Gas Hydrates: Future Energy Source
Department of Petroleum engineering and Earth Sciences
UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM AND ENERGY STUDIES
• To study the Exploration and Production of Gas Hydrates as future energy
World’s marketing energy expanded from:
Liquid Fuel, Natural gas and coal account for 78% of total energy.
Consumption of oil is predicted to fall in future.
2012 2020 2040
*Source- International Energy Outlook
*unit is quadrillion btu
Transformation in Energy Demand
Oil consumption is predicted to fall from 33% to 30% in coming 10 years.
Natural Gas and Non- Renewable sources dominating.
Natural gas use increase but 1.9% per year
Shale gas playing measure role.
2012 2020 2040
Why GAS HYDRATES for Natural Gas?
• As of 31 December 2013, 6846 Tcf of gross Natural gas reserve
• Methane Hydrates is believed to be larger HC resource than oil,
or any natural gas.
• Estimated potential is from 500 years to 1500 years, as per
current consumption rate.
*Source- British Petroleum Statics
What are Gas Hydrates?
A gas hydrate consists of a water lattice in which light hydrocarbon molecules
are embedded resembling dirty ice.
Naturally occurring gas hydrates are a form of water ice which contains a large
amount of methane within its crystal structure.
They are restricted to the shallow lithosphere (2000-4000 m depth)
With pressurization, they remain stable at temperatures up to 18°C.
The average hydrate composition is 1 mole of methane for every 5.75 moles of
The observed density is around 0.9 g/cm3.
One liter of methane clathrate solid would contain 168 liters of methane gas (at
Where are gas hydrates located?
Four Earth environments have the temperature and
pressure conditions suitable for the formation and stability
of methane hydrate. These are
1) sediment and sedimentary rock units below Arctic
2) sedimentary deposits along continental margins;
3) deep-water sediments of inland lakes and seas;
4) under Antarctic ice.
In early 2012, a joint project
between the United States
and Japan produced a steady
flow of methane by injecting
carbon dioxide into the
Currently, India’s Oil Ministry
and the US Geological Survey
made the discovery of large,
highly enriched accumulations
of natural gas hydrate — an icy
form of the fuel — in the Bay of
In 2016 ONGC has struck a gas reserve in the form of hydrates in the Krishna-Godavari basin off the Andhra
Gas hydrate consists of gas molecules surrounded by cages of water molecules.
Basic hydrate equation:
M (g) + NHH2O (l) ↔M.NHH2O(s)
• High pressure and low temperature, marine
• Sufficient amount of water.
Hydrate Formation curve
Methane hydrate formation conditions:
The temperature and corresponding pressure
show the equilibrium condition.
Hydrate will be formed if any temperature
below and any pressure above equilibrium is
Strength of methane hydrate: It has found
that water ice and methane hydrate have about
the same strength at very low temperatures of
180 K and below. But the hydrate is much
stronger than ice at temperatures of 240 K and
Circulation of pore fluids (methane gas and brine) in a closed pressure and temperature-controlled system.
Flooding a water saturated sand sample with methane gas while maintaining the pressure and temperature
within the hydrate stability field.
Employed to mix water and gas until all the reactants are used up.
The methane gas displaces water as it is injected into the sand sample which is held within the gas stability.
Rind are ruptured on increasing the pressure and allow the pore flooding process to continue.
Hydrate formation also can take place within a shut-in oil well
oil will dissolve some water—generally small amounts. Under high-temperature/high-pressure (HT/HP)
The oil is produced up the wellbore, temperature falls, and liquid water comes out of solution.
, The micro droplets gradually coalesce and precipitate.
Designing of Model:
1. Showcase of Dissociation of Ice by injection of methanol.
2.Physical Model- Physical model of gas hydrate showing molecular
structure with the help of plastic balls and sticks.
3. Animated Model-Animated video showing occurrence, extraction,
laboratory preparation and burning of Gas hydrate is shown for better
understanding of gas hydrate.
Software Used: Adobe Flash player
Description- Solid Body is created which is then animated and incorporated
with sound and slides. Adobe After effect is then used for finalising the video.
Gas Hydrates could support global energy security.
As the cleanest of the fossil fuel options, natural gas could be an important source of
energy for any future.
Gas hydrates are believed to occur in abundance in many settings around the world. If this
potential is confirmed, they will become highly valued as local energy resources,
particularly for nations with limited conventional domestic energy options
With no major findings of gas reserves it is essential to look for other alternative
resources such as gas hydrates.
Vast continental margins with substantial sediment thickness and organic content,
provide favorable conditions for occurrence of gas hydrates in the deep waters
adjoining the Indian continent.
Gas hydrates hold the danger of natural hazards associated with sea floor
stability release of methane to ocean and atmosphere, and gas hydrates
disturbed during drilling pose a safety problem.
Development of a field model is quite necessary before the installation of a full
scale setup in the sea bed.
Irreversible shift towards gaseous fuels.
Gas hydrates are secondary gas sources (internationally) but are primary, in the
Safe exploitation of methane from hydrate reservoirs calls for a massive research
British Petroleum Statical reports, 2016
International Energy Outlook, 2016
. G.J. Moridis, T.S. Collett, R.bosewel, M.T.Reagen, 2010, challenges, uncertainties
and issues facing gas production from hydrate deposits in geologic systems, SPE