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Personal diet and nutrition for grade sevens

Personal diet and nutrition for grade sevens

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  • 1. Grade 7  Presented by Progress Nsibande,an aspiring life Orientation teacher from the university of Johannesburg. The credit to the brains which contributed to my work is given in the last slide For comments and discussions contact me on nsibande67@gmail.com
  • 2. Nutrition Why should you care?   Body image  “Happiness is nothing more than good health” - Albert Schweitzer Physical Growth Brain  Daily activities  Sports performance  Prevention of diseases
  • 3. Nutritional needs during adolescence are increased because of the increased growth rate and changes in body composition associated with puberty…
  • 4. Nutrients • Nutrients = elements in food that are required for the growth, repair, and regulation of body processes 1. Carbohydrates 2. Fats 3. Protein 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Water 7. Fiber
  • 5. Healthy Diet: • • • • • • How does it prevent diseases ? Obesity/under-nutrition Hypertension/heart disease Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Osteoporosis/Dental caries Anemia Vitamins and Mineral deficiencies • Cancer
  • 6. Healthy Diet: Deciding the right amount • Actual need varies with physical activity • Physically active people have higher energy needs • If you have low physical activity then you can become obese even with low intake. • Therefore, Energy intake should balance energy expenditure.
  • 7. Balanced diet  A Balanced diet helps  improve your overall  health and well being A Balanced diet •can help you feel better • provide you with more energy, • help you stay fit and active • and help you fight stress.
  • 8. Components of an balanced diet Every integrants has it’s part to play in maintaining, growth and well development of an human body. Water is essential for the correct functioning of the kidneys and bowels. At least 6-8 glasses of plain water should be drunk each day, more in hot weather
  • 9. FATS CARBOHYDRATES • • • • Major and immediate source of energy. Complex carbohydrates recommended High-sugar foods not preferred. Grains, cereals, fresh fruits, vegetables PROTEINS Daily requirements • Boys = 0.29-0.32 g/cm height • Girls = 0.27-0.29 g/cm height • 0.8 – 1.2 g/kg bodyweight • High intensity athletes = 1.21.8 g/kg • Pulses, lentils, soya, dairy products and animal food products. • • • Source of essential fatty acids. Unsaturated fat recommended. e.g. Corn, cottonseed, Til oil, soybean, and sunflower oils contain about 50% polyunsaturated fat. Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels.
  • 10. Iron • • • Anemia is most common nutritional deficiency in adolescents. Increased red cell mass during adolescence. Daily need Boys = 12 mg/d & Girls = 18 mg/d Green leafy vegetables, jaggery, wet dates, whole-grain, dried beans, peas & dried fruits, nuts & fortified wheat products, eggs, red meat etc. Zinc • • • • • Second most abundant trace mineral in the body. (next to iron) Necessary for normal growth. Clinically apparent deficiency rare. Daily need = 15 mg Green leafy vegetables, wheat germ, whole grains meat, cheese, eggs, poultry, liver. Calcium • Most bone mass acquired during adolescence. • Typical intake of calcium = about 800 mg/ d • Daily need = 1300 mg • Consumption of soft drinks & caffeine contribute substantially to low calcium intake in adolescents. • Bone mass irreversible. deficiency may is Milk and its products, yogurts, cheese, paneer, banana.
  • 11. RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCES FOR ADOLESCENTS Boys 13-15 yrs Girls 13-15 yrs Boys 16-18 yrs Girls 16-18 yrs Net Energy Kcal/d 2450 2060 2440 2060 Protein (g/d) Fat(g/d) Calcium (mg/d) Iron (mg/d) Vit A ug Vit C ug 70 22 600 65 22 600 78 22 600 63 22 600 41 600 28 600 50 600 30 600 40 40 40 40
  • 12. Balanced Diet for Adolescents (Number of Portions) 13 – 18 years g/portion Girls Boys Cereals & millets 30 10 14 Pulses 30 2 2 Milk (ml) 100 5 5 Roots & tubers 100 1 2 Green leafy vegetables 100 1 1 Other vegetables 100 1 1 Fruits 100 1 1 Sugar 5 6 7 Fats/Oils(visible) 5 5 5
  • 13. Healthy Diet: Carbohydrates e.g. Rice, Chapati Protein-based e.g. Milk, Egg, Dal and Meat. Food intake Salads, Vegetables Fruits Increase fiber Decrease oily foods ‘No’ to soft drinks .
  • 14. Sweets, oils, fats Milk Meat Fruits Vegetables Cereals legumes, roots, tubers
  • 15. Healthy eating is a great way to:       Have energy all day long Get the vitamins and minerals your body needs Stay strong for sports or other activities Reach your maximum height (if you are still growing) Maintain a healthy weight Prevent unhealthy eating habits, like skipping meals and feeling overly hungry at the next meal
  • 16. What is "healthy eating?"     Aiming for regular meals and healthy snacks (when you are hungry or need extra energy) Eating foods from all of the food groups (grains, fruits, vegetables, proteins, dairy proteins, and healthy fats) each day to meet your nutritional needs Balancing nutrient-rich foods with moderate amounts of other foods, such as sweets or fast foods Eating when hungry and stopping when full
  • 17. Tips for Healthy Eating
  • 18. Good eating habits • • • • • • Maintain hygienic habits Eat slowly, chew properly Avoid TV viewing or reading while you eat Small frequent meals Never skip meals, specially breakfast Don’t overeat
  • 19.  Dietary surveys of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years have revealed two disturbing trends:  Underconsumption of vitamins,mineral an dietary fiber, especialy by females; Higher than recommended intakes of fat and saturated fat.
  • 20. •Eat iron rich food Green leafy vegetables  Whole wheat bread  Cereals  Nuts  Liver  Meats  •Eat iron tablet weekly
  • 21. Vitamin A Sources Required for eyesight       Liver Butter Carrots Eggs Green/yellow vegetables Whole milk
  • 22. Vitamin C Sources Citrus fruits  Green vegetables  Amla 
  • 23. Water and Fluids  Average adult loses about 10 cups of water per day  Urination, bowel movements, breathing, perspiration  Functions: Provide medium for nutrients, waste transport, temperature control  For every pound of body weight, you need about 0.5 ounce of fluid  Sources: Beverages, fruits, vegetables
  • 24. Fiber Cellulose-based plant material that cannot be digested  Provides no energy: 0 calories/gram  Types:   Soluble (gel-forming)  Insoluble (absorbs water)  Benefits  Moves stool through digestive tract  Lowers blood cholesterol levels  Steadies blood sugar levels  Recommended: 21-38 grams/day  Most American adults: 11 grams/day
  • 25. Iodine Necessary for thyroid function and breast health. Vegans who do not consume table salt or sea vegetables are often deficient in iodine because plant-based diets are low in iodine. Iodine is added to many foods to ensure sufficient intake: • Table salt • Flour • Milk
  • 26. Zinc Needed for immune functioning, protein synthesis, wound healing, DNA synthesis and cell division. Zinc is of particular importance during periods of growth (pregnancy, infancy, childhood, teens) and during sexual maturation (teens). Animal products provide the majority of zinc in North American diets.
  • 27. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Omega 6 fatty acids are pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic and pro-constrictive. An imbalance of omega 6 to omega 3 can contribute to cancer, arthritis, inflammation and heart disease.
  • 28. Protein & Essential Amino Acids Eating a diverse selection of plant foods will ensure you get enough essential amino acids in your diet. Legumes are high in lysine, but low in methionine. Grains are high in methionine but low in lysine. Eating both grains and legumes, as well as vegetables and fruits will provide all the essential amino acids.
  • 29. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: Why is it important ?
  • 30. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: Importance This includes : • Cardio-respiratory i.e. Heart & Lung fitness • Muscle strength • Endurance & flexibility
  • 31. Types of physical activity PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: • Daily Chores: walking, climbing stairs, cycling, household activities, etc. • Exercise: planned & structured subset of leisure time physical activity undertaken for improving or maintaining physical fitness. 30-60 minutes every day
  • 32. Keeping in shape PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: • It is recommended to have 30-60 min. moderate physical activity on weekdays, four days a week • It is not necessary to exercise continuously • Can be divided into 10 -15 minutes of activities several times through the day
  • 33. Television and Obesity • Excessive TV watching is associated with weight gain specially when associated with increased snacking with junk food and aerated drinks • TVsterol • Combine TV watching with physical activity like stationary bicycling, or spot jogging
  • 34. Eat 5 servings of fruits and veggies a day   Fruits and veggies are about more than just vitamins and minerals. They're also packed with fiber, which means they fill you up. And when you fill up on fruits and veggies, you're less likely to overeat when it comes to high-calorie foods like chips or cookie
  • 35. Don't skip breakfast.  Breakfast kick-starts your metabolism, burning calories from the get-go and giving you energy to do more during the day. People who skip breakfast often feel so hungry that they eat more later on. So they get more calories than they would have if they ate breakfast.
  • 36. Breakfast: • Brain Food • • Improves performance in • studies • Improves physical activities • Does not contribute to overweight • Keeps you healthy The most important meal Skipping breakfast associated with obesity High sugar breakfast causes a high sugar level which dips fast making you more hungry and you eat more sugary food
  • 37. Junk the Junk food!       It is food that tastes great, but is low on nutrition and high on calories Junk Food is an accepted slang term ( and often a derogatory term) used to describe any food of poor nutritional value It is the opposite of "balanced diet. Generally, junk foods offer little in terms of vitamins, protein, vitamins or minerals and are loaded with calories from sugar or fat. These are termed "empty calories" What is considered Junk Food? A Most fast food restaurants serve food that has fat as the main calorie
  • 38. Why is Fast Food unhealthy ? • High in calorie, fat, sodium and low in fiber which can cause Obesity, Hypertension, Heart diseases, Diabetes, Cancer etc. • Contains preservatives • Choose low-calorie and low-fat meals, snacks and desserts • Have low fat or skim milk drinks.
  • 39.         Food Nutrition in Snacks Snacks, like , Potato Chips, burger, French fries, and, are not a recommended food for any healthy eating plan or weight loss diet. Typically, they are heavily refined foods, high in calories, high in fat and sodium, with a very low nutritional value. A small serving can contain 100+ calories. Nutrients in Snacks Clearly, if Macronutrients in some foods include carbohydrate, fat and some protein. Energy in Snacks Vitamins in Snacks Snack foods are not a recommended source of vitamins. you eat a lot of fast food everyday, your daily calorie intake will skyrocket
  • 40. Why Healthy Snacking Is Good for You???  You may have noticed that you feel hungry a lot. This is natural — during adolescence, a person's body demands more nutrients to grow. Snacks are a terrific way to satisfy that hunger and get all the vitamins and nutrients, your body needs.  But you need to pay attention to what you eat. Stuffing your face with a large order of fries after class may give you a temporary boost, but a snack this high in fat and calories will only slow you down in the long run.  To keep energy levels going — and avoid weight gain — steer clear of foods with lots of simple carbohydrates (sugars) like candy bars or soda. Look for foods that contain complex carbohydrates like whole-grain breads and cereals and combine them with protein-rich snacks
  • 41. Do healthy snacks exist ? Yes, and in plenty. • Snacks like fresh fruits, sprouted beans and nuts are nutritious and healthy. • Choose low-calorie and low-fat meals, snacks and desserts • Have low fat or skim milk drinks. • Avoid energy dense snacks like burgers.
  • 42. Food Habits of Teens causing concern Skipping breakfast Increased foods from 'other' food group Increased eating outside Soft drink consumption
  • 43. The Food Pyramid Steps to a healthier you GRAINS VEGETABLES FRUITS OILS MILK MEAT & BEANS
  • 44. Nutrition Facts Label
  • 45. Dietary Supplements  Products that supplement the total daily intake of nutrients in the diet  Ingested in tablet, capsule, softgel, gelcap, and liquid form  Not in themselves used as conventional foods or as the only items in a meal or diet  Must be deemed safe for human  Cannot claim to cure or treat diseases  Americans spent over $19 billion on supplements (in 2005)
  • 46. Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 What is Sorghum? Class: Monocotyledones
 Order: Glumiflorae
 Family: Graminaceae (Gramineae or Poaceae)
 Sub family: Andropogonoideae
 Tribe: Andropogonaceae
 Sub tribe: Sorghastreae 
 Genus: Sorghum vulgare Pers.
 Synonym: Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.
  • 47. http://www.phytochemicals.info/ Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Inorganic compounds Vitamins Carbohydrates Dietary fibre Sterols Proteins Flavonoids Cereals&Co. Phytic acid Pigments Lipids Tocols Phenolic acids
  • 48. Sorghum: an ancient, healthy and nutritious old world cereal Naples 28 October 2011 Cereals and Mediterranean Diet Carbohydrates in a balanced diet provide an intake of 55-60% of calories. Source: L. Saturni & G. Ferretti - Celiachia e Dieta Mediterranea senza glutine – Il Pensiero Scientifico ed., 2011
  • 49. Vegetarian Teens Teens are one of the fastest growing populations of vegetarians. A well-executed vegetarian diet can provide all the calories and nutrients needed for the growth and development of adolescents.
  • 50. Vegetarian Teens There are concerns that a vegetarian diet may mask an eating disorder in teens. Education on healthy eating patterns is important to ensure a healthy vegetarian diet during the teen years.
  • 51. Vegetarian Teens Vitamin D, B12, calcium and iron are all important for proper growth during the teen years. Zinc is necessary for proper sexual development and adequate intake should be emphasized in all vegetarian teens.
  • 52. Vegetarian Teens The high calorie needs of teens can be met most efficiently by eating frequently. Encouraging healthy snack habits can help vegetarian teens meet their nutritional needs and caloric needs.
  • 53. The Five Major Plant-Based Food Groups • Whole grains • Legumes and beans • Vegetables • Fruits • Nuts and seeds
  • 54. Key points • Proper Nutrition & Regular Physical Activity are very important for – Growth – Prevention of illness – Future health
  • 55. SATURNI, L.2014.http://s3.amazonaws.com/pptdownload/saturninapoli-111029025620phpapp02.pptx?response-contentdisposition=attachment&Signature=M934Wtt3gcf3 viSuFVOaH6y8diA%3D&Expires=1394009208&AWSA ccessKeyId=AKIAIW74DRRRQ.accessed by 5/03/14 Watson,L.2014.Vegetarian diet http://s3.amazonaws.com/pptdownload/vegetarian10 1-130131093238 phpapp02.pptx?responsecontent disposition=attachment&Signature.accessed by 5/03/14 Jacobs DR, Haddad EH, Lanou AJ, Messina MJ. Food, plant food, and vegetarian diets in the US dietary guidelines: conclusions of an expert panel. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May; 89(5):1549S-1552S.http://s3.amazonaws.com/pptdownload/chapter5-090308172124-phppp01.ppt?responsecontentdisposition=attachment&Signature=eAdAbgQRX%2Fx EbaX
  • 56. Davis,B.2010.Proper nutrition and regular exercise.http://s3.amazonaws.com/pptdownload/chapter5-090308172124phpapp01.ppt?response-contentdisposition=attachment&Signature=ezAdAbgQ RX%2FxEbaX Leung,LM.2010.Dietary and ione intake of adolescents in USA.http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fnan/nutrition/reference/table/index-eng.php#rvv 19.h Canada. Dietary Reference Intake Tables. Available