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Older adults, andragogy and game design - slide deck for ECGBL 2016


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Slide deck for ECGBL - based on Suriati's phd pilot studies

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Older adults, andragogy and game design - slide deck for ECGBL 2016

  1. 1. The Andragogical Perspectives of Older Adults’ Interaction With Digital Game Technologies: Gameplay on Gesture and Touch-Based Platforms Suriati K Jali1 & Sylvester Arnab2 1Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK 2Disruptive Media Learning Lab, Coventry University, UK @sarnab75
  2. 2. By 2050, one in five people in the world will be 60 years of age or older (Akitunde, 2012) Ageing population - growing faster than any other age group, predicted to reach 2 billion by 2050 (Aalbers et al., 2011, WHO, 2002)
  3. 3. MocoSpace, 2011
  4. 4. Most models or frameworks for designing and developing games were generic and commonly aiming for younger users… (Ijsselsteijn et al., 2007; Mubin and Al Mahmud, 2008; De Schutter and Abeele, 2008)
  5. 5. In addition to ensuring usability of games for seniors, we need to make sure that there are substantial perceived benefits for elderly users so that they are willing to invest their valuable time and energy in what could potentially be a rich and rewarding experience…(Ijsselsteijn et al, 2007) Adults learn or perceive thing is different from children (Knowles, 1984) Andragogy vs. design?
  6. 6. To investigate the perspectives from this the target group in terms of their direct interaction and experience with digital game technologies, specifically based on gesture and touch-based platforms.
  7. 7. Methodology Procedure • Multiple series of focus groups (Coventry City, July – November 2014) Fig. 1 Focus group flow chart Why Console & Tablet? • offer natural user interface (NUI) and intuitive, • to ease the interaction between the participant and technologies in natural ways (Tanaka et al., 2012) ** Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction (QUIS) Table 1 Phase 1 Criteria (Preliminary Study)
  8. 8. Console Tablet Natural Interaction (body movement) Unnatural Interaction Action Games (Physical) 12 (a) (b)(a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) Example of Games Fig. 2 Examples of games
  9. 9. Results and Discussion View’s on Gameplay using Console and Tablet Mann–Whitney U test was conducted and showed a significant difference between console and tablet for two items; Player Enjoy Playing the Game (U (25) = 35.5, Z = - 2.671, p = 0.008), Player in Total Control (U (25) = 44.5, Z = -2.130, p = 0.033). The result reveals that when the older people were in a total control of utilising the platform, they found enjoyment and engagement in playing the game. Fig. 3 Players’ views on Gameplay using Console and Tablet
  10. 10. Gameplay Interactions and Challenges Associated to Ageing • Simple, relevant information and clear instructions are important (i.e. written, auditory) – “Need to make sure the printing is big. I couldn’t see that straight. My glasses need changes. Older people needed big, bold print” • Less elements in interface design was preferable (i.e. require less working memory) – “I also think you don't want too much extra stuff on the screen that you don't need. I just want to see what the stuff that I got to deal with, not allowed other stuff around”. • Adjustable interfaces (i.e. font type & size, screen resolution, volume) - helpful for those who have eyes sight and hearing problems • No timer should be included in the game – “I don’t like time-limited thing. This is because some people take longer to learn things than others”
  11. 11. • Games that required less strength and memory - involves no input device (i.e. controller) and includes body movement (i.e. physical game) • A tutorial or instruction screen need to be included and displayed before playing • Typing can be replaced by voice recognition, touch screens - helpful when having difficulty with wrist/elbow movement that the mouse needed • The platform physical characteristics (size, weight, battery lifespan)
  12. 12. Conclusions • Essential for the perspectives (experiences and interactions) of older people to be considered when selecting and/or designing games for this target group • Highlights- when considering the interaction and experience of older people with digital games:- 1) Control 2) Interpersonal and social needs 3) Degree of freedom and autonomy the platform provides, portability and ease of use 4) Gameplay interaction and challenges associated with age-related changes
  13. 13. References Aalbers, T., Baars, M. A. E., & Olde Rickert, M. G. M. (2011). Characteristics of effective Internetmediated interventions to change lifestyle in people aged 50 and older: A systematic review. Ageing Research Reviews, 10, 487-497. Akitunde, A. (2012, October 2). Aging population: 10 things you may not know about older people. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from Bolton, M., 2010. Older people, technology and community: the potential of technology to help older people renew or develop social contacts and to actively engage in their communities. Independent Age. Definition of an older or elderly person. World Health Organization. Retrieved 3 June, 2013, from Derboven, J., Van Gils, M., & De Grooff, D. (2012). Designing for collaboration: a study in intergenerational social game design. Universal Access in the Information Society, 11(1), 57-65. Entertainment Software Association. Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry. Available at, 2011. Gorman M. (1993). Development and the rights of older people. In: Randel J, et al., Eds. The ageing and development report: poverty, independence and the world's older people. London, Earthscan Publications Ltd.,3-21. Khoo, E. T., Lee, S. P., Cheok, A. D., Kodagoda, S., Zhou, Y., & Toh, G. S. (2006). Age invaders: social and physical inter-generational family entertainment. In CHI'06 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 243-246). ACM. Nap, H.H., De Greef, H.P., & Bouwhuis, D.G. (2005). Access for all by cognitive engineering. (CD-ROM). Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of the International Society on Gerontechnology. Nagoya, 7 Japan. Neerincx, M.A., Lindenberg, J., Rypkema, J.A. & Van Besouw, N.J.P. (2000). A practical cognitive theory of Web-navigation: Explaining age-related performance differences. CHI2000 ONS, 2013 - ONS. National Population Projections, 2012-based projections, Dec 2013 Roebuck J. When does old age begin?: the evolution of the English definition. Journal of Social History. 1979;12(3):416-28. Sara J. Czaja and Chin Chin Lee. The Human-Computer Interaction: designing for diverse users and domains, chapter Information technology and older adults, pages 17–32. CRC Press, 2009. Walker, A. and Maltby, T. (1997) Ageing Europe. Buckingham: Open University World Health Organization. Definition of an older or elderly person. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2010. (Access date 22nd November 2010) Whitcomb, G. R.: Computer Games for the Elderly. In: R. S. Rosenberg (Ed.), ACM SIGGAS Computers and Society, 20(3), pp. 112-115. New York, NY: ACM (1990) Ijsselsteijn, W., Nap, H. H., de Kort, Y., Poels, K.: Digital Game Design for Elderly Users. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Future Play, pp. 17-22. ACM (2007) 20
  14. 14. Thank You Suriati K Jali1 & Sylvester Arnab2 1Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK 2Disruptive Media Learning Lab, Coventry University, UK