Indian Residential Schools


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We will be doing this lesson following the first. It will be done the same way (lecture). There is an assignment at the end, which will also be posted on facebook and it will be due 7 days from the time we go over the assignment

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  • - tracey deer interview.
  • Indian Residential Schools

    1. 1. Residential Schools in Quebec and Canada Lesson 2
    2. 2. Leading up to the Residential Schools <ul><li>During the 17 th and 18 th centuries it remained the goal of the church to convert the Native people to Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>As more people began to come over to the colonies and turn them into permanent settlement the need to do so became more intense. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>The BNA Act of 1867 gave provincial governments jurisdiction over education. However, Aboriginal people and their treaties were under federal jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to that in 1857, the Gradual Civilization act was passed. This bill was followed by the Gradual Enfranchisement Act of 1869. </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Gradual Enfranchisement Act <ul><li>This act stated that a native man who was capable of reading and writing in English or French who had sufficient intellectual abilities would no longer be an “Indian”. </li></ul><ul><li>The Canadian government stripped these men and subsequently their wives and children of their native status. </li></ul><ul><li>They were no longer granted land on reserves, they were forced to become British subjects. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>The government removed any tribal ties from them, they were no longer granted land on reserves </li></ul><ul><li>They were forced to become British subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>*Class Discussion* </li></ul><ul><li>What is your opinion of these acts and what they did? </li></ul>
    6. 6. The emergence of the schools <ul><li>During the mid to late 1800’s these residential schools began to open. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1920 attendance became mandatory for all native children. </li></ul><ul><li>They were often forcefully taken from their homes. </li></ul>
    7. 7. The schools <ul><li>The main purpose of the schools were to “civilize” and convert the children. By doing so, the Canadian government hoped to assimilate the native people. </li></ul><ul><li>At the schools the children ranged in age from about 7 to 15. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>The curriculum included moral, academic and industrial training. </li></ul><ul><li>Moral training involved religious teachings </li></ul><ul><li>Academics were limited, as many of the teachers were just clergy members and not trained in education. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children were not taught to the same standards as children of the non-native families were. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Industrial training included farming, taking care of the school grounds, cleaning, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The plan was to push farming on the students so that they would pursue an agricultural life upon graduation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to have received their own land to farm, native governments would have had to change their system of land allotment, which they did not want to do. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>The children were not allowed to speak any language other than English or French. </li></ul><ul><li>Children spent half the day in class and the rest maintaining the school. Most students did not surpass a grade 3 level education. </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of various forms was common. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is estimated that 60% of students died while in residential schools due to illness, malnutrition, beatings, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Children rarely experienced normal family life or even affection. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters written home had to be in English, which most parents did not understand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys and girls were kept segregated, keeping brothers and sisters from seeing each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When they returned to native reserves, they often felt like they did not belong. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were no longer familiar with the traditions and customs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their schooling taught them that Native culture was inferior. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>However they also did not feel like they belonged in mainstream western culture. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their schooling was limited, making it hard for them to find jobs and function in an urban setting. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Video link: 692/ </li></ul><ul><li>Video 1 </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>In 1948 both the house of commons and the senate recommended closing the residential schools. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the church who opposed and due to the fact that it was used as a social welfare placement, kept them up and running. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 70’s the Native Indian brotherhood called for native control of native education and the government started closing residential schools. </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>It wasn’t until 1996 that the last running residential school, the Gordon Residential School in Saskatchewan, closed. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1998, the Assembly of First Nations developed the Indian Residential Schools Resolution Unit. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Stephen Harper’s Apology: on facebook </li></ul>
    17. 17. Assignment <ul><li>Using the link posted on facebook go to CBC’s archive website and watch or listen to at least 3 more clips about residential schools. Then write a series of 4 diary entries as if you were a native child attending a residential school. Each entry should be a minimum of 200 words and have logical dates. </li></ul><ul><li>Due: One week from today. </li></ul>