Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Hydrocarbon Generation & Migration

10,952 views

Published on

Hydrocarbon Generation & Migration

Published in: Engineering
  • Sex in your area is here: ❶❶❶ http://bit.ly/39pMlLF ❶❶❶
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Follow the link, new dating source: ❶❶❶ http://bit.ly/39pMlLF ❶❶❶
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • My partner says the difference is incredible! My partner has probably punched me a hundred times to get me to roll over and stop snoring. I have been using your techniques recently and now my partner has told me that the difference is incredible. But what has amazed me the most is how much better and more energetic I now feel after a good night's sleep! Thank you so much! ▲▲▲ https://bit.ly/37PhtTN
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Hydrocarbon Generation & Migration

  1. 1. Hydrocarbon Generation and Migration
  2. 2. What is oil and gas? Where does it come from?
  3. 3. Origin: Plankton cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=93510 Plant plankton Animal plankton en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ceratium_hirundinella.jpg en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Copepod. 10,000 of these bugs would fit on a pinhead! • Most oil and gas starts life as microscopic plants and animals that live in the ocean.
  4. 4. Introduction  However, under certain conditions there may be very little oxygen on the sea floor.  This may be because the ocean is deep and stagnant and oxygen has not been mixed down from the surface waters.  No animal life can survive where the sea bed is completely lacking oxygen. Without animals to eat the dead plankton, the organic mush builds up on the sea bed.
  5. 5. On the sea bed  When plankton dies it slowly settles to the sea bed where it forms an organic mush. Usually there are lots of animals living on the sea floor that feed on this material. One important group is the polychaete worms. These are detritivores, which means they eat the dead and decay remains of other organisms upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/04/Plankton.jpg When the plankton dies it rains down on sea bed to form an organic mush Sea bed en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nerr0328.jpg If there are any animals on the sea bed these will feed on the organic particles
  6. 6. Origin: Black Shale upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/04/Plankton.jpg • However, if there is little or no oxygen in the water then animals can’t survive and the organic mush accumulates • Where sediment contains organic matter, it eventually forms a rock known as a Black Shale © Earth Science World Image Bank
  7. 7. Interpretation of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) (based on early oil window maturity) Hydrocarbon Generation Potential TOC in Shale (wt. %) TOC in Carbonates (wt. %) Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent 0.0-0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-2.0 2.0-5.0 >5.0 0.0-0.2 0.2-0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-2.0 >2.0
  8. 8. Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks Vitrinite Reflected-Light Micrograph of Coal Kerogen Disseminated Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks That is Insoluble in Oxidizing Acids, Bases, and Organic Solvents. Vitrinite A nonfluorescent type of organic material in petroleum source rocks derived primarily from woody material. The reflectivity of vitrinite is one of the best indicators of coal rank and thermal maturity of petroleum source rock.
  9. 9. Origin: Cooking www.oilandgasgeology.com/oil_gas_window.jpg As source rock is buried, it is heated. Kerogen Gas Oil Organic matter is first changed by the increase in temperature into kerogen, which is a solid form of hydrocarbon Around 90°C, it is changed into a liquid state, which we call oil Around 150°C, it is changed into a gas A rock that has produced oil and gas in this way is known as a Source Rock
  10. 10. Schematic Representation of the Mechanism of Petroleum Generation and Destruction (modified from Tissot and Welte, 1984) Organic Debris Kerogen Carbon Initial Bitumen Oil and Gas Methane Oil Reservoir Migration Thermal Degradation Cracking Diagenesis Catagenesis Metagenesis Progressive Burial and Heating
  11. 11. Type of hydrocarbon Sweet • The term "sweet" originates from the fact that a low level of sulfur provides the oil with a mildly sweet taste and pleasant smell. • High-quality, low-sulfur crude oil is commonly used for processing into gasoline and is in high demand, particularly in the industrialized nations. • "Light sweet crude oil" is the most sought-after version of crude oil as it contains a disproportionately large fraction that is directly processed (fractionation) into gasoline (naphtha), kerosene, and high-quality diesel (gas oil).
  12. 12. Producers of sweet crude oil include: The Far East/Oceania: Australia Asia/Pacific: Brunei China India Indonesia Malaysia New Zealand Vietnam The Middle East Kurdistan North America: United States (Pennsylvania)
  13. 13. Sour Petroleum containing higher levels of sulfur is called sour crude oil. Sour crude oil is crude oil containing a high amount of the impurity sulfur (level in the oil is more than 0.5% ). The impurities need to be removed before this lower quality crude can be refined into petrol, thereby increasing the cost of processing - higher-priced gasoline than that made from sweet crude oil. Usually processed into heavy crude oil such as diesel and fuel oil rather than gasoline to reduce processing cost.
  14. 14. The majority of the sulfur in crude oil occurs bonded to carbon atoms, with a small amount occurring as elemental sulfur in solution and as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. Sour oil can be toxic and corrosive, especially when the oil contains higher levels of hydrogen sulfide, a t low concentrations has the smell of rotten eggs. Sour crude oil needs to be stabilized by having hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) removed from it before being transported by oil tankers for safety reasons
  15. 15. • Since sour crude is more common than sweet crude in the U.S. part of the Gulf of Mexico, Platts has come out in March 2009 with a new sour crude benchmark (oil marker) called "Americas Crude Marker (ACM)". • Dubai Crude (and Oman Crude) both sour crude oils have been used as a benchmark (crude oil) oil marker for Middle East crude oils for some time. • The major producers of sour crude oil include: North America: Alberta (Canada), United States' portion of the Gulf of Mexico, and Mexico. South America: Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. Middle East: Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, Syria, and Egypt.
  16. 16. Generation, Migration, and Trapping Migration route Reservoir rock Seal Oil/water contact (OWC) Hydrocarbon accumulation in the reservoir rock Top of maturity Source rock Fault (impermeable) of Hydrocarbons
  17. 17. • Secondary migration is any movement in carrier rocks or reservoir rocks outside the source rock or movement through fractures within the source rock.
  18. 18. •Tertiary migration includes leakage, seepage, dissipation and alteration of petroleum as it reaches the Earth’s surface

×