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SUCCESS STORIES – COMPILATIONOF GAME-BASED LEARNINGINITIATIVES IN ADULTS’ EDUCATIONP4I - Playing for InterculturalityRef. ...
SUCCESS STORIES – COMPILATION OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES IN ADULTS’ EDUCATION                                     ...
TABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTORY NOTE ..........................................................................................
INTRODUCTORY NOTE
INTRODUCTORY NOTEP4I - Play for Interculturality is a Grundtvig Multilateral project, funded by the EuropeanCommission, re...
It has to be added that all the national reports have been elaborated according to the“Guidelines and working methodology ...
GLOSSARY – KEY DEFINITIONS“Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education”         ...
GLOSARY – KEY DEFINITIONS                                                                                                 ...
also conflicts with the notion of serious games (1961: 10-11). This gives a good indication of thekinds of contradictions ...
8                 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY“Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education”...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                                                      9Th...
awareness of prejudices and stereotypes, the diversity of communication styles, suspendingjudgment and empathy. In additio...
11       GREEK ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF  GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES                  Prepared by: SQLearn“Success sto...
GREEK NATIONAL REPORT                                                                                                     ...
During the focus group (separate report has been created), the interview questions were posedand discussed. This report wi...
GREEK MAIN FINDINGS                                                                                                    14A...
The profile of social games playerFrom our interviews and research we received two types of information:Research community...
Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adultlearningSocial games and ser...
f)     Have small prizes to act as motivator.Other elements surfaced during our research were:    a) Careful interaction a...
Skills supported by game-based learning approachesSkills supported can be the following:                                  ...
g) Q: Mathematics: the most important part was the ability of problem-solving, although       answers were divided. i.e. t...
RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONSThe recommendations and conclusions reached following the two focus groups conducted are   ...
•       User interaction - careful planning on how interaction between users should be designed.•       Perhaps we can des...
REFERENCES:[1]      Anagnostou K. Serious Games or simple games in Education?, accessed March 2012,                       ...
[13]    Papastamos V. et all A proposition: Using electronic games (serious games) inteaching History in secondary educati...
ANNEX: Participant MatrixGreek focus group held on the 19/4/2012 in Athens, Greece                                        ...
2nd seminar / focus group held on the 24/4/2012 in Athens, Greece (University of Athens, MAcourse)                        ...
26       ITALIAN ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF   GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES             Prepared by: CNIPA PUGLIA“Success ...
ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT                                                                                                   ...
aim of using those videogames and technologies for objectives that go beyond the simpleentertainment".The serious game is ...
E-learning is not limited to school education and university but it is used for company trainingand organizations that hav...
a mean to memorize, but also to "understand". To understand and memorize, therefore, it seemsthat the best strategy is to ...
Projects such as E-VITA   (project co-founded by the General Directorate of Education andCulture of the European Commissio...
workers in the area. The staff of the NAC laboratory is part of this effort and it belongs to theUniversity of Naples Fede...
4.     Piero Petrelli (ITC developer)5.     Riccardo Rizzo (ITC teacher)6.     Francesco Baccaro (ITC developer/designer) ...
Sample testingAll the interviewees have tested the game 3D NEELB2. Everybody expressed a positive                 34judgem...
•      opening-mind;•      keeping in touch with many users;•      implementation of knowledge;                           ...
- clear and defined rules;- tutorials for gaming (video-tutorial).Learning identification and evaluation                  ...
-      effectiveness and efficiency;-      competencies in “people management”, resource management and organization.The s...
1.      Mr. Salvatore Cappilli (Graphic designer, ITC teacher)2.      Mr. Daniele Martina (Psychologist and Trainer)3.    ...
From the following analysis of the works we can see that:a)     The most popular games among participants are:-      Secon...
-      Listening to music-      Smoking-      Talking on the phone                                                        ...
A second topic introduced by Mr. Melito concerned the use of social games as learning tool foradults about interculturalit...
CONCLUSION REMARKS AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                                                                    ...
REFERENCES:(1)      Jane McGonigal ( 2011), La realtà in gioco, Apogeo                                       43(2)     Mar...
Annex: Participants profile matrix                                                                                  Social...
45  PORTUGUESE ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF   GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES                         Prepared by: SPI“Success...
PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT                                                                                                ...
innovative teaching methodologies (preferably linked to games and video games) from  different educational sectors.  Desk ...
MAIN FINDINGSSocial games based learning initiativesSocial games based learning initiatives have always been present. Howe...
•      “PING” (Poverty Is Not a Game) used to promote poverty awareness in classrooms;•      “Third world farmer”, where t...
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
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Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education

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The present report has been developed within the framework of work package 2 “Analysis on the use of game-based learning initiatives”, which aims at analysing the pedagogical potential
of games (with a special focus on social games) applied to competences development, identifying those variables that influence the successful implementation of game-based learning
initiatives, as well as gathering success examples and good practices on EU and international levels that could be used as inspirational experiences for adults training practitioners.

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Transcript of "Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education"

  1. 1. SUCCESS STORIES – COMPILATIONOF GAME-BASED LEARNINGINITIATIVES IN ADULTS’ EDUCATIONP4I - Playing for InterculturalityRef. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-GRUNDTVIG-GMPVersion 1 – reduced (2012)INVESLAN (Coord.)
  2. 2. SUCCESS STORIES – COMPILATION OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES IN ADULTS’ EDUCATION Work Package 2 ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES DELIVERABLE 3 SUCCESS STORIES – COMPILATION OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES IN ADULTS’ EDUCATION This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the P4I - PLAYING FOR INTERCULTURALITY. views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained thereinThis project has been funded with support from the European Commission. Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES- GRUNDTVIG-GMP This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for www.p4i-project.eu made of the information contained therein any use which may be p4i@inveslan.com This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTORY NOTE .......................................................................................................3GLOSARY – KEY DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................6EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................9GREEK ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES ............... 11ITALIAN ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES .............. 26PORTUGUESE ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES .... 45ROMANIAN ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES ...... 66SPANISH ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES ............ 82UK ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES .................... 109US ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES ..................... 125GOOD PRACTICES – SUCCESS STORIES ..................................................................... 148
  4. 4. INTRODUCTORY NOTE
  5. 5. INTRODUCTORY NOTEP4I - Play for Interculturality is a Grundtvig Multilateral project, funded by the EuropeanCommission, ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-GRUNDTVIG-GMP. The project has been approved in2011 and will be implemented within the 2 years.While the latest tendencies point at a rather low level of adult population participation in lifelonglearning initiatives, despite the increasing efforts in promotions and diversity of programmes, theproject partners believe that the use of social games can positively influence the access ofEuropean adults to lifelong learning experiences, increasing the access rates, offering innovativeand attractive means to develop key competences.P4I – Play for Interculturality seeks to take step forward and create an innovative social gamethat promotes apprenticeship of intercultural competences of European adults, motivatingthem to take an active role and interact with other users, boosting digital socialization andmedia literacy in parallel.The present report has been developed within the framework of work package 2 “Analysis onthe use of game-based learning initiatives”, which aims at analysing the pedagogical potentialof games (with a special focus on social games) applied to competences development,identifying those variables that influence the successful implementation of game-based learninginitiatives, as well as gathering success examples and good practices on EU and internationallevels that could be used as inspirational experiences for adults training practitioners. Theimplementation of the work package has been coordinated by INVESLAN (ES).As follows, the report introduces different national realities concerning the game based learninginitiatives: Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, UK, and US national reports will bepresented respectfully. The last section of the report presents a collection of 28 good practices –success stories that were extracted from the national reports.More information about the project: www.p4i-project.eu “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” INTRODUCTORY NOTE
  6. 6. It has to be added that all the national reports have been elaborated according to the“Guidelines and working methodology for carrying out the analysis” that have been defined byINVESLAN (ES). All the data and findings have been collected according the mix – basedmethodology: a combination of desk research and qualitative research methods have beenapplied. 4In order to explore in detail the pedagogical potential of game based learning, as well as thebarriers to uptake of games in learning practices and skills supported by game based learningapproaches, a combination of 2 qualitative methods have been chosen: expert interviews andgroup discussions with practitioners. The combination of the two chosen methods allowed usinvestigate the game based initiatives from two different perspectives. Each partner has beenasked to involve minimum 6 experts on the use of innovative teaching and trainingmethodologies (especially those linked to games and video games), from different educationalsectors.On the other hand, as far as group discussion, is concerned, it was organized in semi – structuredform, with the direct target group - adult training practitioners as a second method thatallowed us to explore the game based initiatives. Group discussion as a technique provided uswith significant insights from the adult training practitioners’ perspective and at the same time,brought some added–value for the validation of the expert interview results. The participants ofthe focus groups had been asked to test two games:1. Facebook sample of story generation: http://apps.beeherd.gr/p4i-stories/2. Irish example (3D game sample): http://neelb.arcaneindustries.co.uk/As well as to fill in the SELF-CHECK INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” INTRODUCTORY NOTE
  7. 7. GLOSSARY – KEY DEFINITIONS“Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” INTRODUCTORY NOTE
  8. 8. GLOSARY – KEY DEFINITIONS 6Social game-based learning is an informal tool that allows the acquisition of competences in arecreational environment. We move from “learning by doing” for the “learning by playing”,where interpersonal learning is involved, while a social game can only be played by exchanginginformation, knowledge and items with other players.Social gaming commonly refers to playing games as a way of social interaction, as opposed toplaying games in solicitude.We may refer to:Educational games (Related or synonymous terms: Computer games; video games; seriousgames; game-based learning; instructional games): Games in general can be defined insurprisingly numerous ways, often changing the way games are used and perceived(Wittgenstein, 1958). Games as a series of choices or as rule based play are popular definitions.For the purposes of this report educational games for learning are defined as: applications usingthe characteristics of video and computer games to create engaging and immersive learningexperiences for delivering specified learning goals, outcomes and experiences.Serious games (Related or synonymous terms: Educational games; video games; game-basedlearning; instructional games; sim games etc.): Michael and Chen (2006) give the followingdefinition: ‘A serious game is a game in which education (in its various forms) is the primary goal,rather than entertainment’. It is worth noting that Huizinga defined games as a free activitystanding quite consciously outside ‘ordinary life’, as being ‘not serious’ (1980), following thisdefinition games cannot be serious. Callois similarly defined games as voluntary and therefore “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” GLOSSARY
  9. 9. also conflicts with the notion of serious games (1961: 10-11). This gives a good indication of thekinds of contradictions found in comparisons of the available literature1. 7Key competences: As established in “Key competences for lifelong learning: EuropeanReference Framework”, annex of a Recommendation of the European Parliament and of theCouncil of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning that was published inthe Official Journal of the European Union on 30 December 2006/L394:“Key competences are those which all individuals need for personal fulfilment anddevelopment, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. The key competences are allconsidered equally important, because each of them can contribute to a successful life in aknowledge society” (Ibid., p.3).1 Definitions of Educational games and Serious games are taken from: JICS, “Learning in immersive worlds:a review of game based learning”, Prepared for the JISC e-Learning Programme by Sara de Freitas, 2006:p.10 “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” GLOSSARY
  10. 10. 8 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY“Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” GLOSSARY
  11. 11. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9This final report “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’education” and its appendices contains the main conclusions of national and internationalresearch on the design and implementation of game-based learning initiatives in adulteducation and were developed within the framework of the Playing for Interculturality (P4I)Project (Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-GRUNDTVIG-GMP), Work Package 2, “Analysis on the use ofgame-based learning initiatives.” It aims at analysing the pedagogical potential of games(especially social games) applied to competences development, identifying those variablesthat influence the successful implementation of game-based learning initiatives, as well asgathering success examples and good practices on EU and international levels to be used asinspirations for adults training practitioners. The methodologies employed were to search forrelevant information, hold focus groups of members of the target group, and interviews withspecialists in the target group members.In each of the countries studied (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, the UK and the US) theuse of game-based learning is a rapidly growing trend that is pervading different areas ofknowledge. It has gained considerable traction and we can observe a significant qualitativechange, nevertheless there is still prevailing gap in usage, in part due to negative stereotypes ofgamers, limited expertise in ICT and in games among trainers, and a shortage of goodeducational games. While there is often a lack of pedagogical design behind current socialgames, the profile of social game players and gamers is increasingly broad, covering a widedemographic across gender, age and social status that offers an opportunity for game-basedlearning. Assuming the target audience to be adults, there is significant growth in their use ofsocial media such as Facebook and of social games at this time. The gap between access andparticipation has closed significantly so that the platform on which the game would be madeavailable is critical to determining who would likely use it and whom else they might recruit toparticipate. What drives such players to play are the desire to meet new people, to cooperate,to try new games, find new forms of self-expression, to relieve stress, widen networks, experimentwith new identities, and the desire to compete and challenge the others. Players tend to feelsecure, respected, esteemed, empowered, in charge; they are likely to make an investment init.A wide range of intercultural competences surfaced in the research on effective games. Thosethat seemed most appropriate as learning objectives for a social game for adults were self- “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  12. 12. awareness of prejudices and stereotypes, the diversity of communication styles, suspendingjudgment and empathy. In addition, successfully engaging players will likely promote a numberof related competences, including digital competences, collaboration, lateral and strategicthinking, and new forms of literacy, including problem solving, analysis and creativereconstruction of content, multitasking, critical judgment, trans-media navigation, and social 10interactions and negotiation.The pedagogical potential of social games to achieve these objectives and promote thesecompetences derives from immersive and interactive engagement; self-paced, non-linear andbranching activities with multiple outcomes; collaboration and competition; contextual learningthat can simulate real life situations, such as solving problems socially; integrated preciseperformance measurement and feedback. Fun and engaging games capture curiosity andencourage players to work and play together for their mutual growth and success.The successful implementation of a game-based learning initiative depends on a number ofvariables, not all of which are under the control of the creators. Online gamers often suffer fromslow internet connections, glitches in the platform functioning, technical literacy, even findingfriends and foes with whom to play. Since the most important variable is engagement, that theplayer suspends disbelief and becomes immersed in the activities of the game which, if welldesigned, result in the change in attitude and behaviour that is sought the game design,development and deployment needs to avoid as many obstacles to this engagement aspossible.A wide range of success examples surfaced in the search and conversations. Each of thenational reports lists a select few that should be played for inspiration. From wildly popularcommercial games such as The Sims and Farmville, to effective transformational games such asDarfur is Dying, Peacemaker, Global Conflicts – Palestine, and PING (Poverty is Not a Game), allshare designs that bring players back, encourage them to involve others, and promoteenvisioning the real world in a different way. From them designers should learn to define veryspecifically what they want to achieve, provide for a variety of contexts for play (includingtraditional classrooms), and find both a compelling story and engaging activities to advance it.Taken together, the national reports are a rich collection of experience and intelligence thatshould be re-visited regularly in any design, development, and deployment process involvinggames to promote adult competences. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  13. 13. 11 GREEK ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: SQLearn“Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  14. 14. GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 12INTRODUCTORY NOTEThe survey was conducted during the elaboration of work package 2 related to the analysis ofthe use of game-based learning initiatives in the partner countries. This report refers to the Greekdesktop survey conducted during the months March and April 2012.The methodology used was to investigate on the internet for the relative information, to hold afocus group with members of the target group and conduct interviews with specialised targetgroup members.The main findings of the desktop research will be elaborated here. Attached one can find thefocus group report which was held on the 19 th April 2012, in Athens, Greece. Furthermore, theresults from the interview will be a separate attachment to this report.Methodology followed and experts contactedThe methodology followed is as stated in the WP2 guidelines, namely to begin the investigationinto the use of game-based initiatives with desktop research and analysis of results. The desktopresearch lasted for approximately 2 weeks and all results were collected in order to be analysed.Several types of sources were investigated such as websites, blogs, newspaper articles, whitepapers and reports originating from European funded projects. The primary part of the researchreturned a large volume of results which needed filtering and thorough overview.The second part of the methodology was to conduct, in parallel interviews with experts in socialgames (designers, developers, gamers, trainers using them etc.) but also to conduct a focusgroup with practitioners (trainers) using social / serious games. We held the focus group on the19th April 2012, with 12 participants coming both from the trainer’s community teachingintercultural skills and competencies but also social/serious game experts (professors)researching how games are used in education. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  15. 15. During the focus group (separate report has been created), the interview questions were posedand discussed. This report will provide a summary of the discussion. The focus group had thefollowing structure: 13 a) Presentation of the P4i project, b) Presentation by social game expert on the use of social / serious games in education, c) Presentation by intercultural trainer on skills and competencies of an intercultural trainer for adult education, d) Experiential games about intercultural skills and competencies, e) Discussion and presentation on the 3D game and story generator, f) Answering questionnaires / interview questions.The experts invited to participate in the focus group are listed under the heading ParticipantMatrix. The experts we discussed with during the interview stage were the following:1. Mrs Maria Saridaki (trainer and researcher in social games),2. Dr Eri Giannaka (researcher and professor at a HEI),3. Dr Panagiotis Zaharias (researcher and professor at Cyprus Open University),4. Dr Dimitris Gouscos (professor at Athens University teaching an MA course in how social games can be used in education,5. Mrs Viki Zouka (Trainer of Greek language to foreigners at University of Athens and social game blogger),6. Mr Andreas Derdemetzis founder of CowboyTV and game developer,7. Mr. Argyris Stasinakis, chairman of WOW Group and designer/developer of the Knowledge Game,8. Mr Marios Bikos IEEE chapter of University of Patras and promoter of gaming in HEI settings.Moreover, another activity conducted related to the research stage, was a second type offocus group held with Master students of the Athens Kapodistrian University where the P4i projectwas presented and the interview questions discussed.Finally, the last activity conducted in order to finalise this report was to attend the 1 st GamingForum held in Athens, Greece on the 27th and 28th March 2012, where noted speakers of thegaming and educational community held presentations, introduced games, held gamecompetitions etc.The report will elaborate further on the findings from the above conducted activities. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  16. 16. GREEK MAIN FINDINGS 14An extensive research was conducted in Greece in order to investigate the game basedlearning initiative in Greece.The report is divided into the following sections:Social games based learning initiativesThe majority of games used in an educational setting, identified during our research phasepointed to serious games and not social games. Serious and educational games are usedextensively for educational purposes and range from primary to tertiary education promotingcognitive skills and knowledge to more advanced, behaviour and personal values, change.Primary education: serious games have been developed and had their educational valueacknowledged by the Ministry of Education for teaching young people. One such game is the“Magic Filter/Potion”.Other initiatives come from the private and public sector where the game objective range fromplanning a city (like the game Aspis) addressing professional architects, planners , citizens butalso for introducing planning in school and university curricula. Private companies have startedin the last years to promote a social character to their games, namely creating a version forFacebook. These social games have not been fully immersed into education yet, and are mostlyused for promotional and marketing purposes. There are games that are used as supplementaryeducational material and they are: a) “Informatist” for teaching management skills, b) “Electrocity” for environmental issues where Young students manage their own cities, c) “Gazillionaire” used in colleges for teaching business, maths and economics, d) “Magi and the sleeping star”, e) “Global warming interactive” teaching how global warming influence.Finally, a conclusion can be that social games do not necessarily teach specific school topicssuch as geography or psychology but make an effort to extend and support the thoughtprocess by surpassing the stigma that whatever is of educational nature is also boring. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  17. 17. The profile of social games playerFrom our interviews and research we received two types of information:Research community: 15 a) 83% of Facebook users use it for online gaming, b) More women than men play online, c) Users wish to utilise their smart phones, the web and WEB2.0 tools and find a solutions to access lifelong training material from there, d) 97% of younger generations play computer and video games, e) New devices facilitate gaming.Educators’ community (adult training practitioners):Social games are not widely used for training purposes since the actual trainers themselves, didnot use them during their training. Their description of the social gamer is that they are youngerpeople playing computer and video games.Gamer community (game developers):From the interview question posed to them, they have not made any specific analysis of thegamer profile for their game design. They know the information from the gamers profile and fromthe gaming competitions that are being conducted globally. They are aware that gamerscome from diverse backgrounds, geographical locations and age groups and that the averageage of a global gamer is 37 years.Analytics are very important so that education is integrated with game design.Sample testingThe sample testing of the two games presented returned the following comments: a) Both games are very easy to use, b) Interaction is medium to very much although not so engaging (story generator), c) 3D game gave only the first person experience and asking questions between the game make the user lose their game immersion, d) Story generator needs more interaction. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  18. 18. Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adultlearningSocial games and serious games in an educative setting are still not widely use and we believethat their potential is not fully utilised. Moreover, we found out that there is a lack of 16pedagogical design behind the social games we have identified and they are used forinformation awareness campaigns, promotion campaigns and gaming.The new generation of trainees and pupils are ready for games in education but researchdepicts that their teachers and trainers are not. We do not prepare our children for thenecessary change but for the world that we know and not the world they will get to know! This isa major drawback and the research community is trying to change it, hence the organisation ofthe 1st Gaming Forum 2012 aimed at discussing trends in game design and its application inentertainment, education and marketing.Another factor that might influence the Greek community and trainees to play more games andbecome more efficient is the high unemployment rate among youth reaching 36.1% (Jan 2012figure) forcing hence, the trainers community to increase their use (games) in education.Identification of success elements of social games for educationThe success elements or characteristics of what makes a social game useful for educationalpurposes relate always to the pedagogical design and analysis of the target group for which it istargeting.According to Mr. Jacob Nielsen, member of the British Council in Copenhagen, Denmark, thereare certain steps one must follow in order to ensure a game as an efficient educational tool.These are: a) Prepare the game properly and allow time following the game end, to follow up with the trainees. b) Ensure that there is diversity in the teams that play the game, this diversity will bring diverse experience and allow for enhanced exchange of know-how. c) Bring in external advisors / experts to build strong case studies. d) Ensure that there is real-world testing – this element is very important because the trainees will see how real people react to their decisions. They game they designed was about planning a city. e) The fun factor is key. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  19. 19. f) Have small prizes to act as motivator.Other elements surfaced during our research were: a) Careful interaction activities need to be designed allowing for individual as well as social 17 interaction. b) Link learning objectives to gaming content. c) Assessment and its structure / position in the game is very important as not to distract the trainee from the game. d) Ensuring that the trainees understand that this is part of the educational activity.Learning identification and evaluationIf proper educational objectives have been set learning can be identified in the game.Evaluation needs to be carefully positioned in order not to distract the user from the game.Perhaps, evaluation can take place when ending the game and not within the actual game.However, this always depends on the skills, knowledge or behaviour you wish to enhance.Barriers to uptake of games in learning practiceThe Greek research, trainers and game developers community agreed that one major barrier isthe mentality towards gaming in Greece. Gaming has a negative connotation which is differentto the rest of the world.Another barrier of using games in the learning practice is the fact that the necessarybackground is lacking by the actual trainers and it is not in their mentality. One example from aschool teacher: children on a school trip should experience nature (identify tree leaves) withtheir hands and where not allowed to take pictures on their mobile phones and share with theirfriends.Other barriers are the lack of ICT infrastructure in schools and state universities. There is a contrastbetween private training providers who usually have state-of-the-art equipment in theirclassrooms and experiment with new technologies in training delivery.The main conclusion is that serious and social games need to be introduced from a centralperspective into the national curricula. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  20. 20. Skills supported by game-based learning approachesSkills supported can be the following: 18 a) ICT basic skills since users learn how to use the Internet, a computer, social media. b) Netiquette skills for online and group communication. c) Critical thinking competencies since their actions/decisions influence the outcome of the game. d) Organising group activities and work as part of a group. e) Share information and knowledge and also learn to learn (informally). f) Role-playing skills. g) Negotiation skills. h) Communication skills.Summary for the self-check intercultural sensitivity questionnaireThe main focus group was held on the 19th April where 13 people attended. At the end of thefocus group, a questionnaire was distributed among them related to the knowledge and skills ofthe group on intercultural sensitivity issues. The results gathered are the following: a) Q: History: the majority (more than 50%) stated that particular knowledge in history was not necessary in order for them to conduct their work. Only 1 reply was given related to this which thought that history knowledge facilitated their work, b) Q: Social sciences: the majority (60%) answered that it is quite useful to have social sciences background in order to teach a group in intercultural skills and competencies, c) Q: Geography: the answers to this question were divided where 50% thought that knowledge (and interest) in such an area is not so important, the other 50% though differently. The conclusion is that it depends on the group of trainees each trainer has, d) Q: Native language: 50% thought that good knowledge in the native language is essential for trainers while the other 50% thought it as not so important, e) Q: Language and society: the same replies as native language, f) Q: Non-verbal language: although this was a good question for discussion and of interest, the trainers agreed (60%) that it not so important to have such knowledge in these topics, “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  21. 21. g) Q: Mathematics: the most important part was the ability of problem-solving, although answers were divided. i.e. the majority 70% answered that they were neutral to knowledge and importance,h) Q: Relation human vs. Nature: the majority 50%, thought that this is of very low importance and not specific knowledge is needed for their work, 19i) Q: ICT: almost all agreed that this is of high importance and their knowledge should be very high in this area,j) Q: Level of use of ICT tools as a game: 80% answered that they use ICT tools as games,k) Q: Use of ICT in education: again almost all use ICT tools for educational purpose (learn),l) Q: Satisfaction with the research method: (was slightly changed by us to read: how satisfied are in you the research that is being conducted in Greece related to the use of ICT / games in education): the answers were: 40% satisfied, 30% not so satisfied, 30% not satisfied at all. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  22. 22. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONSThe recommendations and conclusions reached following the two focus groups conducted are 20the following: (they are being separated according to field)For the intercultural trainer – skills and competences• How can an intercultural trainer prepare for teaching such groups of trainees? Best is ifthey have undergone experiential training so that they are aware of their own abilities, skills /competences in the area.• Is special knowledge required (i.e. history, geography etc) for the trainer to conduct theirwork better? No, these are issues they should focus on before the training.• Culture is of outmost importance i.e. using ICT should be a habit and a training tool forthe trainers already in their education.• Trainers should be aware of their stereotypes and prejudices.• How can a trainer remain neutral? By experiential experiences and training they realisetheir potential, skills and way of teaching. Moreover, they learn to prepare their lesson plansbetter.For the use of social / serious games in education• Veteran game users à get involved easier in an educational process where games areinvolved.• The Greek education / trainer community is not fully ready to use social games in adulteducation.• There are a growing community of Greek game developers.• Controlled vs. free learning environment. Which is best suited for our target group?Classroom vs. game• When should we include interaction in the game? In order not to interfere with the gameimmersion – interaction should be carefully planned.• Shock experience in game – can be a useful method. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  23. 23. • User interaction - careful planning on how interaction between users should be designed.• Perhaps we can design based on gender in order to motivate users (scenarios).• What peripheral advantages can be drawn from the game i.e. learn ICT, learn history, 21learn about geography etc.Greek results:• Low ICT experience among trainers and educators.• There are many differences between other EU countries and Greece – in particular howand when they use ICT in education.• There are big differences between the different age groups.• Formal education is still more important and sought after than informal education /training.• When changes come from central government / i.e. initiatives and schemes, they arebetter and more quickly integrated within the educational system. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  24. 24. REFERENCES:[1] Anagnostou K. Serious Games or simple games in Education?, accessed March 2012, 22from http://thinkinggamer.wordpress.com/2010/ 01/28/serious-games-or-games/[2] Blog Kiosterakis.gr Serious Games accessed April 2012, fromhttp://www.kiosterakis.gr/new/epikairothta/education/549-serious-games[3] Derdemetzis A. presentation from the 1st Gaming Forum Athens, “Gaming is not aCrime” Greece, 27th March 2012[4] Gounari M. When serious games are introduced in education accessed April 2012, fromhttp://www.gameover.gr/Serious-Games.17821.html?article_page=1[5] Initial Vocational Training Centre AKMI, accessed March 2012 from http://www.iek-akmi.gr/paroxes/ekpaideytika-proterimata[6] Karalis T, & Raikou N, Greek national report of EU Project Development of InnovativeMethods of training the trainers, Athens, Greece 2010[7] Klopfer E., Osterweil S., Salen K. Moving learning games forward, MIT 2009[8] Meimaris M. & Gouscos D., Minutes from the conference ECGBL 2011 (EuropeanConference on Game Based Learning) organised on the 20-21st October 2011, by University ofAthens[9] Mourlas K. et all, Serious Games Showcase and Best Practices 2011, accessed April 2012from http://old.media.uoa.gr/sgsbest2011/[10] Mouzakis Ch. Training Adults – Using The New Technologies in Training Adults,Athens, Greece 2006[11] Nielsen J. British Council, presentation from 1st Gaming Forum Athens, “Future CityGame / Social Game as an educational tool”, Greece 27th March 2012[12] Papanis E., Greek Social Research blog, Educational, Psychological and SociologicalResearch, accessed March 2012 from http://penthileus.blogspot.com /http://epapanis.blogspot.com/2011/02/e.html “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  25. 25. [13] Papastamos V. et all A proposition: Using electronic games (serious games) inteaching History in secondary education, accessed March 2012 fromhttp://blogs.sch.gr/billbas/[14] Pappa A, Video games in the classroom, Alibreto, accessed March 2012 from 23http://alibreto.gr[15] Pappas J. Dr, Who plays serious games – LUDUS Project, Conference 22 Feb 2010,Ioannina, Greece “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  26. 26. ANNEX: Participant MatrixGreek focus group held on the 19/4/2012 in Athens, Greece 24 Social games player (gamesName and surname Age Gender Occupation Education played)Mrs Maria Psaraki 25-35 F Trainer Tertiary No Farmville, Restaurant, Cafeworld, Amnesty game, Empire, Smurfs, Knowledge games, Greek games, Instructional Treasure Island, Jems, onlineMrs Christina Karra 25-35 F designer Tertiary quiz/ contests.Mr Giorgos Simopoulos 36-45 M Trainer Tertiary No games Role playing games: Mass Effect, Eve, World of Warcraft,Mrs Biki Zouka 25-35 F Trainer Tertiary Diablo BakeryStory, CityStory,Mrs Christina Instructional Farmville, BrainChallenge,Kanellopoulou 25-35 F designer Tertiary Smurfs Who has the biggest brain (playfish through Facebook) Word Challenge (playfish through Facebook) Geo Challenge (playfishMrs Eri Giannaka 25-35 F Researcher Tertiary through Facebook)Mrs Maria Saridaki 25-35 F Trainer TertiaryMr Dimitris Mylonas 25-35 M Researcher Tertiary Farmville Junior InstructionalMrs Maria Lianou 25-35 F designer Secondary Sims, angry birds Junior InstructionalMrs Lia Tsiatsouli 25-35 F designer Tertiary Developer socialMr Antonis Friggas M 25-35 games Doctoral 8ballBull, Sims, Angry Birds Instructional Angry Birds, SecondLife,Mrs Sofia Tsiortou F 36-45 designer Tertiary Backgammon Professor /Mr Panagiotis Zaharias M 36-45 researcher Tertiary EveOnline “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  27. 27. 2nd seminar / focus group held on the 24/4/2012 in Athens, Greece (University of Athens, MAcourse) 25 Name and surname Age Gender Occupation Education Mrs Asteria Marantou 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Anastasia Kaltsoula 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Evjenia Tertiary Siampanopoulou 25-35 F Teacher Mrs Menia Mavraki 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Antonia Seresly 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Katerina Fragkiskou 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Dr. Dimitris Gouscos 36-45 M Professor Tertiary “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  28. 28. 26 ITALIAN ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: CNIPA PUGLIA“Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT
  29. 29. ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 27DESK RESEARCH“What should we call these “new” students of today? Some refer to them as the N- [for Net]-generation or D-[for digital] - generation. But the most useful designation I have found for them isDigital Natives. Our students today are all “native speakers” of the digital language ofcomputers, video games and the Internet.”The “digital natives”, that means the young generations of boys and girls that, since 1990, wereborn and grown up with Internet “love to play more than older generations”. Most of them hadaccess to games and virtual worlds all lifelong and so they take for granted the highinvolvement and the active participation. They know what an extreme, positive activationmeans and when they don’t experience it, they feel bored and frustrated. They don’t have anyreason to feel like that: it’s much more difficult to work well in less motivated environments with alow feedback and few challenges when you grow up playing sophisticated games”.When we study educational paths addressed to young people today we have to take intoconsideration that they are the first generation of students that have been constantly in touchwith new information technology and communication tools: mobile phones, DVD players,laptops, desktops and videogames are part of their lives since their births and are integratingpart of their everyday life. “Engage Me or Enrage Me”, this is the slogan of new generation.This kind of debate is concerning the trainers of the 21st century, showing a greater and greaterinterest towards the so-called “serious game” and they consider also the fact to show itsefficiency to the people who weren’t born in the digital era too and that were approaching thedigital world during the years, in different stages of their lives, being fascinated by this world. Thislast kind of people is called, always by M. Prensky, Digital Immigrants.“Today’s serious game is serious business” this is how Sawyer , well-known expert of this topic, thathas the quality of making the word serious game famous, explains that the first word “serious” isreferred to the aim of the game and the reason why it has been created, that is why he refers toserious videogames as “information applications realized by researchers and industrials with the “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  30. 30. aim of using those videogames and technologies for objectives that go beyond the simpleentertainment".The serious game is used with many different purposes and to explain or simulate any situationand topic, the fields that use this tool include from the medical ones to the military ones, 28enterprises, politics, religion, and ethics and so on. For instance, the videogames used at schoolwith a didactic aim, reveal themselves as an efficient mean to explain to young people andchildren topics that could have been too complex if covered in a different way.Furthermore, always regarding the didactics, the serious game seems to be in line with thedigital language the young use nowadays and are perfect interpreters.Michael and Chen, two experts in educational videogames, seem to agree with this kind ofobservations about the serious games. In their book “Serious Games: Games that Educate,Train and Inform” they describe videogames as: “ …a voluntary activity, obviously separatefrom real life, creating an imaginary world that may or may not have any relation to real lifeand that absorb the player’s full attention. Games are played out within a specific time andplace, are played according to established rules, and create social groups out of their players.”So the primary objective of serious game is to teach something and do it in a pleasant andenjoyable way.The expression serious game became popular after the birth of the Serious Game Initiative in2002, an association that dealt only with the research and development about seriousvideogames. Thanks to the growth of this association, the term serious videogame was includedin common language and had the visibility it deserved, considering we are talking about amarket of millions dollar. In the website dedicated to the initiative, the association explains whatare its aims through its studies that are significant to understand the real extent of this:“Serious Game Initiative is focused on the use of games to explore new challenges aboutmanagement and public sector. Part of its global features is to help creating a productive linkbetween electronic videogames and different projects that concern fields such as education,health, training and public policy”.The serious games represent only a part of the tools used for educational, learning and practicalpurposes related to the use of computer. In fact, according to the aim they have we can talk e-learning, edutainment, game-based learning and digital game-based learning.The first concept, the one of e-learning, concerns the possibility to learn exploiting the Internetand consequently the possibility to spread distance information. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  31. 31. E-learning is not limited to school education and university but it is used for company trainingand organizations that have offices in different cities.The Edutaiment is a form of entertainment with the aim of educating and enjoying. The purposeis to socialize people in entertainment activities such as TV programmes, videogames, films and 29websites. The term edutaiment is a neologism created by Bob Heyman. The expression was bornby the merging of two words: educational and entertainment. The term edutainment is alsoused to refer to the sector of e-learning that tries to transfer key concepts in a funny way. Thismethod can also be used fruitfully to cover delicate issues such as ethics, diversity and sexeducation.As far as game-based learning, it is defines as a branch of serious games, that deals with theresults, concerning learning process, that are achieved using teaching games. The reasoningthat underlies the intuition to use game as a tool to learn is clearly expressed by the followingstatement by Marc Prensky:“There is no reason that a generation can memorize over 100 Pokemon characters withall their characteristics, history and evolution can’t learn the names, population, capitals andrelationships of all the 101 nations in the world”.The characteristics of GBL (game-based learning) are first of all to use competitive exercisesthat stimulate the students to defy each other or against themselves in order to be motivated tolearn better, they often use elements of imagination that involve the players in learning activitiesthat follow the path of a story and furthermore, with the aim of creating a really instructivegame, the trainer has to be sure that learning the notions of the game are actually aimed at thescore and the win of the game itself.Besides the fact that learning through a game is really attractive to young people, the GBLs, ifstructured in a correct way, can motivate students to better know and encourage them to learnfrom their mistakes.The digital game-based learning (DGBL) are closely connected with the GBLs, the onlydifference being that they refer only to games that are digital and therefore can be used onlywith the support of a personal computer. The DGBLs are the most popular educational gamesand the attention of studies is focusing on them, and it is not difficult to guess why, since it is notstrange to find children who can use technology better than an adult a computer.The logic behind the processes of learning that we want to trigger with the use of serious game isthe one learning by doing. In recent years, this expression has become quite popular since it wasfound to be in many respects, one of the best strategies to learn when it is not intended only as “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  32. 32. a mean to memorize, but also to "understand". To understand and memorize, therefore, it seemsthat the best strategy is to do it by practically experiencing, through work, through the actionsthat are more stuck in memory. Since the objective, whatever the target we are addressing to, isnot mechanical actions or concepts randomly, to really understand we gave to activatepathways that stimulate reflection and thought. The knowledge must be internalized; we must 30reflect, think and be aware (learning by thinking).The development of the serious games industry is becoming an object of interest andinvestigation and this is also proved by the fact that in Europe there are many programs thathave it in Europe, one among all the LUDUS project.Objective of the project LUDUS is the creation of a European network for the transfer ofknowledge and dissemination of good practices in the innovative field of serious games. In thecontext of the project LUDUS, a part of the activities for promotion, transfer of knowledge andcreation of a network of experts, will take place in South East Europe. These activities aim topromote training and skills development and the capacity of local firms and other actorsinvolved in the field of serious games. LUDUS activities include, among others, the analysis of thestate of the art of serious games, a survey on the availability and interest of the ICT companies inthe South East of Europe for the development of serious games, the organization of workshops,conferences, training courses, competitions, open labs, creating an online database of expertsand other stakeholders, to build a website and a reference library, prepare promotionalactivities and a guide of good practices.The demographics show a constant increase of interest in the use of serious games. 31% of EUcitizens aged between 16 and 49 are active players and European players’ average age is 30years. Statistics reveal that this type of game is now an essential part of everyday life for asignificant portion of the population, regardless of age, gender and social status, which can beseen as an indicator of familiarity with this type of technology and at the same time, asevidence of the importance of the game itself and, consequently, of serious games in general.The study “Citizen As Partners Information Consultation and Public Participation in Policy Making”by OECD (Organization for the Development of Cooperation and Development) has outlinedan important framework for participatory policies of EU members. The report emphasized theneed to strengthen the link between citizens and institutions, both national and European Union,in particular, stressed the need to make citizens participate in decision-making, supporting thetraditional means of participation and consultation with the use of new ICT (Information andCommunication Technologies). “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  33. 33. Projects such as E-VITA (project co-founded by the General Directorate of Education andCulture of the European Commission within the Lifelong Learning Programme, Key Activity 3)that integrate Game Based Learning with concepts of inter-generational learning or VoiceS ,that has the aim of promoting the dialogue among European citizens and their regionalrepresentatives of European parliament or local assemblies in order to build a mutual relation of 31change and trust, confirm the importance, pertinence and functionality of serious games.The “Videogamers in Europe 2010” study, realized by GameVision on behalf of the InteractiveSoftware Federation of Europe (ISFE), shows that in Italy, adults play less than those in EUcountries. Only 17% of adults are used to playing videogames. Italy is one of the EU countrieswhere the adult generation do not have a high rate of video-gamers.Only 17% of people in Italy play videogames, while the European average is 25%. On the otherhand, 76% of players play online games, while the European average is 71%. According to thestatistics, 73% of people play free games and 22% play ‘pay per play games’. Italy shows thehighest proportion of playing games on a “pay to play” basis.Italian players play mostly with games which are available on social networks and online, asopposed to videogames. One out of five Italian players takes part in multiplayer online games.The games which are most used are casual games such as puzzle, board, trivial and cardgames (played by 55%).According to the European average, Italian players play 59% for fun, 53% to relax and 39% topass time.Particularly in Italy, there is a large rate of players; however they are not used to buyingvideogames. This suggests that they have a low budget for gaming and there is a consequentimpact on the level of piracy.Normally, artificial systems such as computers, robots and telecoms networks, collect informationabout and interact with the environments they inhabit. This raises the question of how to buildartificial systems that adapt to their environment. The attempt to answer this question hasbrought together researchers from a broad range of theoretical and technological disciplines.Building an artefact that knows its environment requires on the one hand a Theory ofKnowledge, on the other a broad range of scientific and technical know-how. In other words, itrequires collaboration between psychologists, philosophers, biologists, engineers, computerscientists, physicists and mathematicians. The collaboration between these researchers in thesedifferent disciplines has already produced important theoretical and practical results. To furtherpromote this collaboration, the EU has created a Network of Excellence that brings together key “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  34. 34. workers in the area. The staff of the NAC laboratory is part of this effort and it belongs to theUniversity of Naples Federico II. The focus of the labs activity is to reproduce psychobiologicalphenomena in artificial systems using Evolutionary Robotics and Artificial Life techniques. Severalof the key researchers come from the Laboratory for Adaptive Robotics and Artificial Life -Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies National Research Council. They are involved 32to extend this approach to create effective new technologies that support psychologicalprocesses (learning, decision making, entertainment, etc.).In according with learning process NAC Lab has developed many projects. One of these is thepilot project LearnToLead, created to design, implement, and test a novel, online approach totraining in team leadership (see Good Practice section).Moreover, related with the last tendencies, 2 young Italian developers are creating a differentplatform of social game but all their project are recent and available in beta version. Thesegames are different because they pretend to make the users very active in the way of thinking,cooperating and acting on the real life. The first game is called Edgeryders and has created byan Italian developer Mr. Alberto Cottica (see Good Practice section), the second game is a“social activity game“ called Piqueon, it has created by Mr. Daniele Portaluri. Both represent anew way of gaming interaction.NATIONAL RESEARCHFollowing the guidelines of WP2, before the focus group, we selected the possible candidates,and experts of serious and social game, to submit them the semi-structured face to faceinterviews. The recruitment of experts was made through a research on Internet, followed byPhone calls and mail Exchange to evaluate their competence related to the field covered.From a list of 15 people we selected 6 experts and, during the month of April 2012, we submittedthem a semi-structured interview according to WP2. The interviews were carried on at home withthe interviewees, recorded with a digital recorder, and then listened to, analysed, protocoledand filed.The interviewees were:1. Daniele Portaluri (Social game creator)2. Carla Ruggeri (Journalist and researcher)3. Livio Preite (Teacher and trainer) “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  35. 35. 4. Piero Petrelli (ITC developer)5. Riccardo Rizzo (ITC teacher)6. Francesco Baccaro (ITC developer/designer) 33From the analysis of the answers, the results emerged were:Social games based learning initiativesThe last trends prove that we’re experiencing a greater and greater use of this kind of games,above all for children. Learn enjoying it is easier and more motivating. The social game,furthermore, trains to the confrontation, enables to involve a very high number of users, destroysany architectural barrier. It’s becoming an easy and fast system. The most known social gamesand most successful are, according to the interviewees: The Sims Social, available also onFacebook, Cityville, Second Life, Foursquare, Peacemaker, Oilproject (with over 9000 students,it’s the greatest school online in Italy), Piqueon, EdgeRyders, StreetMood, Learn to Lead andEutopia. Furthermore, the territorial potential of the application of serious game could be usedas a tool to promote every territory, the artistic and natural beauties, arts and crafts and thetypical features of the context of reference.The experts have recommended the social games based learning initiatives below:• Learn to Lead (pilot project);• Oilproject;• Edgeryders;• Eutopia.The profile of social games playerFrom the interviews carried out the typical adult player is between 30/40, interested in digitaltechnology, Internet and videogames (particularly console), curious and attentive to the newsin this field. The player tends to be diligent in the initial phase of approach and knowledge of thegame and becomes less and less fond of it, except if the system does not introduce suchinnovations periodically to maintain a constant level of interest for the user. What pushes theplayer to play is the desire to meet new people, try new games, the curiosity to test newapplications and the desire to compete and challenge the others. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  36. 36. Sample testingAll the interviewees have tested the game 3D NEELB2. Everybody expressed a positive 34judgement about the use of 3D environments and interactive avatar for the purposes of theproject. At the same time they suggested to improve the game speed of interaction andgraphic elements.Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adultlearningIn this case the different backgrounds and professional experiences of participants emerged. Infact, those engaged in teaching activities and formal education prefer the use of serious gameslike Second Life or Oilproject, where they regularly organize social cultural and educationalevents. The ones who do not work in schools, would rather participate in less formalenvironments and creative ones such as Piqueon and Edgeryders, where users have tocomplete less structured missions and the solutions are not unique but depend on theparticipants intelligence.Participants highlighted that the major pedagogical advantage of using social games, theability to have a customized experience of the technological means (computer). Evensocializing is an important aspect of social games. It also allows you to break down any barrier,both physical and social, since it interacts in a "non place", not necessarily a mirror of a realcontext. Furthermore, the same advantages, when considered in absolute terms that meansconstantly compared with the experiences of real life, could become disadvantages in terms ofrelease from everyday life, representing the biggest disadvantage. Another disadvantage is thelow possibility to control the content uploaded. As for the skills that can be supported by games(social games), it was determined that there are no limits to that effect. As regards theapproach to learning, everyone agreed that there is an objective approach, but it must alwaysbe measured and studied in relation to the peculiar characteristics of the target group to whichthe social game is addressed.The experts have recommended the pedagogical potential of the use of games below:• language skills;• communication skills;• technical skills; “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  37. 37. • opening-mind;• keeping in touch with many users;• implementation of knowledge; 35• sharing and comparing experiences from real life to digital environment;• learning process based on non-formal education;• keeping information about several interests;• involving the player in the decision making process;• increasing social skills and self-empowerment.Identification of success elements of social games for educationThe elements of success of social games for education, from the interviews carried out, are theresult of the intrinsic nature of them as they are accessible to all and represent an element ofchange and innovation. They also allow an easy learning and playing, they have in themselvesmechanisms that stimulate a better involvement of the player who does not feel at some pointthe stress due to learn at any cost.We list the elements of success that were identified:- nice and suitable graphic environment (Mr. Daniele Portaluri is working on the new graphicversion of Piqueon);- non formal environment (success elements of Edgeryders);- active involvement of the user: make feel the player as an important person and bringing“something new” (main success elements of Edgeryders);- immediate gratitude and self-esteem;- the success of the action depends above all to each individual (supported by the otherplayers);- good competition and ability in problem solving;- no mark or formal evaluation; “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  38. 38. - clear and defined rules;- tutorials for gaming (video-tutorial).Learning identification and evaluation 36The interaction in interactive environments is easy and the learning as quick as the game isinteresting. From the experience of the participants results that there is often a greater inclinationto virtual rather than physical interaction. Learning can be measured by feedbacks withcompulsory access that is taken seriously only if the game is funny. If you are in a class theencouragement could come from the teacher in the classroom, whether it is an informalenvironment, it provides rewarding moments that stimulate to keep. Of course the ones who arestimulated to learn and play above all for this rewarding mechanism, is of minor importance.We should consider that in Italy all game learning based initiatives are quite recent and belongto university research sector or private entrepreneurial attempts.Barriers to uptake of games in learning practiceThe barriers have been identified:- from a technical point of view as the broad band, the cost of connection and themultimedia tools.- from a socio-pedagogical point of view, the trainers are few and few ones are reallyable to manage the educational situations on the cutting edge.- language barriers.Skills supported by game-based learning approachesIts been difficult to identify areas universally valid for every kind of learner. However, you canfind common elements that lead to define some areas more appreciated than others. Theywere foreign language, IT skills above all for the use of social networks, entrepreneurship andcultural insights, and then in order of importance educational subjects such as mathematics andsocial sciences.The skills supported in LearnToLead game are:- competition and cooperation;- leadership skills;- team working; “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  39. 39. - effectiveness and efficiency;- competencies in “people management”, resource management and organization.The skills supported in Edgeryders game are: 37- influence common future of Europe;- share the social responsibility;- build a positive cooperation between citizens;- share information and good practice between citizens and institutional body.The skills supported in Piqueon game are:- technical skills through video, photos and media contents ;- responsible competition;- communication skills;- creativity and social activism;- learning through the actions of other users.FOCUS GROUPAs has been explained, it should be considered that in Italy, all game learning based initiativesare relatively recent and belong to university research sectors or small entrepreneurial attempts.The participants of the focus group have been informed about these initiatives, however noneof them have experience with the social games which are recommended by the experts (only 4participants have experience with Edgryders).The focus group was held in Lecce on 27th April 2012 with the participants selected following theguidelines of WP2. The group of participants is composed by eleven people selected amongteachers, trainers and people practising social game based learning.The focus group was led by Doct. Maurizio Melito, supported by the sociologist CosimoBotrugno.The participants selected are: “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  40. 40. 1. Mr. Salvatore Cappilli (Graphic designer, ITC teacher)2. Mr. Daniele Martina (Psychologist and Trainer)3. Mrs. Alessandra Alfarano (Public Body Employed/sociologist) 384. Mr. Pierpaolo Ingrosso (ITC Teacher, E-tutor)5. Mr. Salvatore Logica (Video Maker/practitioner)6. Msr. Irma Zabulionyte (graphic designer)7. Mr. Giovanni Avantaggiato (Community developer)8. Mrs. Mariangela Schito (Italian teacher)9. Mrs. Cecilia Catanzariti (Informal trainer/project manager)10. Mrs. Nunzia Delle Donne (Intercultural Trainer)11. Paola De Pascali (Intercultural trainer)In detail:The activities began at 9.00 with a short presentation of the project P4I made by Doc. MaurizioMelito, where the main aspects of the project have been presented and the general objectives.Then every participant was given a SELF-CHECK INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY and, after 20minutes, all the tests have been filled in and hand over.The purpose of such questionnaire, as outlined in WP2, was to make the participants reflect ontheir intercultural skills before proceeding with a debate on the use of social games of theparticipants The questionnaires were developed in order to have an immediate feedback ofsensitivity of participants to the topic covered.The debate was opened with a brief introduction by Mr. Melito on the use of social games,which was followed by the activity "my avatar" that was carried out as follows: each participantwas asked to draw on a sheet the typical interface of their favourite social game, to givemotivations to the actions of their avatar and to explain why the avatar exists and to explain theinteraction of the avatar with the environment. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  41. 41. From the following analysis of the works we can see that:a) The most popular games among participants are:- Second Life (6 participants) 39- Foursquare (6 participants)- Cityville (6 participants)- Sims Socials (4 participants)- Edgeryders (4 participants)- The World of Warcraft (3 participants)- Farm Ville (3 participants)- The Sims 3 (2 participants)- The Peacemaker (1 participant)b) The main common motivations of players are:- Widen the contact network overcoming the territorial distances (7)- Know the “different” through the virtual representation channels (5)- To disguise yourself and have a new identity (5)c) The main skills supported resulted to be- Gratitude and satisfaction- Learning a foreign language through the commands of the game and the interactionswith other users- Giving value to the relational aspect- Growth and personal enrichment- Learning the use of technologyd) The main activities carried out during the game were:- Cooking/eating “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  42. 42. - Listening to music- Smoking- Talking on the phone 40From 10 to 10:15 we had a coffee break followed by the test of the game 3D NEELB2. Everyparticipant had the opportunity to have access and complete the game to participate to thefollowing focus group. Furthermore, every participant was asked to take notes of the answersgiven to every single question of the game.At 11.30 the focus group was opened.To start the discussion, we asked the participants to give their opinion about the game NEELB2,from that some critical points emerged:- Lack of personalization and characterization of the avatar- Slow game dynamics- Limited interaction with other charactersOf course the group had understood very well the aims of the sample game and expressed astrong curiosity in knowing the following implementations of the game.Then, starting from the academic definitions of the three terms, Mr. Maurizio Melito began thefocus group so that participants compared the answers given.Shortly after the debate has been focused on how the use of social games can fosterintercultural attitudes at the expense of discrimination. A first critical aspect detected during thedebate was that, when a participant (Alessandra Alfarano) noted that although the socialgames offer the opportunity to interact with an unlimited number of users, it happens that thegreatest number of interactions exchanged by players are made within a limited circle. Thisphenomenon, according to Alessandra, does nothing but reinforce prejudices, stereotypes anddiscriminatory acts of their group.The answers of the group were many, but in the end it was agreed that it would be interesting tocreate a game where everyone is led to be born, grow and live in different ethnic communities,in order to make a virtual experience interacting with those communities most victims ofdiscrimination. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  43. 43. A second topic introduced by Mr. Melito concerned the use of social games as learning tool foradults about interculturality.The younger participants have immediately agreed about the need and the usefulness of thistype of games in schools, like civic education. A question asked by a participant (Mr. Giovanni 41Avantaggiato) has suggested a number of critical points arguing that it is very difficult toinfluence the behaviour of adults because they have stereotypes and prejudices deeply rootedin their social actions. Some have supported the statement of Giovanni, others have argued thatthe number of people that approaches social games also includes a significant number ofadults who, though attracted to these games, might be able to change their mental barriers ina virtual environment.Another topic emerged from these observations concerns the digital divide in Italy. DanieleMartina in fact, states that it is a phenomenon that is still too relevant and which helps to moveaway the adults from the world of technology, at least as concerns the field of learning. PeterPetrelli, however, answered back by saying that the university reforms and the use of e-learningplatforms not necessarily academic has greatly reduced the digital gap, designing interfacesmore and more intuitive and standardized.The focus group ended with greetings and the organizers thanking all participants for theirinvolvement. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  44. 44. CONCLUSION REMARKS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 42In conclusion few ones added some comments, but from the few comments we could extractthe following recommendations:1. Present the social game in an appropriate way. This allows a positive approach. This canhappen in the classroom or, if it is an informal environment, via web.2. The information and clarity avoid moments of default.3. An appropriate system of tutoring helps to develop the path in a correct way as video, textand picture, etc.).4. Divide the game into steps and stop many times for clarifications and discussion in order toconsolidate the knowledge that can be a help.5. Sometimes, repeating the game allows all the participants to be at the same level to go onwith another study. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  45. 45. REFERENCES:(1) Jane McGonigal ( 2011), La realtà in gioco, Apogeo 43(2) Mark Prensky (2001) Digital Natives, digital immigrants, from www.marcprensky.com(3) Bryan Bergero (2006) Developing serious game, Thomson Delmar Learning(4) Michael David, Chen Sande (2005) Serious Game, games that educate train andinform, Thomson Course Technology(5) Ben Sawyer (2010) from www.bensawyer.net(6) Susi Tarja, Johannesson Mikael, Backlund Per (2007) Serious game - An Overview, fromwww.autzones.net(7) Castronova Edward (2007) Exodus to the Virtual World focus, Palgrave Macmillan(8) OECD (2001) Citizen As Partners Information Consultation and Public Participation inPolicy Making(9) Luciano Gallino (2004) Dizionario di sociología Report Focus, UTET(10) Asi Burak, Eric Keylor, Tim Sweeney (2007) PeaceMaker: A Video Game to Teach Peace,from http://www.etc.cmu.edu(11) Marc Prensky (2005) Engage Me or Enrage Me, EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 40(12) S. Hall (1997) Representation: cultural representations and signifying practices ReportFocus, Sage in association with The Open University(13) B. M. Mazzara (1997) Stereotipi e pregiudizi Report Focus, Il Mulino(14) GameVision Europe (for ISFE) (2010) Video gamers in Europe 2010, fromhttp://gamevisionresearch.com “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  46. 46. Annex: Participants profile matrix Social games player (games 44Name and surname Age Gender Occupation Education played) Second life, Graphic designer, ITC The World ofMr. Salvatore Cappilli 50 M teacher Warcraft Pychologist and Degree in Foursquare,Mr. Daniele Martina 31 M Trainer psychology The Sims social Second life, The SimsMrs. Alessandra Public Body Degree in social,Alfarano 35 F Employed/sociologist sociology Foursquare Degree in Economy Second life,Mr. Pierpaolo Ingrosso 52 M ITC Teacher, E-tutor and finance Farm Ville Degree in Foursquare, environment Edgeryders, Video sciences The World ofMr. Salvatore Logica 31 M Maker/practicioner (bachelor) Warcraft Degree in business Second life, technology The Sims 3Mrs. Irma Zabulionyte 30 F Graphic designer (bachelor) The Sims social, The peacemaker,Mr. Giovanni Community Scientific The World ofAvantaggiato 46 M developer diploma Warcraft Foursquare, Degree in Edgeryders,Mrs. Mariangela Schito 28 F Italian teacher litterature The Sims 3 Second life, Informal The Sims trainer/project Degree in social, FarmMrs. Cecilia Catanzariti 46 F manager pedagogy Ville Degree in social Foursquare, sciences Edgeryders,Mrs. Paola De Pascali 28 F Intercultural trainer (bachelor) Farm Ville Second life, Degree in Foursquare,Mrs. Nunzia Delle Donne 52 F Intercultural Trainer sociology Edgeryders “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  47. 47. 45 PORTUGUESE ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: SPI“Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT
  48. 48. PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 46INTRODUCTIONP4I - Play for Interculturality is a Grundtvig Multilateral project, funded by the EuropeanCommission. The project has been approved in 2011 and will be implemented within the 2 years.P4I – Play for Interculturality seeks to take a step forward and create an innovative social gamethat promotes apprenticeship of intercultural competences of European adults, motivatingthem to take an active role and interact with other users, boosting digital socialization andmedia literacy in parallel.The present report comprises Portuguese contribution to WP2, pertaining the preparation ofnational research on the use of innovative teaching methodologies (especially those linked togames and video games), from different educational sectors.The main objectives of this report are:• To analyse the pedagogical potentials of games and social games applied tocompetences development.• To identify those variables influencing the successful implementation of game-basedlearning initiatives.• To detect good practices in the EU or international level.• To gather success examples that could be used as inspirational experiences for adultstraining practitioners.Followed methodology and contacted expertsNational research comprised two sources of information. On the one hand, desk researchregarding case studies on social games based approach to education and training. On theother hand, qualitative research involving adult training practitioners and experts on the use of “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT
  49. 49. innovative teaching methodologies (preferably linked to games and video games) from different educational sectors. Desk research was designed to collect main references and reports on the investigation object: social games based learning initiatives. A summary was prepared on the findings, including the extensive list of reports and references consulted. Desk research was based on internet search of 47 investigation object keywords, in English and Portuguese: social games, learning, education, adults. It was also limited to Portuguese based initiatives. Qualitative methodology comprised expert interviews and focus groups. Expert interviews aimed at collecting in-depth information and provide spontaneous feedback on game based learning initiatives and their pedagogical potential. A total of six experts from different areas of expertise were contacted and interviewed. The names and occupation are presented in the following table: Table 1. Experts interviewed. Name and Occupation Institution Area of expertise surname Education and DistanceMaria João eLearning expert Personal eLearning LearningSpilker Business manager business Personal Learning Environments History and digital gamesFilipe Game-based learning University of Coimbra – Educational technologyPenicheiro expert Interdisciplinary institute ICT applications for cultural heritage Teacher training University of Coimbra –Teresa Pessoa Professor Reflexive pedagogy Psychology Faculty ICT 3D Environments for Take the Wind (businessTeresa Pinto Business Manager education enterprise) mLearningAna Amélia University of Coimbra – Professor Digital gamesCarvalho Psychology Faculty Content structure Content engineering University of Coimbra – Interaction experience designLicinio Roque Professor Informatics Engineering Software engineering Department Information Systems Group discussions provided insights from an adult training practitioner’s point of view. They could also bring added-value for expert interviews results validation. A total of four trainers were present in the Focus Group session organised on April 23rd 2012. As a result of low turnout a second focus group was scheduled for May 4th. For this meeting there were six trainers on attendance. “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT
  50. 50. MAIN FINDINGSSocial games based learning initiativesSocial games based learning initiatives have always been present. However, only in recent years 48its full potential has been realised and as a result, according to interviewed experts, it is a fastgrowing trend.Promoting social skills through initiative games is one of the most relevant educational methodswith a strong impact on a student motivation and learning process. Cognitive classroommanagement integrates different teaching techniques, where games adopt an importantplace. Those game based initiatives help teachers and trainers to deliver many different types ofcontents and at the same time they can create a rich, dynamic and inclusive educationalcontext, where learners are the main part of the learning process. However, these games shouldbe combined with formal educational methods, giving students a more solid background.Thus, the process of “gamification” of learning is rapidly pervading different areas of knowledge.Albeit still in its infancy, it has been successfully integrated in educational environments, the mainreason being its perceived positive effects on learning.Whilst there has been some research into potential uses of digital games in the classroom, only afew evaluation methodologies have been made public, already suggesting relevant impact onstudent and trainee knowledge attainment and motivation.Regarding its use, there are two main theoretical approaches:• A behavioural approach, which views education as knowledge transmission. Gamebased learning approaches are therefore better carried over through quizzing, and as suchthere is no exploration, no stimulus, and not every area of knowledge can be taught throughgaming.• A student-centred approach, where active apprenticeship is encouraged. Aligned withthis view, games are more complex and exploratory, demanding new pedagogical strategiesand methodologies. The teacher is key and classroom delivery is more important than thegame itself.In both frameworks a wide variety of games typology is allowed.Serious games are a very successful trend. Albeit the ludic quality of the game is still present, theadjective “serious” does invite immediate perspective and reflexion. There are a number ofgames referenced: “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT
  51. 51. • “PING” (Poverty Is Not a Game) used to promote poverty awareness in classrooms;• “Third world farmer”, where the player is responsible for a small area of land in centralAfrica, and has to “endure the hardships of 3rd world farming”, including natural and human-made disasters; 49• “Façade”, a relationship centred game, where couple friction needs to be managed bythe player.• “Global conflicts – Palestine, an adventure game that addresses issues like tolerance.The last game is related to the “SIMS” franchise, and has been used for pedagogical purposes inPortugal. The commercial version is laden with stereotype so it is pretty useful. It also allows anumber of interculturality issues to be explored, namely offering the chance of solving personaldilemmas.There is a complementary trend regarding the exploration of “alternate reality games” (or ARG)for education. These games have a more pervasive quality about them, and use “ubiquitouscommunication technologies to immerse gamers in fictional adventures which digitally augmenteveryday reality”. A traditional ARG is “Scavenger Hunt”, but it can adopt more complex andtechnology intensive forms. “Ludocity” webpage has a host of varied games destined to suchcontexts.“Second Life” virtual world has also been used in learning environments, namely roleplaying.These environments have a powerful effect of immersion that enables a person to take onanother perspective, something unfeasible in real life. As such, moving beyond simulation, suchplatforms are helpful in varied sociological contexts. They have also been used in psychologicalcontexts; albeit a deep level of specialised accompaniment is required.The usual procedure is to immerse the player with an “avatar”, gifted with a given personalityand situation. Goals in these learning environments may vary between reaching a physicalobjective related to a subject, i.e., having a successful conversation with a number of people, orskilfully performing tasks. It has also been used to give the opportunity of playing the role of aminority group member or a victim of abuse, i.e., bullying or cyber bullying.History teaching in Portugal has received a considerable enhancement with the developmentof a number of games adapted for education. One example is Soure 1111, further discussed inthis report (see case studies). Game integration in the classroom increased attainment ofcomplex subject matters, such as political context of the era, social roles and inequalities, “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT

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