Coal Bed Methane

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Currently, gas demand exceeds supply by 30 per cent. While the demand for natural gas in India is 118 million metric standard cubic meter per day (MMSCMD), the current supply from various sources is 80 MMSCMD, leaving a shortfall of 28 MMSCMD. That deficiency can be covered by CBM production.

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Coal Bed Methane

  1. 1. SEMINAR ON COAL BED METHANE: A STRATEGIC OVERVIEW Presented by Rupam Sarmah 6TH SEMESTER PETROLEUM ENGINEERING D.U.I.E.T In fulfillment for the Completion Of WINTER INTERNSHIP DECEMBER 26TH, 2011 – JANUARY 15TH, 2012 InRANCO ENERGY PROJECTS PRIVATE LIMITED, MUMBAI
  2. 2. ABSTRACTCurrently, gas demand exceeds supply by 30per cent. While the demand for natural gas inIndia is 118 million metric standard cubicmeter per day (MMSCMD), the current supplyfrom various sources is 80 MMSCMD, leavinga shortfall of 28 MMSCMD. That deficiencycan be covered by CBM production. 2
  3. 3. OVERVIEW OF COAL AND CBM RESERVES
  4. 4. BENEATH THE SURFACE…Global coal distribution Identified CBM basins
  5. 5. COAL : World’s number two source of primary energy with 27% of demand According to the baseline scenario used by the IEA in its World Energy Outlook 2009, the consumption of coal is expected to rise by 1.9% per year between now and 2030, by which time it should account for 29% of global primary energy requirementsDistribution of recoverable coal reserves CBM Reserves (Gas in Place) by country
  6. 6. A GENESIS MODEL OF COALPEATIFICATION Geochemical Transformation COALIFICATION
  7. 7. CBM RESERVOIR PROPERTIES
  8. 8. A Comparative Analysis:
  9. 9.  GAS STORAGE: Instead of occupying void spaces as a free gasbetween sand grains, the methane is held to the solid surface of the coal byadsorption in numerous micro pores. The adsorption mechanism createsthe paradox of high gas storage in a reservoir rock of porosity less than2.5%. GAS FLOW: • Mass transport through solid coal (micro pore structure) is governed by Ficks law of diffusion, • Mass transport through the fracture system is governed by Darcy’s law,
  10. 10.  GAS PRODUCTION: Dictated by the pressure-lowering process of dewatering, Coalbeds feature production rates of methane that initially increase and then slowly decline asgas production continues over a long period. GAS CONTENT: Gas adsorbed on the coal cannot be detected on geophysical logs asin a conventional reservoir, and the gas amount must be determined by volumetriccalculations based on coring data. Gas content of coals may increase with depth, however,due to the positive influence of pressure on adsorptive capacity rather than thecompressibility of the gas. WATER PRODUCTION: The formation waters generated from natural fractures incoal must be removed before methane can be desorbed in the early production life of awell.ROCK PROPERTY: Conventional oil and gas formations are inorganic. Organicformations contain CBM; these formations may contain about 10–30% inorganic ash.HYDROFRACTURING: The coal usually has low permeability and depends on naturalfractures to act as gas and liquid conduits. Without hydraulic fracturing, these low-permeability coals are usually commercially non-productive.STRESS DEPENDENT PERMEABILITY: The permeability is stress-dependent, so,whether the coals exhibit a low permeability or exhibit an extensive, unstressed network offractures with high permeability is a critical parameter in any decision to invest in a CBMprocess.
  11. 11. KEY PARAMETERS IN CBM RESERVOIRSGAS CONTENT : Standard volume of gas per unit weight of coal orrock. (scf/ton)Estimation of gas content:• Desorbed gas : Estimated by the“Direct Method” or Canister desorption test.• Lost gas : Volume of the gas that desorbs from the sample during the recovery process beforethe core sample can be sealed in a desorption canister and is estimated by analyzing the dataobtained during the canister desorption tests.•Residual gas : Gas that remains sorbed on the sample at the conclusionof the canister desorption test and is estimated by crushing the entiredesorption sample to smaller than a 60 mesh grain size and measuring thegas volume released at the reservoir temperature.TOTAL GAS VOLUME ═ DESORBED GAS + LOST GAS + RESIDUAL GAS
  12. 12. RESERVOIR THICKNESS:• Gross coal thickness usually can be determined accurately with wire linelogs (Generally, Open-hole density logs).• The gross reservoir thickness is commonly computed by summing thethicknesses of the intervals having densities less than a cut off valuegenerally equal to the coal ash density.• Determining net thickness is complicated but it can be estimated by usingResistivity logs, Well tests, Production logs, or Zonal isolation tests. LANGMUIR VOLUME (VL) : Maximum amount of gas that can be adsorbed on a piece of coal at infinite pressure. This value is asymptotically approached by the isotherm as the pressure increases. Typically, the units for the Langmuir volume parameter (VL) are scf/ton. LANGMUIR PRESSURE (PL) : This parameter affects the shape of the isotherm. The Langmuir pressure is the pressure at which half of the Langmuir volume can be adsorbed.
  13. 13. • Relationship used to represent the sorption mechanism in coal bed methanereservoir is given as:Where,Gs = Gas storage capacity, SCF/ton; P = Pressure, psia; V L = Langmuir volume constant,SCF/ton; PL = Langmuir pressure constant, psia• The impact of VL and PL on the shape of the isotherm curve:
  14. 14. SORPTION TIME : Sorption time (τ ) is the time required to desorb 63.2 percentof the initial gas volume.Where,σ = matrix shape factor, dimensionlessD = matrix diffusivity constant, sec-1As the coal rank increases, τ also increases. Greater the value of τ, greater will bethe time taken by gas for desorptionPERMEABILITY : It is the volume of interconnected pores in a rock. Primary Permeability (Cleat)Permeability of CBM Reservoir Secondary Permeability (Pore)POROSITY : In CBM reservoirs, porosity is saturated with water.So, greater porosity will lead to greater water production and vice- versa.Thus, unlike conventional reservoirs, high porosity is unfavourablefor CBM reservoirs. Micro-porosity of coal
  15. 15. FLOWING BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE : Pressure at the bottom of theholeCalculation : Let x be the mean depth of perforation from the surface in meter. Let y be the water level in annulus from the surface in meter.Then, BHP=(x-y)*3.28*0.433 in psi.Where,0.433 is the water pressure gradient in psi/ft.The aim of production operations is to bring the level of water below the perforation sothat BHP decreases. When flowing BHP isdecreased, drawdown will increase andcorrespondingly production will also increase.
  16. 16. DEPTH :As depth increases, coal rank increases, increasing gas content of coal, butat the same time decreasing permeability. Thus, the depth at whichoptimum value of gas content and permeability can be expected rangesbetween 700 to 1000 m.DENSITY OF COAL :If coal density is low, desorption will take place easily and vice-versa.
  17. 17. COALBED METHANE –A RESERVOIR APPROACH
  18. 18. Coalbed methane is stored in four ways:As free gas within the micro pores (pores with a diameter of lessthan .0025 inches) and cleats (sets of natural fractures in the coal); As dissolved gas in water within the coal; As adsorbed gas held by molecular attraction on surfaces ofmacerals (organic constituents that comprise the coal mass), micropores, and cleats in the coal; and As absorbed gas within the molecular structure of the coalmolecules.
  19. 19. Physical and chemical characteristics of plant debris and coals with maturation
  20. 20. The most important characteristics of coal reservoir are:Coal is a source rock and a reservoir rock. The depositional environment and burialhistory of the coal affect the composition of the gas as well as the gas content,diffusivity, permeability, and gas storage capacity of the coal.The gas storage mechanism of coal. Most of the gas in coal reservoirs is adsorbedonto the internal structure of the coal. Because large amounts of gas can be stored atlow pressures in coal reservoirs, the reservoir pressure must be drawn down to a verylow level to achieve high gas recovery. The fracture system of coal reservoirs. Coals contain small (typically, several perinch), regularly-spaced, naturally occurring fractures called face cleats and butt cleats.Coal reservoirs also contain larger-scale natural fractures.Coal reservoirs often require pumping water before gas is produced. Typically, watermust be produced continuously from coal seams to reduce reservoir pressure andrelease the gas. The cost to treat and dispose of produced water can be a critical factorin the economics of a coalbed methane project.The unique mechanical properties of coal. Coal is relatively compressible comparedto the rock in many conventional reservoirs. Thus, the permeability of coal is morestress- dependent than most reservoir rocks. The friable, cleated nature of coal affectsthe success of hydraulic fracturing treatments, and in certain locations allows forcavitation techniques to dramatically increase production.
  21. 21. STAGES OF PRODUCTION Isotherm showing reservoir initial conditionSTAGE 1: WATER PRODUCTION: DEWATERING STAGE 2: GAS PRODUCTION: DEWATERED STAGESTAGEIsotherm showing dewatering Water flow rate with time Isotherm showing amount of gas released Gas flow rate with time
  22. 22. SIMULATING CBMRESERVOIR
  23. 23. Reservoir simulation is the process of integrating geology, petro physics,reservoir engineering, and production operations to more effectively develop andproduce petroleum resourcesDESCRIPTION OF CBM SIMULATORSDual porosity nature of coalbed;Darcy flow of gas and water (i.e., multiphase flow) in the natural fracture systemin coal;Diffusion of a single gas component (i.e., pure gas) from the coal matrix to thenatural fracture system;Adsorption/Desorption of a single gas component (i.e., pure gas) at the coalsurface;Coal matrix shrinkage due to gas desorption.TYPES OF SIMULATORSGas Sorption and Diffusion SimulatorsCompositional SimulatorsBlack-Oil Simulators
  24. 24. DATA NEEDED FOR SIMULATION
  25. 25. GRID SYSTEMSThree-dimensional Cartesian grid r-θ-z geometry using Polar Cylindrical coordinates RESULTS FROM COMET-3 (By Advanced Resources International)
  26. 26. GENERALTERMINOLOGIES & GENERAL OVERVIEW 26
  27. 27. Coal bed Methane Terminologies 27
  28. 28. Methane gas from Coal beds:•Coal bed Methane (CBM) : Methane contained incoal seams. Often referred to as virgin coal bedmethane, or coal seam gas.•Coalmine Methane (CMM) : CBM that is releasedfrom the coal seams during coal mining.•Abandoned Mine Methane (AMM) : Methane thatcontinues to be released from closed and sealed mines.May also be referred to as coal mine methane becausethe liberated methane is associated with past coalmining activity. 28
  29. 29. GENERAL OVERVIEWAir Drilling Rig For CBM PC Pumps running at test wellsPlantation at test Separators installed well site at test wells Gas flare 29
  30. 30. DRILLING OF A CBM WELL 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. INTRODUCTION• Methane can be extracted from the coal seams by the process of desorption according to which the initial reservoir pressure is reduced, by dewatering, to the reduced critical desorption pressure. Thereafter, the coal seams release methane gas as the pressure is reduced. The abandonment pressure is the lowest pressure at which no more methane can be produced. Before an exercise of drilling for the purpose of methane extraction can be undertaken, an estimate of the reserves of coal bed methane gas is made. 32
  33. 33. INTRODUCTION (contd.)• The primary concerns for drilling are overpressure of gas/water kicks, high permeability which leads to loss of circulation fluid, formation damage due to the nature of coal and hole sloughing.• Due to presence of large amount of water in the reservoir, often water influx is encountered during drilling. 33
  34. 34. INTRODUCTION (contd.)• However as the gas is found in shallower depths, the drilling is cost effective in case of CBM than those of conventional oil and gas reservoir drilling.• Normally directional wells are favored for CBM reservoir as it can lead to production of large amount of gas economically and as the depth is not a major problem so it is cost effective. 34
  35. 35. Figure:Drilling formethanegas in coal 35
  36. 36. DIRECTIONAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY 36
  37. 37. DIRECTIONAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY (contd.)•To give an idea of the effectiveness of horizontaldrilling, the U.S. Department of Energy indicatesthat using horizontal drilling can lead to an increasein reserves in place by 2% of the original oil in place.The production ratio for horizontal wells versusvertical wells is 3.2 to 1, while the cost ratio ofhorizontal versus vertical wells is only 2 to 1. Figure: Schematic Diagram of a Directionally Drilled Pre- Mine Degasification 37
  38. 38. TECHNICAL LIMITATIONS AND BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION1. Poor vertical permeability or impermeable streaks : Compositionally, coal is often heterogeneous with the different coal types generally segregated into bands; this can range in thickness from several millimeters up to several to tens of centimeters. The degree of cleat development varies greatly between these coal types; for example vitrain bands tend to be well cleated, while durain bands tend to be poorly cleated. The alternation of well cleated/poorly cleated bands can substantially reduce vertical permeability. Additionally, coal bed often contain thin shale beds or stringers which would further limit vertical permeability. 38
  39. 39. TECHNICAL LIMITATIONS AND BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION (contd.)2. Variable formation depth and thickness : Some coal bed were formed in depositional systems which resulted in erratic or uneven coal seam deposition. In such cases, it would be difficult to keep a horizontal or near- horizontal hole in the seam while drilling. 39
  40. 40. TECHNICAL LIMITATIONS AND BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION (contd.)While it is technically feasible to drill multiple horizontal legs atdifferent depths, there are some unique characteristics of how coalbed methane wells are produced which must be considered:1.First, only one leg of a horizontal well with multiple legs can becased. Because coal is often friable, uncased horizontal wellbores willbe prone to sloughing and collapse. The loss of wellbore integrity willinhibit both the dewatering process and gas production.2.Second, dewatering operations in horizontal wells are morecomplicated than vertical well operations. The majority of coal bedmethane wells in the U.S. are dewatered using conventional "beam" or"sucker rod" pumps. Formation water is produced by a down-holepump, which is operated via an up and down motion imparted to therods by the pump jack on the surface. Because the pumping system isdesigned to operate in a vertical plane, the connecting rods tend tobreak when flexed, as would be the case in a horizontal wellbore. 40
  41. 41. PRODUCTIONFROM A CBM GAS WELL 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. Figure :Coal Bed Matrixillustrating gassurrounding thecoal bound bywater and rock 43
  44. 44. INTRODUCTIONSince CBM travels with ground water in coal seams,extraction of CBM involves pumping available water fromthe seam in order to reduce the water pressure that holdsgas in the seam. CBM has very low solubility in water andreadily separates as pressure decreases, allowing it to bepiped out of the well separately from the water. Watermoving from the coal seam to the well bore encouragesgas migration toward the well.CBM producers try not to dewater the coal seam, butrather seek to decrease the water pressure (or head ofwater) in the coal seam to just above the top of the seam.However, sometimes the water level drops into the coalseam. 44
  45. 45. Figure:CBM WellConstruction 45
  46. 46. INTRODUCTION (Contd.)• The production profiles of CBM wells are typically characterized by a "negative decline" in the gas rate as water is pumped away and gas begins to desorb and flow. A dry CBM well does not look very different from a standard well, except that the gas rates are lower and decline at a much slower rate. Figure: A typical ten-year CBM gas rate forecast, showing a negative decline for the first couple years of production. 46
  47. 47. INTRODUCTION (Contd.)• The methane desorption process follows a curve (of gas content vs. reservoir pressure) called a Langmuir isotherm. The isotherm can be analytically described by a maximum gas content (at infinite pressure), and the pressure at which half that gas exists within the coal. These parameters (called the Langmuir volume and Langmuir pressure, respectively) are properties of the coal, and vary widely. A coal in Alabama and a coal in Colorado may have radically different Langmuir parameters, despite similar other coal properties. Figure: A typical CBM isotherm 47
  48. 48. INTRODUCTION (Contd.)• The increasing gas rates seen in a negative decline are caused by increasing relative permeability as the water saturation around the wellbore decreases. As there is less water in the coal cleats, the gas is able to flow more and more into the wellbore to be produced. Figure : A set of relative permeability curves ( As water saturation decreases, more gas and less water is produced from the coal.) 48
  49. 49. ENHANCED RECOVERY OF CBM• There are three main methods which can induce methane release from coal:1.Reduce the overall pressure, usually by dewatering the formation either through pumping or mining2.Reduce the partial pressure of the methane by injecting another inert gas into the formation3.Replace the methane on the surface with another compound, such as CO2. 49
  50. 50. ENHANCED RECOVERY OF CBM (contd.)• The process is implemented by injecting inert gas at one location and recovering methane gas at another. Figure: Gas is injected in one well and methane is recovered in another well 50
  51. 51. ENHANCED RECOVERY OF CBM (contd.) Concerned hazards and methods to reduce:• Deep unmineable coal formations provide an opportunity to both sequester CO2 into coal seams (from anthropogenic sources) and increase the production of methane where the adsorption of CO2 causes the desorption of methane. This process has the potential to sequester large volumes of CO2 (reducing its impacts on possible global warming), while improving the efficiency and potential profitability of natural gas recovery. Lab studies indicate that coal adsorbs nearly twice as much volume of CO2 as methane. There are some concerns, however, that injection of CO2 into mineable coals presents a safety hazard, as the mines are required to have a limit of 3% CO2 by volume in the mine air.• One potential method for reducing CO2 levels in the mine air is to use a mixture of CO2 and other gases, such as nitrogen. Studies indicate that for each volume of nitrogen that is injected, two volumes of methane are produced. There is growing interest in mixed Nitrogen/CO2 injection for two reasons:• There may be a synergy of production mechanisms, and• Its use would result in the lowering of CO2 levels in the mine air. 51
  52. 52. ENHANCED RECOVERY OF CBM (contd.) LIMITATIONS/ BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION :• The potential barriers or limitations to ECBM fall into the three broad categories:1. Geologic.2. Economic.3. Policy.The geologic limitations are fixed in the absence of advances in technology; if the gas is not present in commercial quantities or if the gas cannot be produced, the project would not support an ECBM project, especially given the additional costs. Assuming favorable geologic characteristics, the operator must then examine the economics of the project. A wide variety of factors can influence project economics, and thus, the likely application of ECBM processes in mineable coal seams. Finally, regulatory requirements and/or potential financial incentives can tip the balance for or against marginal projects. 52
  53. 53. ENHANCED RECOVERY OF CBM (contd.) LIMITATIONS/ BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION (contd.) :Important factors to consider within each of these categories include: •Geological : • Economic : •Homogeneity • Cost of CO2 •Permeability >1 md • Cost of N2 •Depth 300-1,500 meters • Availability of injecting gas •Concentrated coal geometry • Value of methane •Production rates • Cost of processing •Development timing • Cost of implementation •Water disposal • Transportation •Amount of available gas 53
  54. 54. OTHER FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR CBM PRODUCTION :1. CBM CEMENTING.2. ORIENTED PERFORATING.3. COILFRAC STIMULATION.4. FRACTURING CBM.5. DEWATERING AND FINES CONTROL.6. STIMULATION SOLUTIONS. 54
  55. 55. LOGGING SOLUTIONS FOROPTIMIZING FIELD DEVELOPMENT : 1. Full range of well evaluation services. 2. Cased hole geochemical logging. 3. High-resolution density measurement. 4. Open hole geochemical logging. 5. Integrated open hole logging suite. 6. Sonic imaging measurements. 55
  56. 56. FRACTURING OFCBM RESERVOIR AS A STIMULATION TECHNIQUE 56
  57. 57. FRACTURING TECHNOLOGIES :• Fracture stimulation technologies for enhancing well deliverability can generally be categorized in three types, according to the rate at which energy is applied to the target horizon to induce fracturing:1.Hydraulic fracturing .2.Pulse fracturing .3.Explosive fracturing . 57
  58. 58. Figure: Comparison of Pressure Histories for Rock Fracturing Techniques.Figure: Comparison of CreatedFracture Geometries for Rock 58Fracturing Techniques
  59. 59. FRACTURING TECHNOLOGIES(contd.)HYDRAULIC FRACTURING1. Fracturing with Liquid Carbon Dioxide (CO2) with Prop-pant.2. Fracturing with Nitrogen.3. Coiled Tubing Fracturing. 59
  60. 60. FRACTURING TECHNOLOGIES(contd.) PULSE FRACTURING Figure: Conceptual Model of Pulse Fracturing results1. Propellant Fracturing.2. Pulse Fracturing with Nitrogen . 60
  61. 61. CBM PRODUCT WATER ANDENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
  62. 62. Effect of CBM product water in stream channels and landscape
  63. 63. Ground water flow systemsGround water flowsystems impacted by CBM wells
  64. 64. PRINCIPAL CONCERNS :Air quality, caused by the dust from the extensive network ofunpaved access roads,Wildlife, from noise disturbances; the direct loss of criticalwinter range habitat; habitat alteration such as watertemperature, quality and quantity changes in stream conditions;increases in hunting pressure;Livestock grazing, this will be almost totally excluded from thelandCultural resources andAgricultural land which may be lost or damaged by low qualitywater coming from CBM production. RECOMMENDATIONS : Adopt the precautionary principle Provide public input on decisions Improve public information on CBM development Improve the regulatory process on CBM development Adopt best practices for operations Evaluate enhanced recovery of CBM using CO2
  65. 65. INDIAN COAL WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TOTERTIARY COAL FOUND IN NORTH-EAST INDIA
  66. 66. Major Coalfields of India
  67. 67. INDIA’S CBM EXPERIENCE AND RESERVE
  68. 68. (Source: Oil & Gas Journal, Dec’2007) Distribution of India’s CBM Resource India’s Energy Scenario
  69. 69. CURRENT STATUS OF CBM EXPLORATION IN INDIA
  70. 70. CBM BIDDING ROUNDSCBM-I, 2002 CBM-II, 2003CBM-III, 2005 CBM-IV, 2008
  71. 71. POSSIBLE UTILIZATION OF CBM IN INDIA
  72. 72. POWER GENERATIONAUTO FUEL IN FORM OF COMPRESSEDNATURAL GAS (CNG)FEED STOCK FOR FERTILIZERFUEL FOR INDUSTRIAL USEUSE OF CBM AT STEEL PLANTSCMM USE IN METHANOL PRODUCTION
  73. 73. CASE STUDIES• CASE STUDY – 1: JHARIA COALFIELD.• CASE STUDY – 2: MARGHERITA COAL FIELD.• CASE STUDY – 3: RANIGANJ FIELD, DURGAPUR.• CASE STUDY – 4: EAST OGAN KOMERING BLOCK 2, SOUTH SUMATERA BASIN,INDONESIA.• CASE STUDY – 5: WEST OGAN, SOUTH SUMATERA BASIN, INDONESIA. 75
  74. 74. FACTS• Coal is the world′s most abundant energy source• Coal is a major source of hydrocarbons such as methane gas• When plant material is converted into coal it generates large quantities of methane-rich gas• Methane gas is then stored within the coal beds making coal a reservoir as well as a gas source• It is estimated that coal and methane gas can be found in 13% of all the land in the lower 48 states of the US.• Coal bed methane gas accounted for almost 8% of the U.S. natural gas demand. 76
  75. 75. FACTS (contd.)• Coal bed methane is currently a huge undeveloped energy resource• Coal bed methane can be used as an clean energy source• It is a safe, efficient and an environmentally more acceptable energy source• Over the last two decades, the development of domestic natural gas supplies declined while consumption increased. There is now greater world market demand for cleaner fuels like Coal Bed Methane Gas and Natural Gas. 77
  76. 76. REFERENCES• Website of Director General of • Data and Consulting Service, Hydrocarbons Schlumberger Website• BU-Screen-Chapter 2-Introduction to CBM • Simulation of CBM reservoirs, Under the By David Epperly. guidance of Dr S.K.Singh Gm-CBM,• Methane Gas an Unconventional Energy EEPIL, Mumbai Resource, Paper by Alpana Singh & • Advanced Resources International, US, Bhagwan D. Singh 1994• Diamond, W. P. and Oyler, D. C., 1986, • Kristin Keith, Jim Bauder, Bozeman John “Direction Drilling for Degasification of Wheaton, Montana Bureau of Mines & Coalbeds in Advance of Mining Geology, 2003- “Coalbed Methane-• Govt. of British Columbia – “CBM Frequently Asked Questions” Brochure” • Ministry of Coal, India, Annual Report• HELP MANUAL, FAST CBM, SOFTWARE • GEOLOGICA BELGICA (2004) By-Saikat• After O.H.Barzandji, J. Bruining, MAZUMDER & Karl-Heinz A. A. WOLF , Combination Of Laboratory Experiments Delft University of Technology And Field Simulations On The Improvement • Dissertation of Mr. Prasenjit Talukder, Of Coalbed Methane Production By Carbon M.Tech, Petroleum Technology; Asstt. Dioxide Injection, Delft University of Professor, D.U.I.E.T. Technology Second International Methane Mitigation Conference, Novosibirsk, • WORLD WIDE WEB Russia, June 18-23, 2000 78
  77. 77. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe reserve our profound gratitude for Mrs. Leena Sonpal, Director, Ranco Energy& Projects Pvt. Ltd-Mumbai for providing us this great opportunity. Words areinadequate and indescribable to acknowledge the great care and guidance by ourmentor Mr.Prasenjit Talukder, Assistant Professor, Department of PetroleumEngineering, Dibrugarh University Institute of Engineering Technology,Dibrugarh University. Our association with him throughout the project was a greatprocess of learning. We would like to express our gratitude to the esteemed facultymembers of Dibrugarh University Institute of Engineering Technology for theirencouragement and valuable support. We express our gratitude towards ouresteemed faculty members, Mr. Gautom Neog ,Mr. Nayan Medhi and Mr. SantanuSarmah for their care & support, for their constant motivation to work positively andfor extending a helping hand whenever in need. We are greatly indebted and thankfulto for their altruistic teaching and continuous guidance throughout two and half yearsof our study at Dibrugarh University Institute of Engineering Technology.We would also like to thank all those who are knowingly or unknowingly involved incompletion of our project. Finally, our head bows with veneration before ourrespected parents who have given us strength, patience and will to complete thisproject. 79
  78. 78. THANK YOU PROJECT UNDERTAKEN AND COMPLETED ATDIBRUGARH UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. 80

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