Motivations<br />The goal of the Canadian government (PM Macdonald) was to open the prairies to Canadian and European settlement and the railway<br />Aboriginal title had to be settled first<br />1870 – all land other than the Selkirk settlement still held by aboriginal nations<br />
negotiations<br />Treaty negotiations began in 1870 with the Native Peoples and the Department of Indian Affairs<br />Indian Commissioner W. Simpson <br />sent to Manitoba to begin talks with the Cree and Saulteaux peoples.<br />Concluded Treaties 1 and 2 <br />(August, 1871)<br />
Historical Indian Treaties<br />http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/topics/1238/<br />
Seven Treaties<br />Manitoba Natives signed away their claim to traditional homeland<br />Government wanted the land<br />Little room for negotiation<br />Settlement could not take place till Native title to land was terminated<br />Natives had no options – starving, disease, death<br />
Terms: Promise vs. reality<br />Natives wanted to retain 60% of their land<br />Simpson told to offer <br />160 acres for every family of 5,<br />Farm equipment<br />Supplies<br />Farming instruction<br />Offer not really acceptable to natives but they knew it was the only offer <br />Final size of reserves very small compared to original Native territory<br />
Reality for Natives<br />Government had no intention of living up to promises<br />Natives welcomed chance to farm as traditional lifestyle went with the extermination of the bison herds<br />Standards of living declined<br />Promised tools, supplies, and animals never materialized<br />
Government blames Natives<br />Government blames natives for their own problems<br />Didn’t want Native to prosper or sell surplus wheat for cash<br />“unnatural for Natives to use machinery” yet could not farm w/o it<br />Natives abandon farming and <br />dependent on govt by end of <br />19th C<br />
More changes<br />5 more treaties concluded between 1874 – 1877<br />Government gained access to all land suitable to agriculture<br />Indian Act, 1876<br />Natives required to live on reserves<br />Native children had to attend residential schools<br />Catholic missionaries<br />Hired as translators<br />Encouraged Natives to sign treaties to avoid starvation<br />Felt natives could be more productive members of society<br />Complete cultural destruction for the Natives<br />
Residential schools<br />The Canadian government believed it was responsible for educating and caring for aboriginal people.<br />Best to learn English and adopt Christianity and Canadian customs. <br />Ideally, native traditions would diminish, or be completely abolished in a few generations.<br />Policy called "aggressive assimilation" to be taught at church-run, government-funded industrial schools, later called residential schools. <br />children were easier to mould than adults, and boarding school was the best way to prepare them for life in mainstream society.<br />Attendance was mandatory. <br />Agents were employed by the government to ensure all native children attended.<br />
Residential Schools Cont.<br />At its peak in 1939, there were 800 schools operating in Canada. <br />Last one closed in 1996.<br />In all, about 150,000 aboriginal, Inuit and Métis children were removed from their communities and forced to attend the schools.<br />http://archives.cbc.ca/society/education/topics/692/<br />
http://www.mccord-museum.qc.ca/scripts/projects/CH/animCH.php?tourID=VQ_P2_12_EN&Lang=1&type=flash<br />Land claims now and then<br />http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/topics/1238/<br />Dene and metis agreement<br />http://archives.cbc.ca/society/native_issues/clips/13282/<br />BC plebiscite<br />http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/topics/1238/<br />
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.