17. English & French Colonies in North America - House of Burgesses developed democratic representation same time as slavery increase - Colonists prospered fur trade with deer hunter -Consequences included environmental damage brought by over hunting
  • 18. English & French Colonies in North America - dependency on goods caused fighting over hunting grounds - unsuccessful Amerindian attacks on English colonists in early 1700’s - Southern part of Carolinas - settled by planters
  • 19. English & French Colonies in North America - Developed by slave labor plantation economy, rice, and indigo - Enslaved Africans & their descendants formed majority population - Colonial South Carolina most hierarchical society in North America
  • 20. English & French Colonies in North America ❏ C. New England - Pilgrims wanted to break from Church of England established Plymouth colony - Puritans wanted to reform joint stock company (Massachusetts Bay Colony) - Massachusetts Bay Colony : normal gender balance increased population, homogeneous, hierarchical
  • 21. English & French Colonies in North America - Political institutions derived of charter: elected governor lower legislative house - Massachusetts economy: dependence on fur, forest products, fish, commerce shipping. - Merchants engaged diversified trade made Boston largest city in America
  • 22. English & French Colonies in North America ❏ D. Middle Atlantic Region - Manhattan colonized by Dutch, taken by english, named New York - Became commercial and shipping center - Derived benefit as outlet for grain exports to Caribbean and Europe.
  • 23. English & French Colonies in North America - Pennsylvania developed colony for Quakers - Developed grain - exporting colony with Philadelphia - Pennsylvania;s grain produced by free family farmers. Substantial number of Germans
  • 24. English & French Colonies in North America ❏ E. French America - Expansion driven by fur trade resulted in depletion of beaver and deer populations -French settlement resembled Spain & Portugal and were committed to missionary work - Fur trade provided Amerindians firearms which increased violence
  • 25. French expansion
  • 26. English & French Colonies in North America - Catholic missionaries attempted to convert population of French America - Meeting indigenous resistance turned their attention to work with french settlements - Settlements dependent on fur trade it was small and grew slowly
  • 27. English & French Colonies in North America - Patterns of settlements allowed Amerindians to preserve degree of independence - French expanded west & south establishing second fur trading colony -Expansion led to war with England (defeated) and forced yield on Canada to English and cede
  • 28. Colonial Expansion and Conflict ❏ A. Imperial reform in Spanish and Brazil - Spain's new Bourbon dynasty undertook administrative reforms - Threatened by Jesuits influences monarchs were expelled from American colonies - Bourbon policies were detrimental to interests of grazing and agricultural export economies
  • 29. Spain’s Bourbon Dynasty & American colonies
  • 30. Colonial Expansion and Conflict - New monopolies aroused opposition from creole elites whose only gain from reforms were militia leaders - Bourbon policy's factor in Amerindian uprisings included uprisings led by Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui - Rebellion suppressed after two years and cost Spanish colonies over 100,00 lives and
  • 31. Colonial Expansion and Conflict - Brazil underwent economic expansion and administrative reform in 1700s - Economic expansion fueled by fold, diamonds, coffee, and cotton - The Pombal reforms paid for importation of nearly 2 million African slaves and underwrote British imports.
  • 32. Colonial Expansion and Conflict ❏ B. Reform and Reorganization in British America - British Crown tried to control smuggling and manufacture by passing Navigation Acts. - Colonists resisted by overthrowing governors of New York and Massachusetts by removing Catholic proprietor of Maryland - Economic growth and new immigration in British colonies was accompanied by increased
  • 33. British Crown, Navigation Acts, & British colonies
  • 34. CONCLUSION ❏ A. Political & Economic Comparisons - Amerindians in Spain, Portugal, france, and England experienced European Subjugation -Catholic powers gained the most wealth and developed centralized control - British colonial governments were likely to develop colonial governments
  • 35. Amerindians in Spain Portugal and France
  • 36. CONCLUSION ❏ B. Environment & Cultural Comparisons - Environments underwent change from introduction of European technology animals, and plants. Lost natural resources to European markets - Catholic nations forced cultural uniformity more religiously and ethnically - British colonies welcomed Larger influx European migrants than other new World
  • 37. Catholic Nations, Plants, & Animals (European)