Critical thinking tools cdrom2

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Ideas for scaffolding critical thinking, was developed for PE context.

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Critical thinking tools cdrom2

  1. 1. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Critical thinking tools forCritical thinking tools for essay writing andessay writing and assignments.assignments.
  2. 2. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ThinkingThinking ►ThinkingThinking is about using creative, critical,is about using creative, critical, metacognitive, and reflective processes tometacognitive, and reflective processes to make sense of and question information,make sense of and question information, experiences, and ideas. These processesexperiences, and ideas. These processes can be applied to research, organisation,can be applied to research, organisation, and evaluation for all kinds of purposes –and evaluation for all kinds of purposes – developing understanding, makingdeveloping understanding, making decisions, shaping actions, or constructingdecisions, shaping actions, or constructing knowledge. Intellectual curiosity is at theknowledge. Intellectual curiosity is at the heart of this competency.heart of this competency.
  3. 3. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Thinking cont…Thinking cont… ►Students who have well-developed thinkingStudents who have well-developed thinking skills are active seekers, users, andskills are active seekers, users, and creators of knowledge. They reflect on theircreators of knowledge. They reflect on their own learning, draw on personal knowledgeown learning, draw on personal knowledge and intuitions, ask questions, and challengeand intuitions, ask questions, and challenge the basis of assumptions and perceptions.the basis of assumptions and perceptions.
  4. 4. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ThinkingThinking ► The major focus of this unit will be critical thinking.The major focus of this unit will be critical thinking. ► How to write essays.How to write essays. ► How to use gathered information.How to use gathered information. ► How to read and understand questions.How to read and understand questions. ► How to quote.How to quote. ► You will draw on knowledge from specific topics ofYou will draw on knowledge from specific topics of Physical Education.Physical Education.
  5. 5. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Edward de BonoEdward de Bono ►We will be using a format for essay writingWe will be using a format for essay writing that is based on Edward de Bonothat is based on Edward de Bono’’s Sixs Six Thinking hats.Thinking hats. ►We will also look at other ways to thinkWe will also look at other ways to think critically from a variety of resources.critically from a variety of resources.
  6. 6. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Ideas for ThinkingIdeas for Thinking
  7. 7. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Six Thinking Hats.Six Thinking Hats. ►Edward de Bono statedEdward de Bono stated ““The main difficultyThe main difficulty with thinking is confusion. We try to do toowith thinking is confusion. We try to do too much at once. Emotions, information, logic,much at once. Emotions, information, logic, hope and creativity all crowd in on us.hope and creativity all crowd in on us.”” http://www.edwdebono.com/http://www.edwdebono.com/ ►We are going to use his thinking hats toWe are going to use his thinking hats to structure our thinking and help us to thinkstructure our thinking and help us to think critically.critically.
  8. 8. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ThoughtThought ►There are many people who believe that ifThere are many people who believe that if you get enough information then theyou get enough information then the information will do your thinking for you.information will do your thinking for you. ►© Edward de Bono, 1994. "Parallel© Edward de Bono, 1994. "Parallel Thinking"Thinking" Published by Penguin Viking Books 1994.Published by Penguin Viking Books 1994.
  9. 9. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Teaching of ThinkingTeaching of Thinking –what–what De Bono has to say…De Bono has to say… ► ““I was recently speaking at a conference in the UKI was recently speaking at a conference in the UK organised by the Atkey organisation and focusing on theorganised by the Atkey organisation and focusing on the teaching of thinking - in particular my Six Hats method. Itteaching of thinking - in particular my Six Hats method. It was most interesting to see what was happening at allwas most interesting to see what was happening at all different levels of schools: primary, secondary, specialdifferent levels of schools: primary, secondary, special needs etc.needs etc. ► If you ask someone to think about something, whatIf you ask someone to think about something, what happens? The person gives an immediate emotionalhappens? The person gives an immediate emotional response and then uses argument to support that point ofresponse and then uses argument to support that point of view. Or, there is association around the idea. Theview. Or, there is association around the idea. The astonishing thing is that we have no natural framework forastonishing thing is that we have no natural framework for thinking about something. Our minds just wander and stopthinking about something. Our minds just wander and stop at interesting points.at interesting points.”” http://www.edwdebono.com/http://www.edwdebono.com/
  10. 10. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Teaching of ThinkingTeaching of Thinking ►The Six Hats Method was originallyThe Six Hats Method was originally designed as a way of assessing ideas sodesigned as a way of assessing ideas so that we do not simply use our criticalthat we do not simply use our critical thinking mode. In practice, the framework isthinking mode. In practice, the framework is now used very much more widely: fornow used very much more widely: for exploring a subject; for creative andexploring a subject; for creative and constructive thinking; for discussions etc.constructive thinking; for discussions etc. ► http://www.edwdebono.com/http://www.edwdebono.com/
  11. 11. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited White hat-overviewWhite hat-overview ►White hat is neutral and objective. The whiteWhite hat is neutral and objective. The white hat is concerned with objective facts andhat is concerned with objective facts and figures.figures. ►We will use this after the introduction of theWe will use this after the introduction of the essay. (Which will be written at the end ofessay. (Which will be written at the end of your essay/assignment).your essay/assignment).
  12. 12. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
  13. 13. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Introduction-Why at the end?Introduction-Why at the end? ►It is easy to write an introduction of whatIt is easy to write an introduction of what you are going to cover and then head off onyou are going to cover and then head off on a tangent. Therefore you will write thea tangent. Therefore you will write the introduction at the end when you knowintroduction at the end when you know exactly what you have covered and in whatexactly what you have covered and in what order.order.
  14. 14. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Yellow Hat-overviewYellow Hat-overview ►The yellow hat is sunny and positive. TheThe yellow hat is sunny and positive. The yellow hat is optimistic and covers hope andyellow hat is optimistic and covers hope and positive thinking.positive thinking. ►Using the yellow hat you will agree with theUsing the yellow hat you will agree with the idea that has been put forward by theidea that has been put forward by the question. You will back this up withquestion. You will back this up with evidence and quotes.evidence and quotes.
  15. 15. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
  16. 16. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Black hat-overviewBlack hat-overview ► Black hat is sombre and serious. The black hat isBlack hat is sombre and serious. The black hat is cautious and careful. It points out weakness of thecautious and careful. It points out weakness of the idea or issue.idea or issue. ► This hat is extremely important in critical thinking,This hat is extremely important in critical thinking, which is the basis of the excellence level ofwhich is the basis of the excellence level of achievement for some of the level 3 standards andachievement for some of the level 3 standards and the scholarship standard through criticalthe scholarship standard through critical evaluation and examination.evaluation and examination. ► This will contradict the question and yellow hatThis will contradict the question and yellow hat thinking.thinking.
  17. 17. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
  18. 18. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Green Hat-overviewGreen Hat-overview ►Green is grass, vegetation and abundant,Green is grass, vegetation and abundant, fertile growth. The hat indicates creativityfertile growth. The hat indicates creativity and new ideas.and new ideas. ►You will give some creative alternatives orYou will give some creative alternatives or ideas on action on the question/issue.ideas on action on the question/issue.
  19. 19. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
  20. 20. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Red Hat-overviewRed Hat-overview ►Red hat suggests anger (seeing red), rage,Red hat suggests anger (seeing red), rage, emotions. The red hat gives the emotionalemotions. The red hat gives the emotional view.view. ►You will state your own emotions on theYou will state your own emotions on the question issue just before the conclusion.question issue just before the conclusion.
  21. 21. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
  22. 22. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Blue Hat-overviewBlue Hat-overview ►Blue is cool, it is also the colour of the sky,Blue is cool, it is also the colour of the sky, which is above everything else. The bluewhich is above everything else. The blue hat is concerned with control, thehat is concerned with control, the organisation of the thinking process and theorganisation of the thinking process and the use of the other hats.use of the other hats. ►We will use this at the beginning and end ofWe will use this at the beginning and end of our essay for introduction and conclusion asour essay for introduction and conclusion as well as the over all structure of our thinking.well as the over all structure of our thinking.
  23. 23. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
  24. 24. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Taking each hat furtherTaking each hat further
  25. 25. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited White HatWhite Hat ► What information do we have?What information do we have? ► What information do we need?What information do we need? ► What information is missing?What information is missing? ► What questions do we need to ask?What questions do we need to ask? ► How are we going to get the information we need?How are we going to get the information we need? ► The information can range from hard facts and figures thatThe information can range from hard facts and figures that can be checked to soft information like opinions andcan be checked to soft information like opinions and feelings. If you express your own feeling, that is red hat,feelings. If you express your own feeling, that is red hat, but if you report on someone else expressing a feeling thatbut if you report on someone else expressing a feeling that is white hat.is white hat.
  26. 26. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited White HatWhite Hat Even though what you are using are facts there is aEven though what you are using are facts there is a spectrum of likelihood to cover truth of factsspectrum of likelihood to cover truth of facts ► Always trueAlways true ► Usually trueUsually true ► Generally trueGenerally true ► By and largeBy and large ► More often than notMore often than not ► About half of the timeAbout half of the time ► OftenOften ► Sometimes trueSometimes true ► Occasionally trueOccasionally true ► Been known to happenBeen known to happen ► Never trueNever true ► Cannot be trueCannot be true
  27. 27. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Yellow HatYellow Hat ► Think of sunshine. Think of optimismThink of sunshine. Think of optimism ► Under the yellow hat a thinker deliberately sets out to findUnder the yellow hat a thinker deliberately sets out to find whatever benefit there may be in a suggestion/issue.whatever benefit there may be in a suggestion/issue. ► Focus on the benefits.Focus on the benefits. ► Constructive thinking and making things happen.Constructive thinking and making things happen. ► Why do you think it will happen this way?Why do you think it will happen this way? ► Background reasons for the optimism.Background reasons for the optimism. ► Looking into the future.Looking into the future. ► The best possible solution.The best possible solution.
  28. 28. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Black HatBlack Hat ► The black hat is the hat of caution. The black hat isThe black hat is the hat of caution. The black hat is for being careful. The black hat is the basis of criticalfor being careful. The black hat is the basis of critical thinking.thinking. ► The black hat points out how something does not fitThe black hat points out how something does not fit our resources, our policy, our strategy, our ethics,our resources, our policy, our strategy, our ethics, our values, and so forth.our values, and so forth. ► How something does not fit into our experience.How something does not fit into our experience. ► Why something may not work.Why something may not work. ► Pointing out difficulties and problems.Pointing out difficulties and problems. ► Staying within the law and ethics.Staying within the law and ethics. ► Keeping to values and ethics.Keeping to values and ethics.
  29. 29. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Black HatBlack Hat ► Point out errors in thinking.Point out errors in thinking. ► Question the strength of the evidence.Question the strength of the evidence. ► Does the conclusion follow?Does the conclusion follow? ► Is it the only possible conclusion.Is it the only possible conclusion. ► Use remarks like..Use remarks like.. ► That remark you made is an assumption, not a fact.That remark you made is an assumption, not a fact. ► That is only one possible explanation. But it is by no meansThat is only one possible explanation. But it is by no means the only one.the only one. ► That is indeed a possibility. But you have not proved it is aThat is indeed a possibility. But you have not proved it is a certainty.certainty.
  30. 30. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Green HatGreen Hat ► The green hat is the energy hat. The green hat isThe green hat is the energy hat. The green hat is the creativity hat.the creativity hat. ► Under the green hat we put forward new ideas.Under the green hat we put forward new ideas. Under the green hat we lay out options andUnder the green hat we lay out options and alternatives.alternatives. ► Under the green hat you are permitted to putUnder the green hat you are permitted to put forwardforward ‘‘possibilitiespossibilities’’.. ► Without possibilities you cannot make progress.Without possibilities you cannot make progress. ► New ideas, new concepts and new perceptions.New ideas, new concepts and new perceptions. ► The deliberate creation of new ideas.The deliberate creation of new ideas. ► Change.Change.
  31. 31. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Green HatGreen Hat ► New approaches to problems.New approaches to problems. ► Using an idea as a stepping stone.Using an idea as a stepping stone. ► The forward effect of an idea.The forward effect of an idea. ► Eg here is a suggestion, hypothesis.Eg here is a suggestion, hypothesis. ► Use ideas as a provocation.Use ideas as a provocation. ► Make a thought provoking statement.Make a thought provoking statement. ► Occasionally we need to challenge the framework.Occasionally we need to challenge the framework.
  32. 32. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Red HatRed Hat ►It is important when thinking critically youIt is important when thinking critically you also state your own opinion.also state your own opinion. ►Think of fire think of warmth. Think ofThink of fire think of warmth. Think of feelings. Using the red hat gives you anfeelings. Using the red hat gives you an opportunity to express feelings, emotionsopportunity to express feelings, emotions and intuition without any need to explain orand intuition without any need to explain or to justify them.to justify them. ►You may say..You may say.. ►I feel..I feel.. ►My intuition tells me…My intuition tells me…
  33. 33. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Red HatRed Hat ► Red hat is the opposite of neutral, objectiveRed hat is the opposite of neutral, objective information.information. ► Hunches, intuitions, impressions.Hunches, intuitions, impressions. ► No need to justify.No need to justify. ► No need to give reasons or the basis.No need to give reasons or the basis. ► Eg ..a lot of the research shows that an obesityEg ..a lot of the research shows that an obesity epidemic is occurring in New Zealand, but myepidemic is occurring in New Zealand, but my intuition tells me that we are being conned intointuition tells me that we are being conned into believing this.believing this.
  34. 34. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Blue HatBlue Hat ► Think of the blue sky above. Think ofThink of the blue sky above. Think of ‘‘overviewoverview’’. The blue hat is for thinking about. The blue hat is for thinking about thinking.thinking. ► The blue hat is for the management ofThe blue hat is for the management of thinking, organisation and process control.thinking, organisation and process control. ► You will use this to structure your essay, asYou will use this to structure your essay, as well as for the introduction and thewell as for the introduction and the conclusion.conclusion. ► You will cover all areas of thinking egYou will cover all areas of thinking eg suggestion, judgment, criticism, informationsuggestion, judgment, criticism, information and plain emotion.and plain emotion.
  35. 35. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Blue HatBlue Hat ►You will ask the right question.You will ask the right question. ►Define the problem.Define the problem. ►Work out what the question is asking you.Work out what the question is asking you. ►Summarise and conclude eg I am going toSummarise and conclude eg I am going to go through the major points that I havego through the major points that I have discussed.discussed.
  36. 36. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Other factors and thinking thatOther factors and thinking that should be used in essay writing.should be used in essay writing. ►There are many different ways that youThere are many different ways that you should write dependant on how the questionshould write dependant on how the question or issue has been put to you. The thinkingor issue has been put to you. The thinking hats are a good way to structure yourhats are a good way to structure your thinking in essay writing, but there are alsothinking in essay writing, but there are also other types of thinking and challenges thatother types of thinking and challenges that need to take place in the body of the essay.need to take place in the body of the essay.
  37. 37. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Sweeping GeneralisationsSweeping Generalisations ► It is usually difficult to agree with sweepingIt is usually difficult to agree with sweeping generalisations. However, you shouldgeneralisations. However, you should acknowledge where they have been used oracknowledge where they have been used or where you may use them.where you may use them. ► Eg All teenagers are lazy and do not want to takeEg All teenagers are lazy and do not want to take part in physical activity. Could become…Apart in physical activity. Could become…A sweeping generalisation is often used to callsweeping generalisation is often used to call teenagers lazy, however, for some activity levelsteenagers lazy, however, for some activity levels do decrease and this is influenced by a number ofdo decrease and this is influenced by a number of possible factors eg taking up employment, higherpossible factors eg taking up employment, higher academic pressures etc…academic pressures etc…
  38. 38. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited How to agree with ideas/issuesHow to agree with ideas/issues (yellow hat)(yellow hat) ► Genuinely find points of agreement in what theGenuinely find points of agreement in what the other person is saying.other person is saying. ► See if there are any circumstances in which theSee if there are any circumstances in which the other personother person’’s views might be right. Spell out suchs views might be right. Spell out such circumstances and show your agreement undercircumstances and show your agreement under those circumstances.those circumstances. ► Acknowledge the value of someoneAcknowledge the value of someone’’s specials special experience and treat this as a strong possibility butexperience and treat this as a strong possibility but not necessarily complete.not necessarily complete. ► Reject a sweeping generalisation but see whetherReject a sweeping generalisation but see whether you agree with any of the implications or anyyou agree with any of the implications or any aspect of the generalisation.aspect of the generalisation.
  39. 39. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited How to disagree. (Black hat)How to disagree. (Black hat) ► Politeness. There are ways to go aboutPoliteness. There are ways to go about challenging a statement or issue wording ischallenging a statement or issue wording is important.important. ► Eg there might be another way of looking at it.Eg there might be another way of looking at it. ► How about this possibility.How about this possibility. ► I can think of an alternative explanation.I can think of an alternative explanation. ► That is only one of many alternativesThat is only one of many alternatives ► That fits your experience. However,..That fits your experience. However,.. ► That fits your values, However,..That fits your values, However,.. ► That is based on emotions and prejudice.That is based on emotions and prejudice.
  40. 40. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Extrapolation.Extrapolation. ►Like a sweeping generalisation,Like a sweeping generalisation, extrapolations need to be treated withextrapolations need to be treated with caution.caution. ►Extrapolation means taking a trendExtrapolation means taking a trend forward and assuming the trend willforward and assuming the trend will continue.continue. ►Eg ..by the year 2020 our wholeEg ..by the year 2020 our whole population will be obese if the obesitypopulation will be obese if the obesity trend continues.trend continues. ►Point out the dangers and assumptions inPoint out the dangers and assumptions in this statement.this statement.
  41. 41. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited How to disagree continued.How to disagree continued. ► You may need to point out the errors of logic or to showYou may need to point out the errors of logic or to show that a conclusion does not necessarily follow from whatthat a conclusion does not necessarily follow from what went before.went before. ► Where emotions, prejudices and stereotypes appear toWhere emotions, prejudices and stereotypes appear to be used, you may want to indicate this.be used, you may want to indicate this. ► Almost always you will want to challenge sweepingAlmost always you will want to challenge sweeping generalisations.generalisations. ► You will want to challenge conclusions based on extremeYou will want to challenge conclusions based on extreme extrapolations into the future.extrapolations into the future. ► It is very important to challengeIt is very important to challenge ‘‘certaintycertainty’’ and to suggestand to suggest ‘‘possibilitypossibility’’ instead.instead.
  42. 42. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited How to differ.How to differ. ► I believe that you are looking at it from this point ofI believe that you are looking at it from this point of viewview……and I am looking at it from this point of viewand I am looking at it from this point of view…… ► We are using different sets of values. My values areWe are using different sets of values. My values are as followsas follows…… Your values seem to beYour values seem to be …….. ► The difference may arise from differing personalThe difference may arise from differing personal experience. My experience has beenexperience. My experience has been…… YourYour experience may have been differentexperience may have been different…….. ► Eg Even though research has shown there isEg Even though research has shown there is increasing inactivity in 14-17 yr olds in New Zealandincreasing inactivity in 14-17 yr olds in New Zealand as shown in theas shown in the………….at my school 87% of students.at my school 87% of students are actively involved in sports teams. However, ourare actively involved in sports teams. However, our school is a independent school in a higherschool is a independent school in a higher socioeconomicsocioeconomic…………
  43. 43. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited How to be interesting (GreenHow to be interesting (Green Hat)Hat) ► Using theUsing the ‘‘what if?what if?’’ technique can open up new possibilitiestechnique can open up new possibilities and new lines of thought.and new lines of thought. ► Finding and making connections links matters together andFinding and making connections links matters together and generates interest.generates interest. ► Provocation is a useful way to force new ideas. You putProvocation is a useful way to force new ideas. You put forward a statement you know is wrong or impossible inforward a statement you know is wrong or impossible in order to provoke new thinking.order to provoke new thinking. ► Eg Obesity is not on the rise in New Zealand. Do you knowEg Obesity is not on the rise in New Zealand. Do you know anyone that got measured and weighed for the research. Itanyone that got measured and weighed for the research. It is a conspiracy by the government to save money. Theis a conspiracy by the government to save money. The research shows the motivation $135 million a year onresearch shows the motivation $135 million a year on health problems. Lets blame obesity!! That will get them allhealth problems. Lets blame obesity!! That will get them all active.active.
  44. 44. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited How to support with facts andHow to support with facts and figures. (white hat)figures. (white hat)► You may support a proposition from your ownYou may support a proposition from your own experience:experience: ‘‘I agree with you. My experience inI agree with you. My experience in schools has been exactly the same. For example…schools has been exactly the same. For example… ► You may offer support from facts, figures and statisticsYou may offer support from facts, figures and statistics which you happen to know.which you happen to know. ‘‘There are statistics whichThere are statistics which support what you have just said…support what you have just said… ► You may have stories, examples, anecdotes all ofYou may have stories, examples, anecdotes all of which support the proposition that has been putwhich support the proposition that has been put forward.forward. ► Eg for a question on media influence on New ZealandEg for a question on media influence on New Zealand youth. Picture this…youth. Picture this… ‘‘Mary gets home from schoolMary gets home from school after a long day. She gets to the cupboard and grabs aafter a long day. She gets to the cupboard and grabs a bag of twisties and a fanta from the fridge. She sitsbag of twisties and a fanta from the fridge. She sits down and has her afternoon tea in front of thedown and has her afternoon tea in front of the television. A weight watchers advert is on followed bytelevision. A weight watchers advert is on followed by an advert for Americaan advert for America’’s next top model. Off she goess next top model. Off she goes for her usual trip to the toilet to be sick. Mary has anfor her usual trip to the toilet to be sick. Mary has an illness…..illness…..
  45. 45. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Source and validitySource and validity ► Challenge validity of figures, stories, reports.Challenge validity of figures, stories, reports. ► Eg The quote states that 58% of the New ZealandEg The quote states that 58% of the New Zealand is obese, before agreeing with this research Iis obese, before agreeing with this research I would need to know other information. Eg howwould need to know other information. Eg how was the target population decided, what was thewas the target population decided, what was the target population, how large was the targettarget population, how large was the target population to be making this assumption about thepopulation to be making this assumption about the whole of New Zealand.whole of New Zealand.
  46. 46. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Perceptions. (red hat)Perceptions. (red hat) ►Remember perceptions vary for any numberRemember perceptions vary for any number of reasons: background; culture; values; orof reasons: background; culture; values; or personal experience. Therefore when youpersonal experience. Therefore when you give you emotions or red hat thinking yougive you emotions or red hat thinking you should acknowledge your culture,should acknowledge your culture, background, values etc.. to show why therebackground, values etc.. to show why there may be difference in opinion.may be difference in opinion.
  47. 47. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Values.Values. ►There are values of people who you shouldThere are values of people who you should acknowledge in socio-cultural essays. Egacknowledge in socio-cultural essays. Eg immigrants, feminists, children, teenagers,immigrants, feminists, children, teenagers, old people, different cultures, religions…..old people, different cultures, religions….. However, in doing so you are again makingHowever, in doing so you are again making assumptions about these groups soassumptions about these groups so acknowledge you are making a sweepingacknowledge you are making a sweeping generalisation.generalisation.
  48. 48. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Points of view.Points of view. ► As well as values there are different points ofAs well as values there are different points of view..view.. ► This is my personal opinion…This is my personal opinion… ► Looking at this from a national point view, this isLooking at this from a national point view, this is my opinion…my opinion… ► From the point of view of humanity and humanFrom the point of view of humanity and human values, this would be my opinion…values, this would be my opinion… ► From the governmentsFrom the governments’’ point of view, this wouldpoint of view, this would be my opinion…..be my opinion…..
  49. 49. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Humour.Humour. ► You can use humour in essays.You can use humour in essays. ► Humour lightens things up and adds some fun.Humour lightens things up and adds some fun. ► Humour is half serious and allows things to beHumour is half serious and allows things to be said that might or might not be taken seriously. Insaid that might or might not be taken seriously. In this respect humour has the same value as athis respect humour has the same value as a provocation in lateral (creative) thinking.provocation in lateral (creative) thinking. ► EgEg ‘‘...since the push play adverts have been on...since the push play adverts have been on television, I have seen lots of people out walkingtelevision, I have seen lots of people out walking their pigs…their pigs…’’
  50. 50. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Knowledge and contentKnowledge and content ► Where do you get your knowledge input?Where do you get your knowledge input? ► Where do you feed your mind?Where do you feed your mind? ► Newspapers, books, texts, lectures, class content, otherNewspapers, books, texts, lectures, class content, other people, your research,, the internet, magazines etc..people, your research,, the internet, magazines etc.. ► General broad information about a subject is not what isGeneral broad information about a subject is not what is required you need to show depth of knowledge usingrequired you need to show depth of knowledge using quotes etc.. So readings and quote gathering is essentialquotes etc.. So readings and quote gathering is essential (especially for achieving excellence and scholarship level).(especially for achieving excellence and scholarship level). Do not just place a number of quotes together you need toDo not just place a number of quotes together you need to show your understanding by explaining and discussing whyshow your understanding by explaining and discussing why and how you are using the quotes.and how you are using the quotes.
  51. 51. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Showing understandingShowing understanding ► "Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance"Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance you must keep moving."you must keep moving." Albert Einstein.Albert Einstein. I would choose to take this quoteI would choose to take this quote literally as movement (play) being important to aliterally as movement (play) being important to a balanced life. I also see the quotebalanced life. I also see the quote ““Work hard andWork hard and play hard but donplay hard but don’’t confuse the twot confuse the two”” AuthorAuthor unknownunknown as reiterating this. However, I believeas reiterating this. However, I believe having a balanced life is related to having ahaving a balanced life is related to having a balance across all dimensions of hauora. Thesebalance across all dimensions of hauora. These two quotes tend to focus on the physicaltwo quotes tend to focus on the physical dimension.dimension.
  52. 52. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited As well as using the hatsAs well as using the hats ►You can also use guidelines given in theYou can also use guidelines given in the question. Eg in scholarship where questionsquestion. Eg in scholarship where questions have been expanded to give you guidancehave been expanded to give you guidance you should take the lead and includeyou should take the lead and include knowledge that has been targeted throughknowledge that has been targeted through the question.the question.
  53. 53. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Time managementTime management ►If you are using this process for scholarshipIf you are using this process for scholarship you must also take into consideration theyou must also take into consideration the time available for each question. As youtime available for each question. As you only have 1hr per question includingonly have 1hr per question including planning and concluding your timeplanning and concluding your time management is very important.management is very important.
  54. 54. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited A guidelineA guideline ►10 mins reading and planning10 mins reading and planning ►40 mins writing40 mins writing ►10mins proofing and intro/conclusion.10mins proofing and intro/conclusion. This is a guideline that can be used for theThis is a guideline that can be used for the time management of each question.time management of each question.
  55. 55. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited By following the hats and the otherBy following the hats and the other thinking process you are being athinking process you are being a critical thinker.critical thinker.
  56. 56. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited That way you are working towardsThat way you are working towards higher levels of Bloomhigher levels of Bloom’’ss taxonomy/revised taxonomytaxonomy/revised taxonomy
  57. 57. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ThinkingThinking ►In general you will use all of these ideas inIn general you will use all of these ideas in your essays and assignments. Whetheryour essays and assignments. Whether they are scientific/bio-physical or socio-they are scientific/bio-physical or socio- cultural based questions/standards tocultural based questions/standards to complete a critical discussion you are goingcomplete a critical discussion you are going to have to show a variety of possibilities,to have to show a variety of possibilities, points of view etc.. To do this you will needpoints of view etc.. To do this you will need to be well read.to be well read.
  58. 58. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Other essay writing formatsOther essay writing formats ►There are many formats for essay writing.There are many formats for essay writing. Here are three other format ideas that mayHere are three other format ideas that may help you with this writing process.help you with this writing process. ►These are useful when essays have beenThese are useful when essays have been set for assignment work rather than inset for assignment work rather than in examination conditions.examination conditions.
  59. 59. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Links to three other formatsLinks to three other formats essay1.docessay1.doc Study Skills.docStudy Skills.doc basicessay.pdfbasicessay.pdf Sited on…Sited on… http://www.tki.org.nz/r/socialscience/curriculum/SSOL/resources/strategies/a-z_e.php
  60. 60. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited BibliographyBibliography ► Website:Website: ► http://www.edwdebono.com/http://www.edwdebono.com/ ► http://www.tki.org.nz/r/socialscience/curriculum/SShttp://www.tki.org.nz/r/socialscience/curriculum/SS OL/resources/strategies/a-z_e.phpOL/resources/strategies/a-z_e.php ► http://www.in2edu.com/downloads/thinking/index.hhttp://www.in2edu.com/downloads/thinking/index.h tmtm ► Books:Books: ► De Bono, E. Revised version(2000)De Bono, E. Revised version(2000) The sixThe six thinking hats.thinking hats. United Kingdom.United Kingdom. ► De Bono, E. (2004)De Bono, E. (2004)How to have a beautiful mind.How to have a beautiful mind. United Kingdom.United Kingdom.

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