0
 117 different chemical elements are
known to us. These elements combine to
form a large number of compounds.
 On the ba...
 An indicator is a dye that changes color
when it is put into an acid or a base.
 Common indicators- Litmus, Methyl
oran...
 An acid turns blue litmus to red.
 A base turns red litmus to blue.
 Methyl orange indicator gives red color in
acid s...
 Litmus is a natural indicator. It is a purple
dye extracted from a type of plant
called Lichen.
 It is neither acidic n...
 Turmeric- contains a yellow dye which
turns red in basic solution.
 The red cabbage extract which is
neutral in nature ...
 Onion has a characteristic smell . When
basic solution is added to a strip treated
with onions then the smell can’t be
d...
 Acids are sour in taste and turn blue
litmus red.
 The acids present in plant materials and
animals are called organic ...
 The acids prepared from the minerals of
the earth are called mineral acids.
 Hydrochloric acid
 Sulphuric acid
 Nitri...
 Acids have a sour taste.
 Acids turn blue litmus red.
 Acid solutions conduct electricity.
 Acids react with metals to form
hydrogen gas.
 Metal + Acid → Salt + Hydrogen gas
 Eg. Zn(s) +H₂SO₄(aq)→ ZnSO₄ +H₂(g)
 Acids react with metal carbonates to
from carbon dioxide gas.
 Metal carbonate +Acid → Salt + carbon dioxide +Water.
 ...
 Acids react with bases to form salt and
water. This is called neutralization
reaction.
 Acid + Base → Salt + Water
 Na...
 Acids react with metal oxides to form salt
and water.
 Metal oxide + Acid → Salt + Water
 CuO (s) + 2HCl (aq) → CuCl₂ ...
 Acids have corrosive nature.
 The mineral acids cause severe burns on
the skin and attack and eat up meterials
like clo...
 An acid is a substance that releases H+
ions in an aqueous solution
› Aqueous means water
 Example: when hydrochloric a...
 A strong acid breaks down completely in
water and gives off many H+ ions
 HCl
 H₂SO₄
 HNO₃
 A weak acid only partially breaks down.
It gives off much less H+ than a strong
acid
 CH₃COOH
 H₂CO₃
 H₂SO₃
 Sulphuric acid is used in manufacture of
fertilizers (like ammonium sulphate ),
paints ,dyes ,chemicals, plastics,
synth...
 A base is a substance that releases
hydroxide (OH-) ions in an aqueous
solution
 Example: When sodium hydroxide
(NaOH) ...
 The solution of substances like caustic soda,
lime(chuna) and washing soda are bitter in
taste and soapy to touch.
 Bas...
 Bases usually taste bitter
 Bases feel slippery
 Bases contain hydroxide ions (OH-)
 Bases are the chemicals opposite...
 A base is a substance which dissolves in
water to produce Hydroxide ions(OH⁻
ions)
 NaOH(s) → Na⁺ (aq) + OH⁻ (aq)
 KOH...
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Acids, bases and salts
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Acids, bases and salts

257

Published on

C.B.S.E class 10

Published in: Science, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
257
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Acids, bases and salts"

  1. 1.  117 different chemical elements are known to us. These elements combine to form a large number of compounds.  On the basis of their properties all the compounds can be classified into- Acids, bases and Salts.
  2. 2.  An indicator is a dye that changes color when it is put into an acid or a base.  Common indicators- Litmus, Methyl orange and Phenolphthalein.
  3. 3.  An acid turns blue litmus to red.  A base turns red litmus to blue.  Methyl orange indicator gives red color in acid solution.  Methyl orange indicator gives yellow color in basic solution.  Phenolphthalein is colorless in acid solution.  Phenolphthalein gives pink color in basic solution.
  4. 4.  Litmus is a natural indicator. It is a purple dye extracted from a type of plant called Lichen.  It is neither acidic nor basic.
  5. 5.  Turmeric- contains a yellow dye which turns red in basic solution.  The red cabbage extract which is neutral in nature remains red in acidic solution but turns green on adding to basic solution.
  6. 6.  Onion has a characteristic smell . When basic solution is added to a strip treated with onions then the smell can’t be detected. Acids don’t have any effect.  Vanilla extract has a characteristic pleasant smell. In basic solution the smell can’t be detected whereas acids do not destroy the smell.
  7. 7.  Acids are sour in taste and turn blue litmus red.  The acids present in plant materials and animals are called organic acids.  Citric acid.  Tartaric acid.  Oxalic acid.  Methanoic acid.  Organic acids are weak acids
  8. 8.  The acids prepared from the minerals of the earth are called mineral acids.  Hydrochloric acid  Sulphuric acid  Nitric acid  The mineral acids are strong acids.
  9. 9.  Acids have a sour taste.  Acids turn blue litmus red.  Acid solutions conduct electricity.
  10. 10.  Acids react with metals to form hydrogen gas.  Metal + Acid → Salt + Hydrogen gas  Eg. Zn(s) +H₂SO₄(aq)→ ZnSO₄ +H₂(g)
  11. 11.  Acids react with metal carbonates to from carbon dioxide gas.  Metal carbonate +Acid → Salt + carbon dioxide +Water.  Na₂CO₃(s) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl (aq) +CO₂(g) +H₂O(l)
  12. 12.  Acids react with bases to form salt and water. This is called neutralization reaction.  Acid + Base → Salt + Water  NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) → NaCl (aq) + H₂O (l)
  13. 13.  Acids react with metal oxides to form salt and water.  Metal oxide + Acid → Salt + Water  CuO (s) + 2HCl (aq) → CuCl₂ (aq) + H₂O (l)
  14. 14.  Acids have corrosive nature.  The mineral acids cause severe burns on the skin and attack and eat up meterials like cloth, wood, metal and stone work.
  15. 15.  An acid is a substance that releases H+ ions in an aqueous solution › Aqueous means water  Example: when hydrochloric acid is dissolved in water, the compound separates into chlorine ions (Cl-) and hydrogen ions (H+)
  16. 16.  A strong acid breaks down completely in water and gives off many H+ ions  HCl  H₂SO₄  HNO₃
  17. 17.  A weak acid only partially breaks down. It gives off much less H+ than a strong acid  CH₃COOH  H₂CO₃  H₂SO₃
  18. 18.  Sulphuric acid is used in manufacture of fertilizers (like ammonium sulphate ), paints ,dyes ,chemicals, plastics, synthetic fibres, detergents, explosives and car batteries.  Nitric acid is used for making fertilizers , explosives, dyes and plastics.  Hydrochloric acid is used for removing oxide film before galvanizing.
  19. 19.  A base is a substance that releases hydroxide (OH-) ions in an aqueous solution  Example: When sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is dissolved in water, the compound separates into sodium ions (Na+) and hydroxide ions (OH-)
  20. 20.  The solution of substances like caustic soda, lime(chuna) and washing soda are bitter in taste and soapy to touch.  Bases are those chemical substances which have a bitter taste  Most of the bases do not dissolve in water those bases which dissolve in water without any chemical reaction have a special name .They are called alkali.  Example- NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)₂, NH₂OH.
  21. 21.  Bases usually taste bitter  Bases feel slippery  Bases contain hydroxide ions (OH-)  Bases are the chemicals opposites of acids.  A base is a chemical substance which can neutralize an acid.  All the metal oxides and metal hydroxides are base.  For example- Sodium oxide(Na₂O) is a metal oxide so it is a base and Sodium hydroxide(NaOH) is a metal hydroxide , so it is a base.
  22. 22.  A base is a substance which dissolves in water to produce Hydroxide ions(OH⁻ ions)  NaOH(s) → Na⁺ (aq) + OH⁻ (aq)  KOH(s) → K⁺ (aq) + OH⁻ (aq)  A common property of all the bases is that they produce hydroxide ion when dissolved in water. Water Base/Alkali Sodium ions Hydroxide ions Base/Alkali Pottasium ions Hydroxide ions Water
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×