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  • 1. Chapter 3.4 Data Representation, Data Structures and Data Manipulation3.4 (a) Numerical RepresentationTo turn a denary number into a binary number simply put the column headings, startat the left hand side and follow the steps: If the column heading is less than the number, put a 1 in the column and then subtract the column heading from the number. Then start again with the next column on the right. If the column heading is greater than the number, put a 0 in the column and start again with the next column on the right.Note: You will be expected to be able to do this with numbers up to 255, because thatis the biggest number that can be stored in one byte of eight bits.e.g. Change 117 (in denary) into a binary number.Answer: Always use the column headings for a byte (8 bits) 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1Follow the algorithm.128 is greater than 117 so put a 0 and repeat. 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 064 is less than 117 so put a 1. 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 1Take 64 from 117 = 53, and repeat.32 is less than 53, so put a 1. 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 1 1Take 32 from 53 = 21, and repeat.If you continue this the result (try it) is 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1So 117 (in denary) = 01110101 (in binary).To turn a binary number into denary, simply put the column headings above thebinary number and add up all the columns with a 1 in them.e.g. Change 10110110 into denary.Answer: 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0So 10110110 = 128 + 32 + 16 + 4 + 2 = 182 (in denary).This principle can be used for any number system, even the Babylonians’ sixties ifyou can learn the symbols. 4.4 - 1
  • 2. e.g. If we count in eights (called the OCTAL system) the column headings go up in8’s. 512 64 8 1So 117 (in denary) is 1 lot of 64, leaving another 53.53 is 6 lots of 8 with 5 left over. Fitting this in the columns gives 512 64 8 1 0 1 6 5So 117 in denary is 165 in octal.Why bother with octal?Octal and binary are related. If we take the three digits of the octal number 165 andturn each one into binary using three bits each we get 1 = 001 6 = 110 5 = 101Put them together and we get 001110101 which is the binary value of 117 which wegot earlier.The value of this relationship is not important now, but it is the reason why octal is inthe syllabus.Another system is called HEXADECIMAL (counting in 16’s). This sounds verydifficult, but it needn’t be, just use the same principles. 256 16 1So 117 (in denary) is 7 lots of 16 (112) plus an extra 5. Fitting this in the columnsgives 256 16 1 0 7 5Notice that 7 in binary is 0111 and that 5 is 0101, put them together and we get01110101 which is the binary value of 117 again. So binary, octal and hexadecimalare all related in some way.There is a problem with counting in 16’s instead of the other systems. We needsymbols going further than 0 to 9 (only 10 symbols and we need 16!).We could invent 6 more symbols but we would have to learn them, so we use 6 thatwe already know, the letters A to F. In hexadecimal A stands for 10, B stands for 11and so on to F stands for 15.So a hexadecimal number BD stands for 11 lots of 16 and 13 units = 176 + 13 = 189 ( in denary)Note: B = 11, which in binary = 1011 D = 13, which in binary = 1101 Put them together to get 10111101 = the binary value of 189.Binary Coded DecimalSome numbers are not proper numbers because they don’t behave like numbers. Abarcode for chocolate looks like a number, and a barcode for sponge cake looks like anumber, but if the barcodes are added together the result is not the barcode forchocolate cake. The arithmetic does not give a sensible answer. Values like this thatlook like numbers but do not behave like them are often stored in binary coded 4.4 - 2
  • 3. decimal (BCD). Each digit is simply changed into a four bit binary number which arethen placed after one another in order.e.g. 398602 in BCDAnswer: 3 = 0011 9 = 1001 8 = 1000 6 = 0110 0 = 0000 2 = 0010So 398602 = 001110011000011000000010 (in BCD)Note: All the zeros are essential otherwise you can’t read it back.3.4 (b) Negative IntegersSign and Magnitude.Use the first bit in the byte (the most significant bit (MSB)) to represent the sign (0for + and 1 for -) instead of representing 128. This means that +117 = 01110101 and -117 = 11110101Notes: The range of numbers possible is now –127 to +127.The byte does not represent just a number but also a sign, this makes arithmeticdifficult.Two’s ComplementThe MSB stays as a number, but is made negative. This means that the columnheadings are -128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1+117 does not need to use the MSB, so it stays as 01110101.-117 = -128 + 11 = -128 + (8 + 2 + 1) fitting this in the columns gives 10001011Two’s complement seems to make everything more complicated for little reason atthe moment, but later it becomes essential for making the arithmetic easier.3.4 (c) Binary ArithmeticThe syllabus requires the addition of two binary integers, and the ability to take oneaway from another. The numbers and the answers will be limited to one byte.Addition.There are four simple rules 0+0=0 0+1=1 1+0=1and the difficult one 1 + 1 = 0 (Carry 1)e.g. Add together the binary equivalents of 91 and 18Answer: 91 = 01011011 18 = 00010010 + 01101101 = 109 1 1Subtraction.This is where two’s complement is useful. To take one number away from another,simply write the number to be subtracted as a two’s complement negative number andthen add them up.e.g. Work out 91 – 18 using their binary equivalents.Answer: 91 = 01011011 4.4 - 3
  • 4. -18 as a two’s complement number is –128 + 110 = -128 +(+64 +32 +8 +4 +2) = 11101110Now add them 01011011 11101110 + 1 01001001 1 111111But the answer can only be 8 bits, so cross out the 9th bit giving 01001001 = 64 + 8 + 1 = 73.Notes: Lots of carrying here makes the sum more difficult, but the same rules areused.One rule is extended slightly because of the carries, 1+1+1 = 1 (carry 1)Things can get harder but this is as far as the syllabus goes.3.4 (d) Floating Point RepresentationIn the first part of this chapter we learned how to represent both positive and negativeintegers in twos complement form. It is important that you understand this form ofrepresenting integers before you learn how to represent fractional numbers.In decimal notation the number 23.456 can be written as 0.23456 x 102. This meansthat we need only store, in decimal notation, the numbers 0.23456 and 2. The number0.23456 is called the mantissa and the number 2 is called the exponent. This is whathappens in binary.For example, consider the binary number 10111. This could be represented by0.10111 x 25 or 0.10111 x 2101. Here 0.10111 is the mantissa and 101 is the exponent.Similarly, in decimal, 0.0000246 can be written 0.246 x 10-4. Now the mantissa is0.246 and the exponent is –4.Thus, in binary, 0.00010101 can be written as 0.10101 x 2-11 and 0.10101 is themantissa and –11 is the exponent.It is now clear that we need to be able to store two numbers, the mantissa and theexponent. This form of representation is called floating point form. Numbers thatinvolve a fractional part, like 2.46710 and 101.01012 are called real numbers.3.4 (e) Normalising a Real NumberIn the above examples, the point in the mantissa was always placed immediatelybefore the first non-zero digit. This is always done like this with positive numbersbecause it allows us to use the maximum number of digits.Suppose we use 8 bits to hold the mantissa and 8 bits to hold the exponent. Thebinary number 10.11011 becomes 0.1011011 x 210 and can be held as0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Mantissa Exponent 4.4 - 4
  • 5. Notice that the first digit of the mantissa is zero and the second is one. The mantissais said to be normalised if the first two digits are different. Thus, for a positivenumber, the first digit is always zero and the second is always one. The exponent isalways an integer and is held in twos complement form.Now consider the binary number 0.00000101011 which is 0.101011 x 2-101. Thus themantissa is 0.101011 and the exponent is –101. Again, using 8 bits for the mantissaand 8 bits for the exponent, we have0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 Mantissa Exponentbecause the twos complement of –101, using 8 bits, is 11111011.The reason for normalising the mantissa is in order to hold numbers to as high adegree of accuracy as possible.Care needs to be taken when normalising negative numbers. The easiest way tonormalise negative numbers is to first normalise the positive version of the number.Consider the binary number –1011. The positive version is 1011 = 0.1011 x 2100 andcan be represented by0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Mantissa ExponentNow find the twos complement of the mantissa and the result is1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Mantissa ExponentNotice that the first two digits are different.As another example, change the decimal fraction –11/32 into a normalised floatingpoint binary number.11/32 = 1/4 + 1/16 + 1/32 = 0.01 + 0.0001 + 0.00001 = 0.01011= 0.1011 x 2-1Therefore –11/32 = -0.1011 x 2-1Using twos complement –0.1011 is 1.0100 and –1 is 11111111and we have 4.4 - 5
  • 6. 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Mantissa ExponentThe fact that the first two digits are always different can be used to check for invalidanswers when doing calculations.3.4 (f) Accuracy and RangeThe smallest positive mantissa is 0.1000000 and the smallest exponent is 10000000.This represents 0.1000000 x 210000000 = 0.1000000 x 2-128which is very close to zero; in fact it is 2-129.The largest negative number (i.e. the negative number closest to zero) is 1.0111111 x 210000000 = -0.1000001 x 2-128Note that we cannot use 1.1111111 for the mantissa because it is not normalised. Thefirst two digits must be different.The smallest negative number (i.e. the negative number furthest from zero) is 1.0000000 x 201111111 = -1.0000000 x 2127 = -2127.NOTE: reducing the size of the mantissa reduces the accuracy, but we have a muchgreater range of values as the exponent can now take larger values.3.4 (g) Static and Dynamic Data StructuresStatic data structures are those structures that do not change in size while the programis running. A typical static data structure is an array because once you declare its size,it cannot be changed. (In fact, there are some languages that do allow the size ofarrays to be changed in which case they become dynamic data structures.)Dynamic data structures can increase and decrease in size while a program is running.A typical example is a linked list.The following table gives advantages and disadvantages of the two types of datastructure. 4.4 - 6
  • 7. Advantages DisadvantagesStatic structures Compiler can allocate Programmer has to space during compilation. estimate the maximum amount of space that is Easy to program. going to be needed. Easy to check for Can waste a lot of space. overflow. An array allows random access.Dynamic structures Only uses the space Difficult to program. needed at any time. Can be slow to implement Makes efficient use of searches. memory. A linked list only allows Storage no longer required serial access. can be returned to the system for other uses.3.4 (h) AlgorithmsLinked Lists - InsertionThe algorithm must check for an empty free list as there is then no way of adding newdata. It must also check to see if the new data is to be inserted at the front of the list.If neither of these are needed, the algorithm must search the list to find the positionfor the new data. The algorithm is given below. 1. Check that the free list is not empty. 2. If it is empty report an error and stop. 3. Set NEW to equal FREE. 4. Remove the node from the stack by setting FREE to pointer in cell pointed to by FREE. 5. Copy data into cell pointed to by NEW. 6. Check for an empty list by seeing if HEAD is NULL 7. If HEAD is NULL then a. Pointer in cell pointed to by NEW is set to NULL b. Set HEAD to NEW and stop. 8. If data is less than data in first cell THEN a. Set pointer in cell pointed to by NEW to HEAD. b. Set HEAD to NEW and stop 9. Search list sequentially until the cell found is the one immediately before the new cell that is to be inserted. Call this cell PREVIOUS. 10. Copy the pointer in PREVIOUS into TEMP. 11. Make the pointer in PREVIOUS equal to NEW 12. Make the pointer in the cell pointed to by NEW equal to TEMP and stop. 4.4 - 7
  • 8. Linked Lists - DeletionIn this case, the algorithm must make sure that there is something in the list to delete. 1. Check that the list is not empty. 2. If the list is empty report an error and stop. 3. Search list to find the cell immediately before the cell to be deleted and call it PREVIOUS. 4. If the cell is not in the list, report an error and stop. 5. Set TEMP to pointer in PREVIOUS. 6. Set pointer in PREVIOUS equal to pointer in cell to be deleted. 7. Set pointer in cell to be deleted equal to FREE. 8. Set FREE equal to TEMP and stop.Linked Lists - AmendmentAmendments can be done by searching the list to find the cell to be amended.The algorithm is 1. Check that the list is not empty. 2. If the list is empty report an error and stop. 3. Search the list to find the cell to be amended. 4. Amend the data but do not change the key. 5. Stop.Linked Lists - SearchingAssuming that the data in a linked list is in ascending order of some key value, thefollowing algorithm explains how to find where to insert a cell containing new dataand keep the list in ascending order. It assumes that the list is not empty and the datais not to be inserted at the head of the list.Set POINTER equal to HEADREPEATSet NEXT equal to pointer in cell pointed to by POINTERIf new data is less than data in cell pointed to by POINTER then set POINTER equalto NEXTUNTILNote: A number of methods have been shown here to describe algorithms associatedwith linked lists. Any method is acceptable provided it explains the method. Analgorithm does not have to be in pseudo code, indeed, the sensible way of explainingthese types of algorithm is often by diagram. 4.4 - 8
  • 9. Stacks – InsertionThe algorithm for insertion is 1. Check to see if stack is full. 2. If the stack is full report an error and stop. 3. Increment the stack pointer. 4. Insert new data item into cell pointed to by the stack pointer and stop.Stacks – DeletionWhen an item is deleted from a stack, the items value is copied and the stack pointeris moved down one cell. The data itself is not deleted. This time, we must check thatthe stack is not empty before trying to delete an item.The algorithm for deletion is 1. Check to see if the stack is empty. 2. If the stack is empty report an error and stop. 3. Copy data item in cell pointed to by the stack pointer. 4. Decrement the stack pointer and stop.These are the only two operations you can perform on a stack.Queues - InsertionThe algorithm for insertion is 1. Check to see if queue is full. 2. If the queue is full report an error and stop. 3. Insert new data item into cell pointed to by the head pointer. 4. Increment the head pointer and stop.Queues - DeletionBefore trying to delete an item, we must check to see that the queue is not empty.Using the representation above, this will occur when the head and tail pointers pointto the same cell.The algorithm for deletion is 1. Check to see if the queue is empty. 2. If the queue is empty report error and stop. 3. Copy data item in cell pointed to by the tail pointer. 4. Increment tail pointer and stop. 4.4 - 9
  • 10. These are the only two operations that can be performed on a queue.3.4 (i) Algorithms for TreesTrees - InsertionTo add a new value, we look at each node starting at the root. If the new value is lessthan the value at the node move left, otherwise move right. Repeat this for each nodearrived at until there is no node. Insert a new node at this point and enter the data.Now lets try putting "Jack Spratt could eat no fat" into a tree. Jack must be the rootof the tree. Spratt comes after Jack so go right and enter Spratt. could comes beforeJack, so go left and enter could. eat is before Jack so go left, its after could so goright. This is continued to produce the tree in Fig. 3.4.i.1. Jack could Spratt eat no fat Fig. 3.4.i.1The algorithm for this is 1. If tree is empty enter data item at root and stop. 2. Current node = root. 3. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until current node is null. 4. If new data item is less than value at current node go left else go right. 5. Current node = node reached (null if no node). 6. Create new node and enter data. 4.4 - 10
  • 11. Using this algorithm and adding the word and we follow these steps. 1. The tree is not empty so go to the next step. 2. Current node contains Jack. 3. Node is not null. 4. and is less than Jack so go left. 5. Current node contains could. 3. Node is not null. 4. and is less than could so go left. 5. Current node is null. 3. Current node is null so exit loop. 6. Create new node and insert and and stop.We now have the tree shown in Fig. 3.4.i.2. Jack could Spratt and eat no fat Fig. 3.4.i.2If the values are read from the left to the right, using the algorithmFollow left subtreeRead nodeFollow right subtreeReturnThe values can be read in order. There are many different ways of reading the valuesfrom a tree, but the simplest is the one illustrated by the dashed line in the diagramabove. It is also the only way that you will be asked to read a tree in an examination.The diagram with the dashed line would be read asCould, Eat, Fat, Jack, No, SprattNote that the words are now in alphabetic order. 4.4 - 11
  • 12. 3.4 (j) Searching MethodsSerial SearchLet the data consist of n values held in an array called DataArray which has subscriptsnumbered from 1 upwards. Let X be the value we are trying to find. We must checkthat the array is not empty before starting the search.The algorithm to find the position of X is 1. If n < 1 then report error, array is empty. 2. For i = 1 to n do a. If DataArray[i] = X then return i and stop. 3. Report error, X is not in the array and stop.Note that the for loop only acts on the indented line. If there is more than oneoperation to perform inside a loop, make sure that all the lines are indented.Binary SearchAssume that the data is held in an array as described above but that the data is inascending order in the array. We must split the lists in two. If there is an evennumber of values, dividing by two will give a whole number and this will tell uswhere to split the list. However, if the list consists of an odd number of values wewill need to find the integer part of it, as an array subscript must be an integer.We must also make sure that, when we split a list in two, we use the correct one forthe next search. Suppose we have a list of eight values. Splitting this gives a list ofthe four values in cells 1 to 4 and four values in cells 5 to 8. When we started weneeded to consider the list in cells 1 to 8. That is the first cell was 1 and the last cellwas 8. Now, if we move into the first list (cells 1 to 4), the first cell stays at 1 but thelast cell becomes 4. Similarly, if we use the second list (cells 5 to 8), the first cellbecomes 5 and the last is still 8. This means that if we use the first list, the first cell inthe new list is unchanged but the last is changed. However, if we use the second list,the first cell is changed but the last is not changed. This gives us the clue of how todo the sort.3.4 (k) Sorting and MergingSorting is placing values in an order such as numeric order or alphabetic order. Theorder may be ascending or descending. For example the values 3 5 6 8 12 16 25are in ascending numeric order and Will Rose Mattu Juni Hazel Dopu Anneare in descending alphabetic order. 4.4 - 12
  • 13. Merging is taking two lists which have been sorted into the same order and puttingthem together to form a single sorted list. For example, if the lists are Bharri Emi Kris Mattu Parrash Roger Willand Annis Chu Liz Medis Stewhen merged they become Annis Bharri Chu Emi Kris Liz Mattu Medis Parrash Roger Ste WillThere are many methods that can be used to sort lists. You only need to understandtwo of them. These are the insertion sort and the merge sort. This Section describesthe two sorts and a merge in general terms; the next Section gives the algorithms.Insertion SortIn this method we compare each number in turn with the numbers before it in the list.We then insert the number into its correct position.Consider the list 20 47 12 53 32 84 85 96 45 18We start with the second number, 47, and compare it with the numbers preceding it.There is only one and it is less than 47, so no change in the order is made. We nowcompare the third number, 12, with its predecessors. 12 is less than 20 so 12 isinserted before 20 in the list to give the list 12 20 47 53 32 84 85 96 45 18This is continued until the last number is inserted in its correct position. In Fig.3.4.k.1 the blue numbers are the ones before the one we are trying to insert in thecorrect position. The red number is the one we are trying to insert.20 47 12 53 32 84 85 96 45 18 Original list, start with second number.20 47 12 53 32 84 85 96 45 18 No change needed. 53 32 84 85 96 45 18 Now compare 12 with its predecessors.12 20 47 53 32 84 85 96 45 18 Insert 12 before 20.12 20 47 53 32 84 85 96 45 18 Move to next value.12 20 47 53 32 84 85 96 45 18 53 is in the correct place.12 20 47 53 32 84 85 96 45 18 Move to the next value.12 20 32 47 53 84 85 96 45 18 Insert it between 20 and 4712 20 32 47 53 84 85 96 45 18 Move to the next value. 4.4 - 13
  • 14. 12 20 32 47 53 84 85 96 45 18 84 is in the correct place.12 20 32 47 53 84 85 96 45 18 Move to the next value.12 20 32 47 53 84 85 96 45 18 85 is in the correct place.12 20 32 47 53 84 85 96 45 18 Move to the next value.12 20 32 47 53 84 85 96 45 18 96 is in the correct place.12 20 32 47 53 84 85 96 45 18 Move to the next value.12 20 32 45 47 53 84 85 96 18 Insert 45 between 32 and 47.12 20 32 45 47 53 84 85 96 18 Move to the next value.12 18 20 32 45 47 53 84 85 96 Insert 18 between 12 and 20. Fig. 3.4.k.1MergingConsider the two sorted lists 2 4 7 10 15 and 3 5 12 14 18 26In order to merge these two lists, we first compare the first values in each list, that is 2and 3. 2 is less than 3 so we put it in the new list. New = 2Since 2 came from the first list we now use the next value in the first list and compareit with the number from the second list (as we have not yet used it). 3 is less than 4 so3 is placed in the new list. New = 2 3As 3 came from the second list we use the next number in the second list and compareit with 4. This is continued until one of the lists is exhausted. We then copy the restof the other list into the new list. The full merge is shown in Fig. 3.4.k.2.First List Second List New List2 4 7 10 15 3 5 12 14 18 26 22 4 7 10 15 3 5 12 14 18 26 2 32 4 7 10 15 3 5 12 14 18 26 2 3 42 4 7 10 15 3 5 12 14 18 26 2 3 4 52 4 7 10 15 3 5 12 14 18 26 2 3 4 5 72 4 7 10 15 3 5 12 14 18 26 2 3 4 5 7 102 4 7 10 15 3 5 12 14 18 26 2 3 4 5 7 10 122 4 7 10 15 3 5 12 14 18 26 2 3 4 5 7 10 12 142 4 7 10 15 3 5 12 14 18 26 2 3 4 5 7 10 12 14 152 4 7 10 15 3 5 12 14 18 26 2 3 4 5 7 10 12 14 15 182 4 7 10 15 3 5 12 14 18 26 2 3 4 5 7 10 12 14 15 18 26 Fig. 3.4.k.2 4.4 - 14
  • 15. 4.4 - 15