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Sample Sample  Pattern Area training Module
 

Sample Sample Pattern Area training Module

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Sample on-line training from FBIS

Sample on-line training from FBIS

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    Sample Sample  Pattern Area training Module Sample Sample Pattern Area training Module Presentation Transcript

    • fingerprint Capture and Pattern Area Determination
      Small sample of Module 3
      Forensic Biometric Identification Solutions LLC.
    • Common fingerprint termsused in this training program
      • Bifurcation, is the forking or dividing of one ridge into two or more ridges.
      • Divergence, is the spreading apart of two ridges that have been running parallel or nearly parallel.
      • Fingerprint patterns fall into 3 major pattern groups loops, arches and whorls. Each grouping has the same general characteristics.
      • Patternareais the part of the finger impression used in the interpretation and classification of a finger.
      • Type lines may be defined as the two innermost ridges that surround or tend to surround the pattern area.
      • Focal points are found within most pattern area’s usually a delta and core.
      • The delta first obstruction at the point of divergence of the type lines in front of or nearest the center of the divergence.
      • Core approximate center of the patter area.
      • Tracings are used to break down whorl patterns into smaller sub-groupings.
      • Automated fingerprint identifications systems( AFIS) are fingerprint search systems designed to search, store and retrieve fingerprint cards.
      • Line of Flow imaginary linebetween the delta and core in loop and whorl patterns. Line of flow is used to determine sufficient recurve in patterns.
      • horizontal plane is the ridge directly below an up thrusting or angular ridge in a tented arch pattern, the baseline ridge enters the pattern may rise slightly and exits on the opposite side from which it entered.
    • Permanent & Unique to an Individual
      Fingerprints have been used as a means of identifications for more than 2000 years. In
      1890 the first textbook published on fingerprints by Sir Francis Galton argued no two
      fingerprints are the same, and that fingerprints remain unchanged over time. Today, the
      American Institute of Applied Science states “ The basis of fingerprint identification is the
      premise that the configurations formed by the raised ridges of the palmar surface of the
      hands are unique and do not undergo any natural changes, except growth, from fetal life
      until decomposition”. The permanence and uniqueness of fingerprint ridge detail is an
      accepted fact in the scientific community as often demonstrated in terminology used by
      scientists; a chemist for example will often use the term "fingerprint region" to describe an
      area of a chemical that can be used to identify it. In addition to the scientific principles of
      the permanence and uniqueness of fingerprint ridge detail, it was found that based on the
      variations in the patterns formed by the ridges, the fingerprints could be grouped into a small
      number of pattern types. This ability to classify fingerprint pattern type has allowed
      fingerprints to replace previous Identification systems , today fingerprints account for more
      positive Identifications of individuals worldwide daily, than any other human identification
      procedure.
    • Utilizing fingerprints
      Classification systems were developed to utilize the distinctive ridges that appear on the
      inside of the end joints of the fingers and thumbs. Fingerprints fall into three major pattern
      Groupings (loop, arch, whorl). Each pattern group has the same general characteristics or
      family resemblance. The three major pattern types may be further divided into subgroups by
      means of smaller differences existing between the patterns, in the same major group. The
      arch group includes the plain arch and the tented arch the loop group includes the radial and
      ulnar loops. The whorl group includes four types of whorl, the plain whorl, central pocket
      Loop whorl , double loop whorl, and accidental whorl. This ability to categorize each finger
      allowed agencies to store the fingerprint cards in small easy to mange bins of fingerprint cards
      allowing quick and accurate access to the fingerprint database. The Henry classification
      utilized both the major pattern grouping and the pattern subgroups in it’s classification
      formula which allowed agencies to store, search and retrieve fingerprint records quickly and
      accurately. The systems could be used by small agencies with hundreds of fingerprint cards
      as well as large state agencies housing millions of fingerprint records. In the early 90’s
      automated fingerprint identification system began to replace the manual fingerprint systems.
      The automated systems allowed classification rules to be relaxed utilizing computer
      technology to store, search and retrieve fingerprint records based more on minutiae detail
      than pattern type.
    • Fingerprint Patterns
      All fingerprint images can be categorized into one of these three(3) main pattern groupings. These pattern groupings are defined by their unique general characteristics. The patterns groupings can be further divided into sub-groups by means of smaller differences existing between the patterns in the same pattern group.
      In this course we will look at the main pattern grouping as well as the sub groups associated with them. There are a number of rules and definitions used in determining pattern and pattern area, which we will go over in the next few slides.
      Loops
      Arches
      Whorls
      Simple way to remember the major pattern groups LAW
    • Determining Major Pattern Grouping
      In order to determine the pattern grouping for a fingerprint,
      there are a number of guidelines followed in all classification
      systems, these guidelines insure uniformity in fingerprint
      pattern determination. The fingerprint pattern today is used as
      a filter in automated fingerprint systems and a correct pattern
      can impact the results of a latent or ten print search, The 1st.
      area of interest in determining pattern type is the pattern area.
      Pattern area is where you will find all the information required
      to accurately determine the correct fingerprint pattern. The
      pattern area contains the focal points used in determining
      the fingerprint pattern. The pattern area is present in all
      patterns, but in most arch patterns it is impossible to define.
      The fingerprint pattern area in loops, whorls and some arch
      patterns will contain the delta(s), core and ridges used in the
      pattern determination process.
      Automated Fingerprint
      Identification Systems
      when searching latent
      Images normally are
      60-70 % accurate. Using
      pattern to limit the number
      of suspects increases the
      likelihood of identifying a
      latent with a suspect in the
      database.
    • The Pattern Area is defined by the Typelines.
      The typelines are the two (2) innermost ridges that run parallel, diverge and surround or tend to surround an area of ridge detail. The enclosed area of ridge detail is defined as the pattern area.
      Red lines highlight type lines that define the pattern area. Pattern area is that part of a loop or whorl in which appear the core(s), delta(s), and ridge(s) with which we are concerned in fingerprint pattern determination and classification.
    • Type lines are not always continuous ridges
      Type lines are not may not always two
      continuous ridges, in fact most typelines
      are not continuous ridges. The causes of the
      breaks could be natural, damage to the
      finger or just a poorly captured fingerprint
      images. Most typelines will have slight ridge
      breaks, bifurcating ridges or the ridge will
      end abruptly. When there is a definite break
      in a type line, the ridge immediately outside
      of the break is considered the continuation
      of the ridge. If the type line bifurcates, take
      the ridge that tends toward the middle of the
      pattern area as the continuation of the
      type line.
    • Determining Pattern Area
      Small break due to the way
      Prints were captured ignore
      The break
      The small breaks in the ridge due to poor
      image quality, worn ridges etc. are not
      considered definite ridge endings and you
      continue following the ridge after the slight
      break. As we stated earlier the pattern area
      contains the cores, deltas, and ridges which
      are required for accurate fingerprint patter
      determination.
      The break in this type line is caused by a
      temporary scar and is not considered a break
      In the type line.
    • Angled Ridges
      Angled ridges cannot be used as type lines. The angled ridge is formed by two(2) ridges, one abutting up against the other ridge. The definition for a type line the two (2) innermost ridges that run parallel, diverge and surround or tend to surround an area of ridge detail. Since an angle is formed by formed by two separate and distinct ridges it does not meet the definition for a type line..
      Type lines are these 2 innermost
      Ridges that run parallel and diverge
      2 ridges meeting forming an angle
      Cannot be used as a type line.
    • Type lines Bifurcating Ridges
      Bifurcation 1 ridge
      into 2 ridges
      In the example to the right we see B a bifurcation
      one(1) ridge splitting into two (2) ridges. The
      bifurcation does not run parallel to the type line
      A, so it can’t be used as a type line. We move
      outward to ridge which does run parallel to A, this
      meets the criteria for a type line and is in fact the
      Type line in this pattern.
      C
      B
      A
      Type lines, ridges run
      Parallel then diverge
    • Type lines
      The rule for a type line is it must run parallel, a type lines can be very short. Care must be exercised when locating the type line.
      Two forks of a bifurcation cannot be used as
      type lines. The exception to this rule is when the
      forks run parallel after bifurcating and then
      diverge. In such a case the two forks become
      the two innermost ridges required by the
      definition.
    • Now That You have determined Pattern Area
      Once the pattern area has been determined,
      you can locate theca points of that pattern:
      Delta
      Core
      Ridge detail
      First we’ll look at defining and determining
      the delta of the fingerprint pattern.
    • The delta is the first ridge or part of a ridge at or in front of and nearest the
      center of the point of divergence of the fingerprint type lines.
      Area’s where the delta formations are usually found. The first obstruction of any
      nature at the point of divergence of the type lines in front of or nearest the center of
      the divergence.
    • Delta
      The delta may be:
      ● A bifurcation
      ● An abrupt ending ridge
      ● A dot
      ● A short ridge
      ● A meeting of two ridges
      ● A point on the first recurving ridge located nearest to the center and in front of the divergence of the type lines.
    • Core
      Cores, as the name implies, the core is usually the
      approximate center of the pattern area. In loop
      patterns the rule used to determine the core is the
      sufficient recurve rule. Simply stated there has to
      be a recurving ridge with a sufficient recurve. A
      sufficient recurving ridge in a looping pattern is one
      free of appendages that abut on the outside of the
      ridge at 90 degree angle between the shoulders of
      the looping ridge. Since a majority of the patterns
      are looping ridge types of patterns we will look at
      determining the core in these patterns 1st.
    • Sufficient Recurve
      In order to determine core placement in a
      looping fingerprint pattern, you first need
      To determine if the pattern has a sufficient
      recurve. Sufficient recurve is defined as
      the innermost recurving ridge that enters
      the pattern area, recurves and exits or
      tends to exit on the same side as the
      ridge entered. The ridge must be free of
      Any ridge appendages abutting at right
      angles on the outside of the recurve
      between the shoulders of the looping
      ridge.
    • Shoulder
      The shoulders on looping ridges are considered the point at which the ridges begin to
      curve or turn inward.
      Shoulder
      Shoulder
      Ridge area that must be free of any
      ridge appendages abutting at right
      angles on the outside of the
      Recurve.
    • Sufficient Recurve
      What do you do if the innermost
      looping ridge is spoiled ?
      This does meet the requirement
      And is a sufficient recurve.
      You move to the next recurve and determine
      if it has a good recurve. This process
      is followed until you get a good recurve
      or you are out of the pattern area.
      Spoils the recurve look for
      a sufficient recurve in the next
      innermost looping ridge.
    • Innermost sufficient recurve
      Core
      Core
      Innermost sufficient
      recurve
      Examples of the innermost recurving
      ridges being spoiled and dropping back to
      the next recurving ridge until you get a
      recurving ridge that is not spoiled. Once
      you have that you can determine the core
      placement.
      Innermost sufficient
      recurve
      Core
      Innermost sufficient
      recurve
    • Ridge Counting
      The ridge count is the number of ridges intervening between the delta and the core. The ridge count is usually
      determined utilizing a red line found on the reticule of the fingerprint glass. The line is lined up between the delta
      and core is used count to insure accuracy. Ridges that touch or cross the line become your ridge count, in the event
      there is a bifurcation of a ridge exactly at the point where the imaginary line would be drawn, two ridges are
      counted. Fragments and dots are counted as ridges only if they appear to be as thick and heavy as the other ridges
      In the immediate pattern. The delta and core are not counted. Ridge counting was used extensively in the Henry
      classification formula with the advent of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) ridge counting is
      seldom used though a ridge count across a looping ridge is a required element of a loop pattern.
      Core
      Delta
      Ridge Count of 3
      Ridge 3
      Ridge 2
      Ridge 1
    • Quiz Correctly Identify
      Type lines
      Delta
      Core
    • Core
      Core
      Delta
      Delta
      Quiz Correctly Identify
      Type lines
      Delta
      Core
      Core
      Core
      Delta
      Delta