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A Leader's Guide to KM - Girard - ICKE South Africa


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Our pre-conference workshop (A Leader’s Guide to Knowledge Management) at ICKE 2011, East London, South Africa

Our pre-conference workshop (A Leader’s Guide to Knowledge Management) at ICKE 2011, East London, South Africa

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  • 1. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     1   About  Us   A  Leader’s  Guide  to   2   Knowledge  Management   1   John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Two  Baby  Boomers   Gen  Y   Gen  Z   Gen  Z   Gen  Y     JoAnn  L.  Girard   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   About  Sagology   Our  PerspecMve   3   4   Sagology  is  dedicated  to  connecMng  people  with  people  to   facilitate  collaboraMon,  learning,  and  knowledge  sharing  through   keynotes,  workshops,  and  consulMng.       sagology  [sāj-­‐ol-­‐uh-­‐jee]       -­‐noun           1.  the  study  of  organizaMonal  wisdom  in  all  its  forms,   About  You    esp.  with  reference  to  technology,  leadership,     culture,  process,  and  measurement     2.  the  study  of  one  venerated  for  experience,     1.  Name   judgment,  and  wisdom.   2.  OrganizaMon       Origin:     3.  PosiMon     4.  ExpectaMons   2008;    Canadian  English,  from  Middle  English  sage  +  -­‐ology.           A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Agenda   DVD     5   6   Part  1:  Drawing  on  the  Past   Keys  to  Success   1.  Where  is  the  Knowledge?     1.  ParMcipaMon   2.  Organize  What?   2.  Courtesy   3.  What  Types  of  Knowledge  Exist?   3.  ConfidenMality   Part  2:  Leading  Today’s  Knowledge  Workers   4.  Time  L   4.  Simples  Ideas  that  Work  in  Complex  Environments   5.  Do  you  Really  Want  to  Know  What  you  Know?   6.  Tools,  TacMcs,  and  Techniques:  Tried  and  Tested   Part  3:  Enhancing  Future  Performance   7.  Guiding  OrganizaMons  Into  the  Future   8.  The  Future  is  Just  a  Day  Away   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 2. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     2   7   Drawing  on  the  Past   8   1.  Where  is  the  Knowledge?   2.  Organize  What?   3.  What  Types  of  Knowledge   Exist?   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   InformaMon  Overload   9   10   245+ academic papers on Information Overload 1972-2000 (Bawden, 2001) Information Overload Personal Information Overload Where  is  the  wisdom  we  have  lost  in  knowledge?     Information overload occurs A perception on the part of the individual Where  is  the  knowledge  we  have  lost  in  informaMon?     when the amount of input to a (or observers of that person) that the flow       system exceeds its of information associated with work tasks is      —T.  S.  Eliot,  The  Rock  (1935)     processing capacity. greater than can be managed effectively. (Speier et al, 1999, p. 338) (Wilson, 2001, p. 113) Information Overload Organizational Information Overload Information overload is that A situation in which the extent of state in which available, and perceived information overload is potentially useful, information sufficiently widespread within an is a hindrance rather than a organization as to reduce the overall help. effectiveness of management operations. (Bawden, 2001, p. 6) (Wilson, 2001, p. 113) A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   The  Cost?   The  Problem  –  Enterprise  DemenMa   11   12   2/3 of managers complained of 43% of the managers delayed Information overload (KPMG, 2000) decisions because of too much information. (Wilson, 2001) Managers “dwell on information that is entertaining but not informative, or 38% of the surveyed managers easily available but not of high waste a substantial amount of time quality” (Linden, 2001, p.2) locating information (Wilson, 2001) The number of books published annually has increased exponentially since the 16th century. At present, the prediction is that the number of books doubles every 33 years (Hanka & Fuka, 2000). The total accumulated codified database of the world, which includes all books and all electronic files, doubles every seven years and some predict this will double twice a day by 2010 (Bontis, 2000). A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 3. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     3   What  is  the  problem?   The  Components  of  the  Problem   13   14   Content  to  Intent  –  assumes     100 Information Explosion Moore’s Law we  can  access  content   Accumlated Codified Database 75 50 25 0 =   +   1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year Enterprise   OrganizaMonal   InformaMon   DemenMa   Memory  Loss   Anxiety   100 Downsizing 10% Baby Boomers Retirements % of Total Executive Popultaion Executive Population (%) 75 8% 50 5% Content  to  Intent  –  assumes     25 3% Other Departures we  know  what  we  knew   0 0% 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 Year Year A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   The  Total  Problem   The  Future   15   16   Enterprise Dementia = Information Anxiety + Organizational Memory Loss 100 100 “In  an  economy  where  the   Accumulated Codified Database Executive Population (%) 75 75 only  certainty  is  uncertainty,   50 50 the  only  sure  source  of  lasMng   Ikujiro Nonaka compeMMve  advantage  is   knowledge.”     25 25 0 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Discussion   17   Drawing  on  the  Past   —  Is  overload  an  issue  in  your  organizaMon?   —  Do  you  have  examples  of  organizaMonal  memory  loss?   18   —  What  are  the  knowledge  challenges  in  your   organizaMon?   1.  Where  is  the  Knowledge?   2.  Organize  What?   3.  What  Types  of  Knowledge   Exist?   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 4. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     4   FoundaMon  or  Too  Busy   Knowledge  Sharing  –  Nothing  New?   19   20   Knowledge Management is the creation, transfer, and exchange of organizational knowledge to achieve a [competitive] advantage. A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   What  Advantage?   History  of  KM:  Academic  PerspecMve   21   22   c. 350 BC 17th Century 1950s 1990s Aristotle Sir Francis Bacon Michael Polanyi Ikujiro Nonaka Carla O’Dell Classification of Knowledge Aristotle A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   What  is  knowledge?   The  CogniSve  Hierarchy   23   24   Data Wisdom Ackoff’s Apex Information Understanding Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge knowledge is "defined broadly Knowledge: Wisdom: Information to include information, data, Concepts, experience, and The collective and individual communication and culture" insight that provide a framework Data experiences of applying (p. 293) for creating, evaluating and knowledge to the solution of using information (p. 373). problems (p. 373). A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 5. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     5   The  difference  .  .  .  Data  to  Knowledge   Data   25   26   Davenport  &  Prusak  (1998)  define  data  “as  a   set  of  discrete,  objec<ve  facts  about  events”   and  they  suggest,  “in  an  organiza<onal   context,  data  is  most  usefully  described  as   October 27, 1917 structured  records  of  transac<ons”  (p.  2).    Q1 - What time is it?Q2 – Where are these people?Q3 – Why is the boy smiling? Data   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   InformaMon   Knowledge   27   28   Authors  Joseph  and  Jimmie  Boyeu  (2001)  suggest  "knowledge   Peter  F.  Drucker  (1998)  claims  that   is  easy  to  talk  about  but  hard  to  define"     "Informa)on  is  data  endowed  with  relevance   and  purpose"   Knowledge   InformaSon   InformaSon   Data   Data   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Types  of  Knowledge   Exchange  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   29   30   TACIT Easier to document and Explicit share Contributes to n Ext efficiency Easier to tio ern replicate za a 20% i ial liz Soc ati on EXPLICIT Leads to TACIT competency Ikujiro Nonaka Michael Polanyi 80% Tacit Carla O’Dell on Co ati Harder to articulate mb liz Harder to steal in na a ti Higher competitive r on Inte advantage Harder to transfer EXPLICIT O’Dell, C. (2002, May). Knowledge Management New Generation. Presented at the APQC’s 7th Knowledge Conference, Washington, DC. A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 6. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     6   The  importance  of  sharing  .  .  .   Discussion   31   32   —  Does  your  organizaMon  recognize  the  difference  between   tacit  and  explicit  knowledge?   —  If  so,  do  you  capture  and  codify  tacit  knowledge?   According to Computer Associates . . .   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Enablers  of  KM   Drawing  on  the  Past   34   33   1.  Where  is  the  Knowledge?   2.  Organize  What?   3.  What  Types  of  Knowledge   Exist?   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   KM  Models   A  New  View  of  Knowledge  Management   35   36   Measurement Developed by Dr Stankosky and his team at George Washington University Webber, F., Wunram, M., Kemp, J., Pudlatz., & Bredehorst, B. (2002). Standardisation in Leadership in 1999 knowledge management – Towards a common KM framework in Europe. Proceedings of UNICOM Seminar Towards Common Approaches & Standards in KM. London. Technology Process Culture Infrastructure Organization Technology Leadership Measures Learning Process Content Culture KM Pillars European Framework DON Balanced KM Enablers of Transfer KM Assessment Tool Bennet, A. & Kantner, J. (2001). Navigating the KM dimension, Next- Generation Knowledge Management: Enabling Business Processes. American Productivity & Quality Center. A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 7. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     7   A  liule  TLC  goes  a  long  way!   Exchange  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   37   38   Leadership TACIT • Transparency n Ext • Vision and example tio ern Measurement za a i ial liz • Resources (including time) Leadership Soc ati on Technology Culture EXPLICIT TACIT Technology • Help or hinder • Need to Share vs Process Culture Need to Know • Security issues on Measurement Co • Privacy ati Leadership mb • Ease of access liz in • Content Creators a a ti Technology Process rn • Tending toward on Inte Culture free EXPLICIT A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Measurement   Enablers  Part  2   39   40   APQC Stages of KM Stage 5 Stage 4 Stage 3 Institutionalize Stage 2 Expand Stage 1 Design and Knowledge Develop a and Get Launch a Management Strategy Support Started KM Initiative Remember: Measure the outcome, not the process USAF 5-2-1 A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   41   Leading  Today’s  Knowledge   Workers   5 42   4 3 4.  Simples  Ideas  that  Work  in   Mean 2 Complex  Environments   1 5.  Do  you  Really  Want  to  Know   0 What  you  Know?   ip ss t re gy en 6.  Tools,  TacMcs,  and   sh tu e lo m oc ul er no re C Pr ad su Techniques:  Tried  and  Tested   ch Le ea Te M A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 8. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     8   Complex:  A  DefiniMon   Exchange  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   43   44   TACIT n Ext tio ern za a i ial liz  “a  group  of  obviously  related   Soc ati on EXPLICIT units  of  which  the  degree  and   TACIT nature  of  the  relaMonship  is   on Measurement C om ati Leadership imperfectly  known”   liz b a in a ti Technology Process rn on Inte Culture EXPLICIT A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   CreaMon  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   Our Credo (Johnson & Johnson) 45   J&J  Credo   We believe our first responsibility is to the doctors, nurses and patients, to mothers and fathers and all others who use our products and services. In meeting their needs everything we do must be of high quality. TACIT We must constantly strive to reduce our costs in order to maintain reasonable prices. n Ext tio ern Customers orders must be serviced promptly and accurately. za a Our suppliers and distributors must have an opportunity i ial liz Soc ati to make a fair profit. on EXPLICIT We are responsible to our employees, TACIT the men and women who work with us throughout the world. Everyone must be considered as an individual. on Co We must respect their dignity and recognize their merit. ati mb liz in a rn a ti on They must have a sense of security in their jobs. Inte Compensation must be fair and adequate, Internalization Combination and working conditions clean, orderly and safe. • Learning by doing EXPLICIT • Formal Education (MBA) We must be mindful of ways to help our employees fulfill • Experience • Policies their family responsibilities. • Values/Ethos • Data mining Employees must feel free to make suggestions and complaints. Teradata, 1991 Wal-Mart, 2004® crises of 1982 and 1986 A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   There must be equal opportunity for employment, development CreaMon  and  Transfer  of  Knowledge   and advancement for those qualified. 48   We must provide competent management, and their actions must be just and ethical. Socialization Externalization We are responsible to the communities in which we live and work • Social spaces (Ba) • After action review and to the world community as well. TACIT • Master/apprentice • Lessons learned We must be good citizens – support good works and charities • Storytelling • Metaphor and bear our fair share of taxes. n Ext tio ern We must encourage civic improvements and better health and education. za a i We must maintain in good order ial liz Soc ati the property we are privileged to use, on EXPLICIT protecting the environment and natural resources. TACIT Our final responsibility is to our stockholders. Business must make a sound profit. on Co We must experiment with new ideas. ati mb liz Research must be carried on, innovative programs developed a a ti in rn and mistakes paid for. on Inte New equipment must be purchased, new facilities provided and new products launched. Internalization EXPLICIT Combination Reserves must be created to provide for adverse times. • Learning by doing • Formal Education (MBA) When we operate according to these principles, • Experience • Policies the stockholders should realize a fair return. • Values/Ethos • Data mining Teradata, 1991 Wal-Mart, 2004 A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   TYLENOL® crises of 1982 and 1986 A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 9. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     9   The  Knowledge  Edge  –  The  UlMmate  Goal   CombinaMon:  Not  always  good!   49   50   Kn 14 November 2004 o wl ed ge Wisdom Ed “With 3,600 stores in the United States and ge roughly 100 million customers walking Understanding n throughKnowledge each week, Wal-Mart has the doors tio ea Knowledge access to information about a broad slice of Cr ge America . . . The data are gathered item by led ow Information item at the checkout aisle, then recorded, Kn mapped and updated by store, by state, by region . . . By its own account Wal-Mart has Data HMCS Toronto sails at the lead of the starburst formation as nuclear-powered USS George Washington aircraft 460 terabytes of data.” ( 750,000 CDs 1 terabyte ~ 1,000,000 MB) carrier takes the center. HMCS Toronto is taking part in Operation Altair, joining the USS George Washington Aircraft Carrier Task Group to help monitor shipping in the Arabian Gulf region. By restricting the flow of weapons, drugs, and other illicit trade, HMCS Toronto and her crew are helping to end terrorism and bring long- Hurricane term stability to the area. Credit: MCpl Colin Kelley, Formation Imaging Services Halifax A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Something  to  consider  .  .  .   Runner  Up   51   52   "I  think  that  gay  marriage  is   something  that  should  be   between  a  man  and  a  woman."     “. . . there are known knowns; there are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns; that is to say there are things that we now know we don’t know. But there are also unknown unknowns — there are things that we do not know we dont know.” A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Knowns  and  Unknowns   Unknown  unknowns   53   54   Unknown Unknown Knowns Unknowns Somewhere on the West Coast Known Known Knowns Unknowns AKA Johari Window A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 10. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     10   Knowns  and  Unknowns  Exercise   Axer  AcMon  Review   55   56   Unknown Knowns Unknown Unknowns 1. Printer/Scanner 1. Data Mining 2. 2. 3. 3. 1.  What was planned? Known Knowns Known Unknowns 2.  What happened? 1. Competitive Intell 3.  What is the delta? 2. 4.  What do we do about it? 3. A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   OrganizaMonal  Forgeyng  (de  Holan  et  al.)   Leading  Today’s  Knowledge   58   Workers   From Source of Knowledge 57   Existing Memory Decay Unlearning Stock 4.  Simples  Ideas  that  Work  in   Complex  Environments   5.  Do  you  Really  Want  to  Know   Newly Avoiding Bad Failure to Capture What  you  Know?   Innovated Habits 6.  Tools,  TacMcs,  and   Techniques:  Tried  and  Tested   Accidental Intentional Mode of Forgetting Figure 7. Forms of Organizational Forgetting (Adapted from de Holan et al.) A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Energizing  a  NaMon   What  do  we  know  40  years  later?   59   60   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 11. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     11   What  is  the  problem?   OrganizaMonal  Memory   61   62   Content  to  Intent  –  assumes     OrganizaMonal  memory  is  the  body  of   we  can  access  content   knowledge,  past,  present,  and  future,   necessary  to  achieve  the  strategic   objecMves  of  an  organizaMon.    Enabled  by   =   +   technology,  leadership,  and  culture,   Enterprise   OrganizaMonal   InformaMon   organizaMonal  memories  include   DemenMa   Memory  Loss   Anxiety   repositories  of  ar)facts,  communi)es  of   people,  and  organiza)onal  knowledge   sharing  processes,  which  focus  on   Content  to  Intent  –  assumes     achieving  the  organiza)onal  vision.   we  know  what  we  knew            Girard,  2009   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Memory  Test*   Memory  Test*   63   64   — Bed   — Slumber   — Rest   — Night   — Pajamas   — Awake   — Pillow   — Blanket   — Snore     — Dream   * Developed by Nancy Dixon * Developed by Nancy Dixon A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Broader  Challenge  =  InformaMon  Anxiety   InformaMon  Anxiety  Exercise   65 66   Gartner Research’s Information Overload Survey concluded there are four Strongly   Disagree   Neutral   Agree   Strongly   information issues affecting competition: siloed information; too much Disagree   Agree   information; unindexed information; and ineffective searching procedures 1   2   3   4   5   (Linden et al, 2002) How  much  do  you  agree/disagree  with  the  following  statements?   1   2   3   4   5   Causes of Cognitive Overload: Components of Information Anxiety: Q1.    Your  immediate  supervisor  asks  you  to  compile  a  report  that  summarizes  data  into  a  more  concise  form.    In  this  case,  he  asks  you   1.  Too much information 1.  Not understanding information; to  collect  the  data  for  the  past  six  months  and  to  develop  a  one-­‐page  report.       supply; 2.  Feeling overwhelmed by the amount A.  I  would  not  understand  informaMon  required  to  complete  tasks. ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   2.  Too much information of information to be understood; demand; B.  I  would  feel  overwhelmed  by  the  amount  of  informaMon  to  be  understood. ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   3.  Not knowing if certain information 3.  The need to deal with multi- exists; C.  I  would  not  know  if  certain  informaMon  exists   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   tasking and interruption; and 4.  Not knowing where to find D.  I  would  not  know  where  to  find  informaMon.   4.  Wurman     Inadequate workplace ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   information; and (1989)   infrastructure to help reduce E.  I  would  know  exactly  where  to  find  the  informaMon,  but  I  would  not  have  the  key  to  access  it.   5.  Knowing exactly where to find the ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   metacognition. information, but not having the key to (Kirsh, 2000) access it. (Wurman, 1989, p. 44) A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 12. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     12   InformaMon  Anxiety   InformaMon  Anxiety:  A  400  year  dilemma   67   68   17th Century  Sir  Francis  Bacon,  a  pioneer  in  the  quest  to  explain  the   20% 18.51% 18.11% 17.14% relaMonship,  looked  to  King  Solomon’s  biblical  wriMngs  for   18% 16.54% wisdom  “That  in  spacious  knowledge  there  is  much   16% 14.4% contristaMon,  and  that  he  that  increaseth  knowledge  increaseth   14% anxiety”  (1605/1915,  p.  4).     12%     10%  He  countered  King  Solomon’s  council  by  staMng  “And  for  the   8% second  [referring  to  King  Solomon’s  prose],  certain  it  is,  there  is   no  vexaMon  or  anxiety  of  mind  which  resulteth  from  knowledge   6% Sir Francis Bacon otherwise  than  merely  by  accident”   4% The     2% Advancement  Some  four  centuries  axer  Sir  Francis  challenged  the  ancient   0% philosophy  of  King  Solomon  we  appear  closer  to  explaining  this   of Learning Understanding% Informa9on% Knowing% Finding% Accessing% phenomenon   Informa9on%(A)% Overload%(B)% Informa9on% Informa9on%(D)% Informa9on%(E)% Exists%(C)%% Francis Bacon A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   KM  Strategies:  Towards  a  Taxonomy   Leading  Today’s  Knowledge   70   Workers   —  Michael  Earl  2001,  axer  five-­‐year  study   69   —  Genesis:  confusion  amongst  execuMves   —  Purpose:  to  help  guide  execuMves  on  choices  to   iniMate  KM   4.  Simples  Ideas  that  Work  in   —  Seven  Schools:   Complex  Environments   ¡  Systems  School   5.  Do  you  Really  Want  to  Know   ¡  Cartographic   Technocratic   ¡  Process   What  you  Know?   ¡  Commercial   Economic   6.  Tools,  Tac<cs,  and   ¡  OrganizaMonal   Techniques:  Tried  and   ¡  SpaMal   Behavioral   ¡  Strategic   Tested   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Earl’s  Strategies   Earl’s  System  School   71   72   Technocratic Economic Focus   Technology    “to  capture  specialist     School knowledge  in  knowledge  bases   System Cartographic Engineering Commercial Aim   Knowledge  bases   Attribute which  other  specialist  or   Philosophy   CodificaMon   Focus Technology Maps Processes Income   qualified  people  can  access”   Knowledge Aim Knowledge bases Knowledge flows Knowledge assets directories Philosophy Codification Connectivity Capability Commercialization Behavioral School Organizational Spatial Strategic Attribute Focus Networks Space Mindset Knowledge Knowledge Aim Knowledge pooling exchange capabilities Philosophy Collaboration Contactivity Consciousness,4149,28792,00.asp   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 13. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     13   Earl’s  Cartographic  School     Earl’s  Engineering  School   73   74   Focus   Maps    “to  make  sure  knowledgeable   Focus   Processes   Engineering  school  focuses  on.:     people  in  the  organizaMon  are     1.  “performance  of  business   Aim   Knowledge     directories   accessible  to  others  for  advice,   Aim   Knowledge    Flows   processes  can  be  enhanced  by   Philosophy   ConnecMvity   consultaMon,  or  knowledge   Philosophy     Capability   providing  operaMng  personnel     exchange”   with  knowledge  relevant  to  their   task”     “ExperMse  locaMon  systems  replace   2.  “management  processes  are   the  second-­‐generaMon  technique   inherently  more  knowledge-­‐ of  yellow  pages  making   FDA   intensive  than  business   connecMons  between  people  and   processes”   communiMes”  (Dave  Snowden)   A  Leaders  Guide  t2008  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.  (  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   ©   o  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John   73   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Earl’s  Economic  School   Earl’s  OrganizaMonal  School   75   76   Focus   Income    “it  is  overtly  and  explicitly   Focus   Networks    “the  use  of  organizaMonal     concerned  with  both     structures,  or  networks  to   Aim   Knowledge    Assets   protecMng  and  exploiMng  a   Aim   Knowledge    Pooling   share  or  pool  knowledge”     Philosophy     Commercial-­‐   izaMon   firms  knowledge  or   Philosophy     CollaboraMon   intellectual  assets  to  produce   revenue  streams”      Dow  Vice  President  Richard   Gross  stated  Dow  was  able  to   Facing  the  drawdown  of  the  B-­‐2   reduce  their  patent  holdings   project,  the  company  decided  it   by  over  10,000  resulMng  in  a   would  be  necessary  to  “maintain   saving  of  $40  million  in  five   profiles  of  staff  who  could  be  used   years.   for  future  B-­‐2  projects”  (APQC)   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Earl’s  SpaMal  School   Earl’s  Strategic  School   77   78   Focus   Space      “a  design  for  emergence   Focus   Mindset    “sees  knowledge  management     philosophy  of  knowledge     as  a  dimension  of  compeMMve   Aim   Knowledge     management  .  .  .  it  centers  on   Aim   Knowledge     strategy”   Exchange   CapabiliMes   Philosophy   ContacMvity   the  use  of  space  or  spaMal   Philosophy   Consciousness     designs  to  facilitate     knowledge  exchange”   Bar   Ba   Meeting   M   Environment   E   Supporting   S   Socialization   S   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 14. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     14   Which  School?   One  View   79   80   Technocratic Economic School 4 System Cartographic Engineering Commercial Attribute Focus Technology Maps Processes Income 3 Knowledge Aim Knowledge bases Knowledge flows Knowledge assets directories 2 Mean Philosophy Codification Connectivity Capability Commercialization Behavioral 1 School Organizational Spatial Strategic Attribute 0 Focus Networks Space Mindset l g em c c l al na ia Knowledge Knowledge gi hi in ci Aim Knowledge pooling at io st te ap er exchange capabilities er Sp at Sy ra ne Philosophy gr m Collaboration Contactivity Consciousness iz St om gi to an En ar C rg C O A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   InterrelaMonship  of  DM,  IM,  KM*   Enhancing  Future  Performance   82   Records Artificial Communities Data Management Integration Intelligence of Taxonomies Practice 81   Subject Expertise Data Classification Ontologies Locator Warehouse 7.  Guiding  Organiza<ons  Into   Document Management Enterprise After Portal Action Review the  Future   Database Forms Web Portal Management Management 8.  The  Future  is  Just  a  Day   Group Ware Virtual Collaboration Away   Content Management Search Engine Storytelling Data Information Knowledge Management Management Management * Developed by Denise Charbonneau (TBS) and Dr. John Girard A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Stonecuuer  or  Cathedral  Builder?   Storytelling  by  Steve  Denning   83   84   Purpose  of  Story   —  Sparking  acMon   —  CommunicaMng  who  you  are   —  Transmiyng  values   —  Fostering  collaboraMon   —  Taming  the  grapevine   —  Sharing  knowledge   —  Leading  people  into  the  future John Constable. Salisbury Cathedral, from the Meadows. 1831. Oil on canvas. Private collection, on loan to the National Gallery, London, UK. A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 15. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     15   HBR  May  2004   WriMng  the  Future   85   86   —  Snowden’s  (2002:  3)  ‘we  can  always  know  more  than  we  can  tell,   In  June  of  1995,  a  health  worker  in  a   and  we  will  always  tell  more  than  we  can  write  down.’     Sny  town  in  Zambia  went  to  the  Web   site  of  the  Centers  for  Disease  Control   and  got  the  answer  to  a  quesSon  about   the  treatment  for  malaria.  Remember   However,  Snowden  (2002:3)  suggests:   that  this  was  in  Zambia,  one  of  the     poorest  countries  in  the  world,  and  it   happened  in  a  Sny  place  600  kilometers   —  I  can  speak  in  five  minutes  what  it  will  otherwise  take  me  two   from  the  capital  city.  But  the  most   weeks  to  get  round  to  spend  a  couple  of  hours  wriSng  it  down.   striking  thing  about  this  picture,  at  least   The  process  of  wriSng  something  down  is  reflecSve  knowledge;  it   for  us,  is  that  the  World  Bank  isnt  in  it.   Despite  our  know-­‐how  on  all  kinds  of   involves  both  adding  and  taking  away  from  the  actual  experience   poverty  related  issues,  that  knowledge   or  original  thought.  ReflecSve  knowledge  has  high  value,  but  is   isn‘t  available  to  the  millions  of  people   who  could  use  It.  Imagine  if  it  were.   Sme  consuming  and  involves  loss  of  control  over  its  subsequent   Think  what  an  organizaSon  we  could   use.   become.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Guiding  Government  Leaders  into  the  Future     Guiding  Faculty  into  the  Future     87   88   Ø  excite  change  in  a  very  large   Ø  excite  change  in  a  small   bureaucraMc  organizaMon     mid-­‐west  university   Ø  Five  years  in  the  future   Ø  Mock  interview  with  Dean   Ø  Balance  of  real  and   Ø  Balance  of  real  and   imaginary   imaginary   CriMcal  Success  Factors:   CriMcal  Success  Factors:   Ø  Look  of  the  story   Ø  Believable   Ø  Real  Dean   Ø  ExecuMve  Support   Ø  RealisMc  Journal   Ø  “Now  I  get  it”   For complete stories see: For complete stories see: A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Students  into  the  Future     89   Enhancing  Future  Performance   Ø  Low  compleMon  rate   Ø  Look  –  student  paper   90   Ø  Geographically  separated   students   Ø  Moral  boost  needed   7.  Guiding  OrganizaMons  Into   the  Future   CriMcal  Success  Factor:   8.  The  Future  is  Just  a  Day   Away   Ø  It  worked!   For complete stories see: A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 16. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     16   The  Knowledge  Edge  –  The  UlMmate  Goal   Do  you  know  your  customers?   91   92       Kn  “A  social  trend  in  which   o wl ed ge people  use  technologies   Wisdom    Ed ge to  get  the  things  they     Understanding   need  from  each  other,     Knowledge   on M Knowledge   ea rather  than  from    Cr ge tradiMonal  insMtuMons   ed wl InformaSon   o like  corporaMons.”   Kn Data m   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   The  Social  Technographics™  Ladder   The  Social  Technographics™  Ladder   93   US  Adults   94   Creators   Creators  make  social  content   2007   2009   Creators   US  18-­‐24   US  35-­‐44   US  55+   go.  They  write  blogs  or  upload   18%   24%   46%   23%   12%   Cri<cs  respond  to  content  from   video,  music,  or  text.             others.  They  post  reviews,             Cri<cs   Cri<cs   comment  on  blogs,  parMcipate   25%   37%   50%   34%   28%   in  forums,  and  edit  wiki  arMcles.   Collectors  organize  content  for             themselves  or  others  using  RSS             Collectors   Collectors   feeds,  tags,  and  voMng  sites  like   12%   21%   38%   20%   12%             Joiners  connect  in  social             Joiners   Joiners   networks  like  MySpace  and   25%   51%   85%   54%   26%   Facebook             Spectators  consume  social   content  including  blogs,  user-­‐           Spectators   Spectators   generated  video,  podcasts,   48%   73%   89%   73%   64%   forums,  or  reviews             Inac<ves  neither  create  nor             consume  social  content  of  any   Inac<ves   44%   18%   Inac<ves   3%   17%   30%   kind   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   The  Social  Technographics™  Ladder   The  Social  Technographics™  Ladder   Australian  Adults   95   South  Korea  Adults   96   Japanese  Adults   2007   2009   Creators   Aus  18-­‐24   Aus  35-­‐44   Aus  55+   2007   2009   Creators   2007   2009   11%   23%   34%   20%   14%   38%   49%   22%   34%                                       Cri<cs   Cri<cs   23%   31%   38%   28%   23%   27%   46%   36%   30%                                       Collectors   Collectors   5%   14%   20%   13%   6%   14%   19%   6%   11%                                       Joiners   Joiners   14%   50%   74%   46%   29%   41%   48%   22%   26%                                       Spectators   Spectators   38%   64%   82%   63%   47%   39%   76%   70%   69%                                       Inac<ves   Inac<ves   56%   22%   5%   23%   38%   36%   9%   26%   23%   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 17. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     17   Global  Top  Internet  Sites  (Reach)   Social  Media  AcMon  Plan   hup://   97   98   1.  Google      50%   1.   2.  Facebook  43%   2.  Facebook   3.  YouTube    32%   3.  Google   Learn   4.  Yahoo!    24%   4.  YouTube   5.  Wikipedia  15%   5.  Yahoo!   Listen   6.  Blogger    13%   6.  Bidorbuy   7.  Baidu    11%   7.  Guntree   Lead   8.  MSN    11%   8.  Wikipedia   9.  Twiuer    11%   9.  News24   10.  QQ          7%   10.  LinkedIn   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Why                                                Mauers   99   100   >350  million   >  800  million   >  400  million   acMve  mobile   acMve  users   login  daily     users   2  billion  posts   250  million   130  friends  is   are  liked  per   photos  up  per   average   day   day   Average  user   75%  of  users   connected  to   outside  USA   80  pages   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   MarkeMng  @  Facebook   According  to  Facebook   101   102   Million+  Fans   1.  Coca-­‐Cola   —  4,123,980  Facebook   2.  Starbucks   users  live  in  South  Africa   3.  Disney   (age  18  or  older)    Personal  or  OrganizaMonal   4.  Victorias  Secret       5.   iTunes   —  2,064,220  Facebook   6.  Vitaminwater   users  live  in   7.  YouTube   Johannesburg  (age  18   8.  Chick-­‐fil-­‐A   and  older)   9.  Red  Bull   —  59,100  users  live  in  East   10. T.G.I.  Friday’s   London A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 18. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     18   Consider  Crowdsourcing   104    Crowdsourcing  is  the  act   of  taking  a  job  tradiMonally   performed  by  a   designated  agent  (usually   an  employee)  and   outsourcing  it  to  an   Wikipedia  is  driven  by  a  global  community  of  more  than  150,000   undefined,  generally  large   volunteers—all  dedicated  to  sharing  knowledge  freely.  Over   group  of  people  in  the   almost  eight  years,  these  volunteers  have  contributed  more  than   11  million  arMcles  in  265  languages.  More  than  275  million   form  of  an  open  call.     people  come  to  our  website  every  month  to  access  informaMon, free  of  charge  and  free  of  adverMsing.     A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   103   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Crowdsourcing   The  GeneraMon  Game   105   106 A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Digital  NaMve  or  Digital  Immigrant?   Are  You  Ready?   107   108   hup://   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 19. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     19   Are  You  Ready?   Five  Themes   109   110   Know  Your  Environment   Understand  the  Groundswell   Consider  Crowdsourcing   People  Know  Best   Listen,  Learn,  Lead   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Five  Things  for  Tomorrow   111   A  Leader’s  Guide  to   Knowledge  Management   Google   112   Facebook   John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   YouTube     JoAnn  L.  Girard   Blog   Wikipedia   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   Decision-­‐making  Exercise   Purchasing  Managers   113   114   When  you  think  of  the  how  you  make  day-­‐to-­‐day  decisions,  how  much  do  you   1   2   3   4   5   agree/disagree  with  the  following  statements?     1.    Experience  is  really  the  best  teacher.   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   2.    My  gut  feelings  on  important  job  decisions  are  usually  on  target.   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   3.    When  I  face  a  new  important  decision  I  study  up  on  it  but  then  follow  my  own   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   common  sense.   4.    When  in  doubt  on  an  important  job  decision,  I  tend  to  go  with  my  intuiMon.     ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   5.    Relying  too  much  on  facts  and  figures  oxen  results  in  bad  or  unrealisMc   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   decisions.   6.    I  am  usually  right  when  I  use  common  sense  in  job  decision-­‐making.   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   7.    I  have  found  that  relying  on  my  common  sense  rather  than  formal  data  such   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   as  reports,  arMcles,  and  presentaMons  is  a  beuer  way  to  make  a  job  decision.   8.    I  feel  I  have  good  insight  and  easily  figure  important  decisions.   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   9.    I  feel  I  have  a  vast  store  of  useful  informaMon  I  can  draw  on  when  making   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   important  job  decisions.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.                                                              
  • 20. A  LEADER’S  GUIDE  TO  KNOWLEDGE  MANAGEMENT     20   Government  Middle  Managers   Comparison   115   116   Q9   elying   ave  g  vast  shen   oand  asily   Q6   f ave   htoo  might  rnsight    a n  seful   figure   Q7   I  aeel  Isually  aood  wtore  Iouse   ey  common   Q5  -­‐  Rhm  u  found  tuch  ion  facts  nd  common   Q8   r hat   elying   f  u m figures   informaMon  decision-­‐making.   such  as  reports,   sense  rn  job  ecisions.   r  unrealisMc  decisions.   oxen  results  tcan  dormal  dwhen  making   important  d I  in  bad  o on   ata   i ather   han  fraw   important  job  decisions.   arMcles,  and  presentaMons  is  a  beuer  way  to   make  a  job  decision.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.   A  Leaders  Guide  to  Knowledge  Management  ©  2011,  John  P.  Girard,  Ph.D.