Diseases of the Circulatory System


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  • Diseases of the Circulatory System

    1. 1.  it is an organ system that passes nutrients, gases, hormones, bloodcells, etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases and helpstabilize body temperature. involves the circulation of blood which serves to move blood to asite or sites where it can be oxygenated, and where wastes can bedisposed. is made up of the vessels and the muscles that help and control theflow of the blood around the body. On average, your body has about 5 liters of blood continuallytravelling through it by way of the circulatory system.
    2. 2. Here are some common diseases that affect the circulatorysystem:
    3. 3. Cardiomyopathy literally means "heart muscledisease“. It is the weakening of the function of themyocardium (the actual heart muscle) for anyreason. People diagnosed wtih cardiomyopathy areoften at risk of arrhythmia or sudden cardiac deathor both. Cardiomyopathy can often go undetected,making it especially dangerous to carriers of thedisease. [wikipedia.org] It often occurs when theheart cannot pump as well as it should, or with otherheart function problems.
    4. 4. The most common symptom is chest pain. Mildcardiomyopathies are frequently asymptotic; butsevere cases are associated with heart failure andarrythmias. An echocardiogram is useful to detectwall motion abnormalities or a pericardial effusion. Treatment depends on the type ofcardiomyopathy. It may include medication, wearingof a pacemaker to treat a slow heart rate or to helpboth sides of your heart beat at the same time, or the
    5. 5. wearing of a defibrillator that sends an electricalpulse to stop life-threatening, abnormal heartrhythms. The goal of treatment is often symptomrelief, and some patients may eventually require aheart transplant. Due to the severity of the disease,treatment requires the use of numerous chemicalsand drugs, which have to be taken for the rest of thepatients life.
    6. 6. Normal Dilated Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
    7. 7. It occurs when there is no clotting factor in theblood. It is a hereditary genetic disorder that impair thebodys ability to control blood clotting or coagulation.Haemophilia lowers blood plasma clotting factor levels ofthe coagulation factors needed for a normal clottingprocess. Thus when a blood vessel is injured, a temporaryscab does form, but the missing coagulation factorsprevent fibrin formation, which is necessary to maintainthe blood clot. A haemophiliac does not bleed more intensely than
    8. 8. a person without it, but can bleed for a much longer time.In severe haemophiliacs even a minor injury can result inblood loss lasting days or weeks, or even never healingcompletely. In areas such as the brain or inside joints, thiscan be fatal or permanently debilitating. Children with mild haemophilia may not havenoticeable symptoms for many years. Often, the first signin very mild haemophiliacs is heavy bleeding from adental procedure, an accident, or surgery.
    9. 9. It is the swelling and irritation of the pericardium,the thin sac-like membrane that surrounds your heart;simply the inflammation of the pericardium. Chest pain isoften present. Pericarditis is usually sudden and short-lived. The sharp chest pain associated with pericarditisoccurs when the inflamed or irritated two layers of thepericardium rub against each other. Chest pain may berelieved by sitting up or bending forward and worsened bylying down (recumbent or supine position) or inspiration(taking a breath in).
    10. 10. It may be caused by viral, bacterial, or fungalinfection. Symptoms of pericarditis may include drycough, fever, fatigue, and anxiety. Mild Pericarditis may be treated with Aspirin, ornon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such asnaproxen). But severe cases may require:  pericardiocentesis to treat pericardial effusion or tamponade  antibiotics to treat tuberculosis or other bacterial
    11. 11. causes. steroids are used in acute pericarditis but are notfavored because they increase chance of recurrentpericarditis.colchicine is a very effective treatment option. IfAspirin and NSAIDs are not sufficient, colchicineshould be added to the regimen. in rare cases, surgery. in cases of contrictive pericarditis, pericardectomy.
    12. 12. X-ray of a person with Pericarditis.
    13. 13. Is chest pain. This is due to ischemia (lack of blood,thus lack of oxygen supply and waste removal) of theheart muscle. The term derives from the Latin angina("infection of the throat") from the Greek ἀγχόνη ankhonē("strangling"), and the Latin pectus ("chest"), and cantherefore be translated as "a strangling feeling in thechest". Most patients with angina complain of chestdiscomfort rather than actual pain: the discomfort isusually described as a pressure, heaviness, tightness,
    14. 14. squeezing, burning, or choking sensation. Pain may beaccompanied by breathlessness, sweating and nausea insome cases. In this case, the pulse rate and the bloodpressure increases. Chest pain lasting only a few secondsis normally not angina. Some experience "autonomicsymptoms" (related to increased activity of the autonomicnervous system) such as nausea, vomiting and pallor.Major risk factors for angina include cigarette smoking,diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, sedentarylifestyle and family history of premature heart disease.
    15. 15. The most specific medicine to treat angina isnitroglycerin. It is a potent vasodilator that makes moreoxygen available to the heart muscle. The main goals oftreatment in angina pectoris are relief of symptoms,slowing progression of the disease, and reduction of futureevents, especially heart attacks and, of course, death.Exercise is also a very good long term treatment for theangina (but only particular regimens - gentle and sustainedexercise rather than intense short bursts)
    16. 16. Narrowing of the Artery (Atherosclerosis) thatleads to Angina Pectoris
    17. 17. Also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease orASVD. A condition in which an artery wall thickens as aresult of the accumulation of fatty materials such ascholesterol. It is a syndrome affecting arterial bloodvessels, a chronic inflammatory response in the walls ofarteries, caused largely by the accumulation ofmacrophage white blood cells. It is caused by theformation of multiple plaques within the arteries.Atherosclerosis can occur body-wide, in the arteries to thebrain, intestines, kidneys, legs, etc. with many infarctionsinvolving only very small amounts of tissue. These are
    18. 18. termed "clinically silent" because the person having theinfarction does not notice the problem and does not seekmedical help, or when they do, physicians do notrecognize what has happened. Atherosclerosis typically begins in earlyadolescence, and is found in major arteries, yet isasymptomatic and not detected by most diagnosticmethods during life. Atheroma in arm, or more often inleg arteries, which produces decreased blood flow iscalled peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD).
    19. 19. The main cause of atherosclerosis is yet unknown,but is hypothesized to fundamentally be initiated byinflammatory processes in the vessel wall in response toretained low-density lipoprotein (LDL) molecules.Eventually, the artery becomes inflamed. The cholesterolplaque causes the muscle cells to enlarge and form a hardcover over the affected area. This hard cover is whatcauses a narrowing of the artery, reduces the blood flowand increases blood pressure.
    20. 20. If atherosclerosis leads to symptoms, somesymptoms such as angina pectoris can be treated. Non-pharmaceutical means are usually the first method oftreatment, such as cessation of smoking and practicingregular exercise. If these methods do not work, medicinesare usually the next step in treating cardiovasculardiseases, and, with improvements, have increasinglybecome the most effective method over the long term.Most medicines for atherosclerosis are patented, allowingmanufacturers to enjoy higher prices than non-patentedmedicines; and they may cause unwanted side-effects.
    21. 21. Narrowing of the Arteries