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Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final
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Reference sources presentation geographical and biographical sources final

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Group Two's Presentation

There are many different types of reference sources. Our presentation will focus on two: Geographical and Biographical Sources.

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  • 1. Welcome to Au RestaurantSources de Référence... <br />A leader in knowledge cuisine.<br />Today’s specials are:<br />Seared <br />Geographical Sources, <br />fresh off the line, <br />served with roasted <br />Biographical sources <br />and a<br />hint of knowledge. <br />We hope you enjoy your meal with us…<br />please come back for more.<br />With Compliments…Group Two `<br />
  • 2. Liked our Introduction?<br />We hope you did because now its time for the fun stuff.<br />Tonight, we will be serving :<br />For Our Appetizers:<br />Reference Sources: <br />A Definition sprinkled with…<br />The Different Categories of Reference Sources.<br />And then finally, the pièces de résistance, <br />Our Main Course : <br />Geographical Sources<br />& for dessert<br />Biographical sources<br />We hope you came hungry for knowledge, because we shall be feasting on it tonight! <br />We have a hunger of the mind which asks for knowledge of all around us, and the more we gain, the more is our desire; the more we see, the more we are capable of seeing.Maria Mitchell<br />
  • 3. Here are your appetizers for the evening:First up, What are Reference Sources? <br />
  • 4. Reference Sources<br /> There are many definitions of the term Reference Sources. Here are two: <br /> Definition 1:<br /> According to (Reitz) References Sources are, <br />Any publication from which authoritative information can be obtained, including but not limited to reference books, catalog records, printed indexes and abstracting services, and bibliographic databases. Individuals and services outside the library that can be relied upon to provide authoritative information are considered resources for referral. <br />
  • 5. Reference Sources contd.<br /> Definition 2:<br /> Harrods's Librarian’s Glossary defines these sources as “any material published, work database, web site etc. which is used to obtain authoritative information,” (as cited in Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 388). <br />
  • 6. Types of Reference Sources<br /> Reference Sources can be divided into two categories, “those compilations that furnish information directly and compilations that refer to other sources containing information,” (Bopp & Smith, 2001, p. 388). <br />
  • 7. Types of Reference Sources: <br />Those that refer to sources where information can be found: <br />Those that furnish information directly include: <br />Encyclopedias<br />Dictionaries <br />Almanacs<br />Handbooks<br />Yearbooks<br />Biographical sources<br />Directories <br />Atlases <br />Gazetteers <br />Etc.<br />Catalogs<br />Bibliographies<br />Indexes <br />Etc.<br />
  • 8. And now for the Main Course!!!<br />Geographical and Biographical Sources….<br />
  • 9. Geographical Sources<br />What is geography? <br />Geography is an interdisciplinary area of study spanning both earth science (physical geography) and social science (human geography) (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 213). <br />
  • 10. Geographical Sources contd. <br />According to Katz (2002) “geography is very much a part of the library reference collection,” (p. 418). It includes books from the shelves that relate to the subject and even maps and atlases that the library has (Katz, 2002, p. 418). Other items such as indexes, travel books and even magazines are also included in this collection (Katz, 2002, p. 418). <br />
  • 11. How are Geographical Sources Used? <br />Geographic information sources are used to answer a wide variety of queries (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 213). According to Bopp and Smith (2011), “they are mainly used to answer location questions,” (p. 555). For example:<br /> Where is Peru?<br />Where is Tazmania?<br />Is the Bahamas located in the Caribbean Sea?<br /> Where is Rock of Gibraltar located?<br /> Is there really a place called Portland in Jamaica?<br />How far is from the Cayman Islands from France?<br />etc.<br />
  • 12. How are Geographical Sources Used? contd.<br />However, location questions can also be further divided into three areas- current events, recreation and business (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 556). For current events questions, patrons may want information on a place that was recently in the news, while for recreation they may simply be researching for leisurely or travel purposes (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 557). Business travel questions on the other hand call for information about cities, restaurants and hotels (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 557). <br />There is also another category of Geographical questions called historical geography (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 557). Bopp and Smith (2011) state that this category can also be further divided into genealogy, military history and place name changes (p. 557). Genealogy has to do with if a patron wants to find the location of a place where a relative lived, while military history has to do with information on particular wars that may have occurred in a special area (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 557). Lastly, place name changes has to do with patrons requesting information on countries whose names may have been changed (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 557). <br />
  • 13. Geographical Sources: Scope<br /> Even though a large portion of the reference queries that relate to Geographical Sources are “spatial/location oriented” Geography is a discipline that deals with much more than just maps and globes. <br /> According to Bopp and Smith (2011), “geographers study spatial problems involving environmental issues, regional planning, medical geography, political geography, mapping and the general relationship between human beings and their physical world” (p. 555). <br />
  • 14. Types of Geographical Sources (Formats)<br />Cassell and Hiremath (2011) state that, “geographic information sources come in many formats,” (p. 214).<br />These formats include:<br /><ul><li> Gazetteers/Geographical Dictionaries
  • 15. Maps
  • 16. Atlases
  • 17. Guidebooks
  • 18. GIS (Geographic Information Sources)
  • 19. Supplemental Geographical Sources</li></li></ul><li>Gazetteers/Geographical Dictionaries <br /> White (1968) writes that the terms geographical dictionary and gazetteer are often used interchangeably (p. 652). When they do, they refer to, “an alphabetical list of place names with information that can be used to locate the areas that the names are associated with” (Johnson, 2003 cited in Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 215). These sources may be considered to be the most frequently used geographical reference source and are also defined by Bopp and Smith (2011) as, “a list of geographical names or physical features, or both, either appended to an atlas or published as a separate volume” p. (569). <br />
  • 20. Types of Gazetteers<br /> Bopp and Smith (2011) writes that there are two types of gazetteers –Locational and Descriptive (p. 569). <br />Locational gazetteers can be characterized as “those which simply give coordinates and/or codified information” (“Maps and GIS”, n.d., para. 1).<br /> Descriptive gazetteers may give all the information that Locational Gazetteers do, but often go on to add major historical, economical and political data of the places being described (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 569). <br />
  • 21. Gazetteers (Forms) <br /> Gazetteers can be in printed formats, web-based formats or even a combination of both. Also, gazetteers can be found in atlases in the form of appendices (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 569). <br />
  • 22. Popular Gazetteers<br /> Some gazetteers currently in print are:<br />The New England Gazetteer: containing descriptions of all the states, counties and towns in New England. <br />The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Volume 1.<br /> The Columbia Gazetteer of the World. <br />
  • 23. Popular Gazetteers <br /> Here are also some examples of web based gazetteers:<br />Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer Server (University of California, Santa Barbara) website: http://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/gazetteer/gazserver<br />U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Gazetteer website: http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html<br />Australian Geographic Place Names (Gazetteer) website: http://www.environment.gov.au/database/MAN200R.html<br />Gazetteer for Scotland website: http://www.gazetteerofscotland.org.uk/<br />Kentucky Atlas & Gazetteer website: http://ukcc.uky.edu/atlas/<br />World Gazetteer website: http://world-gazetteer.com/<br />
  • 24. Maps<br /> A map can be defined as a “picture or representation of the Earth's surface, showing how things are related to each other by distance, direction, and size” (“Types of Maps”, para. 1, n.d.). Mapmaking has had a very rich and extended history, the evidence of which can be traced back as far as ancient Babylonia and Greece (Cassell & Hiremath, 20110, p. 216). <br />
  • 25. Types of Maps<br />There are many different types of maps (Schnaubelt, 2010, para. 1) <br />Topographical maps “show the relationship of geographic features to one another,” (Schnaubelt, 2010, para. 7). These maps can show details such as underground mines, coast lines and many more (Schnaubelt, 2010, para. 7). <br />Nautical Charts are maps that are used by mariners and pilots (Schnaubelt, 2010, para. 10). <br />Historical and Cultural Maps show historical and cultural data, while Political Maps show the boundaries (Schnaubelt, 2010, para. 12). <br />Lastly, Geological maps give geological data such as types of rocks in a region and earthquake data (Schnaubelt, 2010, para. 10). <br />
  • 26. Maps and the Library Collection<br /> Patrons often come into the library seeking individual maps (Cassell & Hiremath, 20110, p. 216). It is therefore important for librarians to maintain a collection of maps, as atlases may not provide sufficient geographic features and details (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 564). <br /> Printed maps may be collected from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) a government agency responsible for creating and printing maps for the federal government and electronic maps from sources such as DeLorme’sTopo North America that provides topographical coverage of the United States (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 564). Sources such as Google maps, Bing maps and Yahoo maps can also be used (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 564). <br />
  • 27. Atlases <br /> According to Cassell and Hiremath (2011), “atlases are bound collections of maps with some unifying theme” (p. 215). The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy states that Atlases are named after the Greek god Atlas (n.d.)<br />Greek God Atlas. <br />
  • 28. Types of Atlases<br /> Atlases can be divided into three main classes which are: current, historical and thematic (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 566). <br />
  • 29. Current Atlases <br /> Current Atlases are used to give, “to give information on any political or geographical changes in the world,” (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 566). Examples of Current Atlases include:<br />The Times Comprehensive Atlas<br />The Hammond World Atlas<br />The Oxford Atlas of the World <br />The National Geographic Atlas of the World<br />
  • 30. Historical Atlases<br /> Maps will often provide information on events that occurred in the past as well as those happening now (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 219). Atlases which are by definition “bound collections of maps” will also do the same. <br /> According to Cassell and Hiremath (2011), these maps, “can be arranged by theme or date” (p. 219). Examples of Historical Atlases include:<br />The National Geographic Historical Atlas of the United States<br />The Atlas of World History<br />Kenneth Martis’s Historical Atlas of Political Parties<br />Martin Gilbert’s Atlas of the Holocaust<br />The Times Atlas of the Second World War<br />
  • 31. Thematic Atlases<br /> Thematic atlases, according to Casell & Hiremath (2011) typically cover a subject area such as history, ethnic diversity, gender, religion and even oceanography and astronomy (p. 220). Examples of thematic atlases are:<br />Oxford New Historical Atlas of the United States edited by Edwin Gausted<br />Penguin Atlas of Women in the World by JiniSeager<br />Hidden Depths: Atlas of the Oceans by NOAA Scientists <br />Atlas of the Universe by Mark A. Garlick (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 220). <br />
  • 32. Travel Guides/Guidebooks<br /> According to Katz (2002), “travel guidebooks are a popular item in libraries-and bookstores” (p. 443). Echoing this sentiment is Bopp & Smith (2011) who write that “ travel literature continues to proliferate at an unprecedented rate” (p. 570). <br /> Also, travel guides should never be overlooked as reference sources as reputable travel guides often “provide factual, up-to-date information on cities and countries” (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 223). Some of them may even provide information about the history and culture of a place as well as where important buildings are located (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 223). <br />
  • 33. Types of Travel Guides/Guidebooks<br /> Carolyn Anthony states that travel literature can be categorized into four areas (as cited in Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 570). <br /> These are: <br />Annuals (eg. Fodor, Frommer and Birnbaum).<br />Those aimed at a particular type of traveler Eg. Let’s Go, Shoestring Guides(Bopp & Smith, 2011, 571).<br />Those aimed at specialized travelers who may be interested in snorkeling, diving, mountain climbing, among other areas Eg. Lonely Planet, Asia’s Top Dive Sites, The World’s Most Dangerous Places and Rough Guides (Bopp & Smith, 2011, 571).. <br />Those aimed at people who want to find out about a place for informational and leisurely reading purposes. Eg. AA Travel Guides. (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 571). <br />
  • 34. GIS Sources<br /> GIS stands for Geographic Information Sources. According to Casell and Hiremath (2011), GIS sources have revolutionized the way we view geography (223). These sources according to Johnson (2003) use “computer hardware, software, data and people combined, to answer spatially based questions and to provide new ways at looking at geographical information to find solutions or make decisions (cited in Cassell & Hiremath, p. 223).<br />
  • 35. GIS Providers <br /> Some sites offering GIS products are: <br /> US Geological Survey GIS <br /> website : http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/<br /> Census Bureau’s American Fact Finder <br />website: http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en<br /> EPAs EnviroMapper<br />website: http://www.epa.gov/emefdata/em4ef.home<br />Some companies that provide GIS software are:<br />ESRI (ArcView, ArcInfo, ArcEditor)<br />Microsoft (Map Point)<br />Army Corps of Engineers (Grass-this is an open source software developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers)<br />Map Server (developed by the University of Minnesota) (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 223). <br />
  • 36. Supplemental Geographical Sources <br />Web-based Sources:<br />Matt Rosenberg's Geography Guide is very comprehensive and provides a lot of links to other geography websites (Bopp & Smith, 2011, 571). Website: http://geography.about.com/<br />US Postal Service Zip Look Up (Bopp& Smith, 2011, 571). Website: http://zip4.usps.com/zip4/<br />MAPS-L electronic mailing list provides expertise in the area of geography, maps and map librarianship (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p.572). <br />Databases such as AGRICOLA, GeoRef, GreenFile.<br />Print-Based Sources:<br />Background Notes, a publication of the US Department of State, is made up a series of authoritative pamphlets on various countries and geographical topics (Bopp & Smith, 2011, 571).<br />Geographical Dictionaries:<br /> According to Bopp and Smith (2011) these dictionaries are quite an asset to any reference collection as “many specialized terms developed for the lexicon of this field are not included in standard dictionaries,” (572). Example: Longman Dictionary of Geography.<br /> Weather Almanacs. <br />
  • 37. Criteria for Selecting and Evaluating Geographical Sources<br /> When selecting geographical sources for your collection it is important to look at the following issues:<br /> Currency: <br /> According to Cassell and Hiremath (2011), “before purchasing geographic sources, the currency of the source should be verified by checking to see if current boundaries of countries are shown and to see that it reflects changes in names of cities and countries,” (p. 224). Echoing this sentiment is Bopp and Smith (2011) who write that, “because the world is changing so rapidly, it is imperative that libraries be able to provide current information,” (p. 562). <br />Accuracy: <br /> According to Cassell and Hiremath (2011) “accuracy is essential for a good-quality map,” (p. 224). Accuracy and Currency are closely related, in that lack of currency can cause inaccuracies, as well simple mistakes in boundaries, place names etc. <br />
  • 38. Criteria for Selecting and Evaluating Geographical Sources contd. <br /> Publishing Authority: <br /> There are inferior publishers of geographic sources as is the case with other reference materials (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 562). It is therefore important for librarians to be aware of the reputable publishers of these sources (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 563). Some major publishers of maps and atlases are: Times Books, Rand McNally, C.S. Hammond, the National Geographic Society, DK and Oxford University Press (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 224). <br />Scale: <br /> Each unit on a map represents a certain number of unit on the ground it represents (Katz, 2002, p. 425). This is known as the scale of the map and it usually located at the bottom of the map(Katz, 2022, p. 425). It very important that the same scale be used throughout the map (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 224). Fortunately, more established publishers will attempt to standardize their work and use the same basic scale throughout their atlas (Kats, 2002, p. 425). <br />
  • 39. Criteria for Selecting and Evaluating Geographical Sources contd. <br />Color and Symbols:<br /> Color and Symbols, according to Bopp and Smith (2011) is used on maps to communicate information to the user (p. 560). It cannot accomplish this if it is too cluttered; also any successful map or atlas will provide a key or index to its symbols (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 560). Librarians should therefore check these features before purchasing these materials. <br />Scope and Audience: <br /> The geography section in the library should aim to provide a wide selection of titles for different purposes and that are related to the predominant age groups that will use the collection (Katz, 2002, p. 425). It is also important to provide sources that are related to the national, cultural and ethnic backgrounds of your users. <br />
  • 40. Criteria for Selecting and Evaluating Geographical Sources contd. <br /> Format:<br /> It is also important to consider the format that the geographical source is in-electronic or print and if it, according to Cassell and Hiremath (2011) “serves the source well” (p. 225). In other words, would the map have been better if it were in print versus in an electronic form. <br /> Cost:<br /> Cost is also an important issue, but it is advised that it is better to have a fewer high quality sources versus a lot of inferior sources (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 225). <br />
  • 41. Geographical Sources (Storage)<br /> Oversized materials especially atlases and maps present storage problems for most reference departments (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 557). <br /> Here are some solutions:<br />Atlases may be filed on bottom shelves.<br />Atlas stands increase use and visibility.<br />Maps ideally should be kept in map cases.<br />Maps may be kept in flat boxes or vertical files. <br />On line materials present very little shelving challenges as they will be found on computers.<br />
  • 42. Are you full? Hope not because now its time for…. <br />
  • 43. Your Dessert…Biographies<br />Biographies<br />
  • 44. Biographies<br />Cassell and Hiremath (2011) writes that Biographical Sources “provide information about the lives both living and deceased persons” (p. 233). Biographies may be brief, only providing the names, dates of birth and death of a person or they may go into great detail about a person’s life (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 223). <br />One of the first biographies was of Charlemagne by Einhard<br />(“Charlamagne Biography, para. 10). <br />
  • 45. What types of questions do Biographies answer?<br />Sometimes these sources are used by people who are simply seeking information about a person, their profession, date of birth and death or even nation of origin (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 233). <br />However, they can also be used to confirm if the user has the correct individual (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 233).<br />Additionally, they may be used to find extensive information on a person (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 233). <br />Biographical sources are also used to identify persons who are stalwarts in their profession (Cassell & Hiremath, 2011, p. 233).<br />
  • 46. How are Biographical Sources Categorized?<br /> Biographical Sources are often categorized according to the following:<br /> Direct vs. Indirect<br /> Direct Biographical sources according to Bopp and Smith (2011) “provide information within the source itself” (p. 473). This category can also be further divided into Directory sources or Dictionary sources (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 473). <br />Directory Sources:<br /> These sources as Bopp and Smith (2011) write “provide succinct, non-critical access to biographical facts, such as name, age, education, family, contact information and so on” (p. 479). <br /> Example:<br />Who’s Who<br />Dictionary Sources:<br /> These provide lengthy biographies in prose form (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 483). <br /> Example:<br />Current Biography<br /> American National Biography<br />
  • 47. How are Biographical Sources Categorized? contd.<br /> Indirect Biographical sources, “indicate which titles should be consulted in order to locate the needed information” (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 473). <br />Some Indirect Biographical Sources are:<br />Biography and Genealogy Master Index<br /> Biography Index<br /> The Encyclopedia of World Biography<br /> Biography Reference <br />
  • 48. How are Biographical Sources Categorized? contd.<br />Current vs. Retrospective<br /> Biographical Sources as Bopp & Smith (2011) writes, “are also often categorized by the type of persons included in the work and are commonly designated as being either current or retrospective” (p. 473). Persons who are alive at the time of publication are included in current sources, while the lives of persons who are deceased are discussed in retrospective sources (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 473). <br />Current Biographies:<br />Who’s Who’s<br />Retrospective Biographies:<br />The Dictionary of American Biography<br /> American National Biography <br />Biographies that include both are:<br /> Current Biography<br /> Biography Reference Bank<br /> Biography in Context<br />
  • 49. How are Biographical Sources Categorized? contd.<br />International vs. National<br /> Biographical Sources can also be examined according to whether or not the persons included come from different countries (International) or are all from a specific country (National) (Bopp & Smith, 2011). <br />International Biographies:<br />Encyclopedia of World Biography<br /> Who’s Who in the World<br />National Biographies:<br />Who’s Who in America<br /> American National Biography<br />
  • 50. Other Biographical Sources…<br />Newspapers and Magazines: <br /> According to Bopp and Smith (2011), “newspapers and magazines can serve as excellent sources of biographical information, particularly of those who are newly famous, fleetingly famous or famous for notorious or criminal reasons” (p. 474). <br />Encyclopedias:<br /> Encyclopedias can also provide information on a person’s life and is especially useful when researching historical figures (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 474). Valuable information may also be found in topic encyclopedias (Bopp & Smith, 2011, 474). <br />The Web:<br /> The Web is an excellent source for users searching for current information or persons that are hard to locate (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 474). Some popular biographical sites are: <br />http://www.notablebiographies.com/<br />http://www.biography.com/<br />http://www.infoplease.com/people.html<br />
  • 51. Evaluating Biographical Sources<br /> Here are some issues to examine when adding to your biographical collection:<br />Currency<br /> This area has to do with “how quickly, how often and how thoroughly the work is updated” (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 475). Retrospective biographies do not need to be updated regularly but current biographies do (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 475). Entries that are not updated regularly in current biographies have the potential to provide incorrect, outdated and irrelevant information to the user (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 475). <br />Accuracy and Authority <br /> Bopp and Smith (2011) also write that, “the reputation of the publisher can serve as a good indicator of the overall quality” (p. 476). They therefore recommend “Gale H. W. Wilson and Marquis Who’s Who as some of the most trusted publishers of biographies (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 476). <br /> There is also the issue of whether the subjects of the biography were consulted in compiling the biography, as these sources then tend to be more accurate than those in which the information comes from other sources. <br />
  • 52. Evaluating Biographical Sources contd. <br />Audience<br /> It is also very important to consider your audience when selecting biographical sources. The vast majority of reference sources according to Katz (2002), “are published for adults” (p. 347). There are however, a lot of interesting biographies for children and young adults. <br />Eg: <br /> The Who was… series. <br /> Titles include:<br /> Who was Abraham Lincoln? <br /> Who was George Washington? <br />Scope and Comprehensiveness<br />According to Bopp and Smith (2011), the scope of a biographical source pertains to individuals included in the biography and is usually stated in the scope statement (p. 476). This is very important as if well-known persons are excluded from the biography or those that are outside its scope are included this could affect the overall legitimacy of the source(Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 476). <br />
  • 53. Selecting Biographical Sources<br /> When selecting Biographical Sources it is important to consider the following:<br />Needs of Users:<br /> The different types of users of a particular library should influence the selection process when procuring biographies (Bopp & Smith, 2011, 478). For example dictionary sources may prove to more useful for students preparing school reports versus directories that “direct” them to other sources (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 478). <br />Cost:<br /> Cost is also very important as due to budget constraints it may be important for libraries to choose electronic sources which may be cheaper than print ones or sources that are more comprehensive in nature such as purchasing international biographies versus nation based biographies (Bopp & Smith, 2011, p. 479). <br />
  • 54. Biographical Awards<br /> Many awards are also given to biographies.<br /> This could be very useful when selecting biographical sources for public libraries. Some of these are listed below:<br />Drainie-Taylor Biography Prize– Canada<br />National Biography Award– Australia<br />Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography– United States<br />Costa Book Awards– UK<br />Prix Goncourt de la Biographie– France<br />
  • 55. We hope you’ve enjoyed your meal with us, please come back again soon.<br />Remember…<br />There is always room for one more at <br />Au Restaurant <br />Sources de Référence...<br />au revoir. <br />
  • 56. References<br />(2011). R. E. Bopp & L. Smith (Eds.), Reference and information service: an introduction Santa Barbara: Libraries Unlimited.<br />atlas. (n.d.). The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/atlas<br />Charlemagne biography. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ch-Co/Charlemagne.html<br />Cassell, K. A., & Hiremath, U. (2011). Reference and information services in the 21st century. (2nd ed.). New York: Neal Shchuman Publishers Inc.<br />Katz, W. A. (2002). Introduction to reference work: basic information services. (8th ed., Vol. 1). Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.<br />List: guidebook publishers / series. . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.reading.ac.uk/library/finding-info/type/lib-finding-maps-internet-gazetteers.aspx<br />Reitz, J. M. (n.d.). Online dictionary of library and information science. In Reference source Retrieved from http://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_r.aspx<br />Schnaubelt, A. (2010, March 21). World maps, historical maps, cultural, topographical and other maps. Retrieved from <br />White, R. C. (1968). Early geographical dictionaries. Geographical Review, 58(4), 652-659. Retrieved from http://www.jostor.org/stable.212687<br />

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