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Gas Hydrates: Future Energy Source
Department of Petroleum engineering and Earth Sciences
UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM AND ENER...
Objective
• To study the Exploration and Production of Gas Hydrates as future energy
source.
INTRODUCTION
 World’s marketing energy expanded from:
 Liquid Fuel, Natural gas and coal account for 78% of total energy...
Transformation in Energy Demand
 Oil consumption is predicted to fall from 33% to 30% in coming 10 years.
 Natural Gas a...
What are Gas Hydrates?
 A gas hydrate consists of a water lattice in which light hydrocarbon molecules
are embedded resem...
Where are gas hydrates located?
 Four Earth environments have the temperature and
pressure conditions suitable for the fo...
Current Exploration
 In early 2012, a joint project
between the United States
and Japan produced a steady
flow of methane...
The ocean scenario
Concern associated with Gas Hydrates
Methodology
 Gas hydrate consists of gas molecules surrounded by cages of water molecules.
 Basic hydrate equation:
M (g...
Methane hydrate formation conditions:
 The temperature and corresponding pressure
show the equilibrium condition.
 Hydra...
Laboratory method:
Circulation of pore fluids (methane gas and brine) in a closed pressure and temperature-controlled sys...
Conceptual picture of hydrate formation:
Designing of Model:
 1. Showcase of Dissociation of Ice by injection of methanol.
 2.Physical Model- Physical model of g...
Conclusions
 Gas Hydrates could support global energy security.
 As the cleanest of the fossil fuel options, natural gas...
Indian scenario
 With no major findings of gas reserves it is essential to look for other alternative
resources such as g...
Summary
 Irreversible shift towards gaseous fuels.
 Gas hydrates are secondary gas sources (internationally) but are pri...
References
 British Petroleum Statical reports, 2016
 International Energy Outlook, 2016
 . G.J. Moridis, T.S. Collett,...
THANK YOU
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Gas hydrates

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It consist of Energy Scenario, Basic Definition, methodology,
Methane Hydrate formation condition.
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Gas hydrates

  1. 1. Gas Hydrates: Future Energy Source Department of Petroleum engineering and Earth Sciences UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM AND ENERGY STUDIES Presentation By- Abhinav Garg Abhineet Mishra Alpesh Dadhich Rasik Bhatia
  2. 2. Objective • To study the Exploration and Production of Gas Hydrates as future energy source.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  World’s marketing energy expanded from:  Liquid Fuel, Natural gas and coal account for 78% of total energy.  Consumption of oil is predicted to fall in future. ENERGY SCENARIO: 549 629 815 0 500 1000 2012 2020 2040 Energy Consumption *Source- International Energy Outlook *unit is quadrillion btu
  4. 4. Transformation in Energy Demand  Oil consumption is predicted to fall from 33% to 30% in coming 10 years.  Natural Gas and Non- Renewable sources dominating.  Natural gas use increase but 1.9% per year  Shale gas playing measure role. 120 133 203 2012 2020 2040 GAS VOLUME Why GAS HYDRATES for Natural Gas? • As of 31 December 2013, 6846 Tcf of gross Natural gas reserve estimated. • Methane Hydrates is believed to be larger HC resource than oil, or any natural gas. • Estimated potential is from 500 years to 1500 years, as per current consumption rate. *Source- British Petroleum Statics *Unit: tcf
  5. 5. What are Gas Hydrates?  A gas hydrate consists of a water lattice in which light hydrocarbon molecules are embedded resembling dirty ice.  Naturally occurring gas hydrates are a form of water ice which contains a large amount of methane within its crystal structure.  They are restricted to the shallow lithosphere (2000-4000 m depth)  With pressurization, they remain stable at temperatures up to 18°C.  The average hydrate composition is 1 mole of methane for every 5.75 moles of water.  The observed density is around 0.9 g/cm3.  One liter of methane clathrate solid would contain 168 liters of methane gas (at STP).
  6. 6. Where are gas hydrates located?  Four Earth environments have the temperature and pressure conditions suitable for the formation and stability of methane hydrate. These are  1) sediment and sedimentary rock units below Arctic permafrost;  2) sedimentary deposits along continental margins;  3) deep-water sediments of inland lakes and seas;  4) under Antarctic ice.
  7. 7. Current Exploration  In early 2012, a joint project between the United States and Japan produced a steady flow of methane by injecting carbon dioxide into the methane hydrate accumulation.  Currently, India’s Oil Ministry and the US Geological Survey made the discovery of large, highly enriched accumulations of natural gas hydrate — an icy form of the fuel — in the Bay of Bengal. In 2016 ONGC has struck a gas reserve in the form of hydrates in the Krishna-Godavari basin off the Andhra coast.
  8. 8. The ocean scenario
  9. 9. Concern associated with Gas Hydrates
  10. 10. Methodology  Gas hydrate consists of gas molecules surrounded by cages of water molecules.  Basic hydrate equation: M (g) + NHH2O (l) ↔M.NHH2O(s) CONDITION: • High pressure and low temperature, marine conditions. • Sufficient amount of water. Hydrate Formation curve
  11. 11. Methane hydrate formation conditions:  The temperature and corresponding pressure show the equilibrium condition.  Hydrate will be formed if any temperature below and any pressure above equilibrium is taken .  Strength of methane hydrate: It has found that water ice and methane hydrate have about the same strength at very low temperatures of 180 K and below. But the hydrate is much stronger than ice at temperatures of 240 K and above.
  12. 12. Laboratory method: Circulation of pore fluids (methane gas and brine) in a closed pressure and temperature-controlled system. Flooding a water saturated sand sample with methane gas while maintaining the pressure and temperature within the hydrate stability field. Employed to mix water and gas until all the reactants are used up. The methane gas displaces water as it is injected into the sand sample which is held within the gas stability. Rind are ruptured on increasing the pressure and allow the pore flooding process to continue. Special situation: Hydrate formation also can take place within a shut-in oil well  oil will dissolve some water—generally small amounts. Under high-temperature/high-pressure (HT/HP) conditions. The oil is produced up the wellbore, temperature falls, and liquid water comes out of solution. , The micro droplets gradually coalesce and precipitate.
  13. 13. Conceptual picture of hydrate formation:
  14. 14. Designing of Model:  1. Showcase of Dissociation of Ice by injection of methanol.  2.Physical Model- Physical model of gas hydrate showing molecular structure with the help of plastic balls and sticks.  3. Animated Model-Animated video showing occurrence, extraction, laboratory preparation and burning of Gas hydrate is shown for better understanding of gas hydrate. Software Used: Adobe Flash player Description- Solid Body is created which is then animated and incorporated with sound and slides. Adobe After effect is then used for finalising the video.
  15. 15. Conclusions  Gas Hydrates could support global energy security.  As the cleanest of the fossil fuel options, natural gas could be an important source of energy for any future.  Gas hydrates are believed to occur in abundance in many settings around the world. If this potential is confirmed, they will become highly valued as local energy resources, particularly for nations with limited conventional domestic energy options
  16. 16. Indian scenario  With no major findings of gas reserves it is essential to look for other alternative resources such as gas hydrates.  Vast continental margins with substantial sediment thickness and organic content, provide favorable conditions for occurrence of gas hydrates in the deep waters adjoining the Indian continent. Caution:  Gas hydrates hold the danger of natural hazards associated with sea floor stability release of methane to ocean and atmosphere, and gas hydrates disturbed during drilling pose a safety problem.  Development of a field model is quite necessary before the installation of a full scale setup in the sea bed.
  17. 17. Summary  Irreversible shift towards gaseous fuels.  Gas hydrates are secondary gas sources (internationally) but are primary, in the national context.  Safe exploitation of methane from hydrate reservoirs calls for a massive research program.
  18. 18. References  British Petroleum Statical reports, 2016  International Energy Outlook, 2016  . G.J. Moridis, T.S. Collett, R.bosewel, M.T.Reagen, 2010, challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from hydrate deposits in geologic systems, SPE 131792.
  19. 19. THANK YOU

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