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Winning ITNs with RRI - Relevant sources and further reading

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Here is some more background on the notion of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), how it has been operationalised in Horizon 2020 and how it can be relevant for writing MSCA ITN proposals. We have included the academic and policy background and concrete sources/best practices to inspire others to take it up in their proposal.

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Winning ITNs with RRI - Relevant sources and further reading

  1. 1. WINNING ITNS WITH RRI – RELEVANT SOURCES WEBINAR DECEMBER 17TH 2019 PRODUCT OF THE NEWHORRIZON SOCIAL LAB ON RRI IN MSCA JOSHUA B. COHEN J.B.COHEN@UVA.NL HTTPS://NEWHORRIZON.EU/SL3/
  2. 2. WHAT IS RRI AND WHY DO WE CARE? Public challenges : § food/water management § mobility/health issues § energy/climate crises § social/economic inequality (cp. Societal Challenges & SDGs) Research and innovation (R&I) practices and technology may offer solutions… 2 https://twitter.com/ipcc_ch/status/1049205935388811265 https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable- development-goals/
  3. 3. 3 https://furufolk.wordpress.com/2018/12/10/veckouppgift-5-
  4. 4. AT THE SAME TIME… https://www.livescience.com/63951-anti-vaxxer-measles-outbreak-europe.html / https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2018/02/28/public-fear-gmo-food-growing/# / https://www.vox.com/technology/2018/10/1/17882340/how-algorithms-control- your-life-hannah-fry / https://www.flickr.com/photos/becker271/33825703150 https://www.consultancy.uk/news/14184/smartphone-addiction-increasingly-seen- as-problem-by-consumers / https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-30290540 / https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2018/11/30/18119589/crispr-gene- editing-he-jiankui4
  5. 5. RRI: ACADEMIC BACKGROUND § Research and innovation produce knowledge/technology à may help to help solve societal/ecological challenges (if implemented) § But also ethical dilemmas and undesirable (second-order) effects on society/environment § Societal debates on how and when R & I produce what; particularly who decides on the basis of which criteria? § Long-standing tradition in thinking about / governing relation between science-society § Research Integrity, Open Science and Innovation, Science ethics/ Bioethics, ELSA/ELSI, Interactive/Constructive/Participatory Technology Assessment, Corporate Social Responsibility, Anticipatory governance, Sustainable Technological Development, Sociology of Knowledge, Philosophy of Science etc. § RRI: new label that combines all that with a concern about the competitive position of European R&I 5
  6. 6. ACADEMIC BACKGROUND RRI is • A transparent, interactive process by which societal actors and innovators become mutually responsive to each other with a view to the (ethical) acceptability, sustainability and societal desirability of the innovation process and its marketable products (in order to allow a proper embedding of scientific and technological advances in our society (Von Schomberg 2011) • Responsible innovation means taking care of the future through collective stewardship of science and innovation in the present, … possessing dimensions of anticipation, reflexivity, inclusion and responsiveness (Stilgoe et al 2013: 1571) 6
  7. 7. HOW HAS IT BEEN REFLECTED IN H2020? § Various national research funding organisations (in the Netherlands, Norway, …) adopted the notion as overarching principle in specific funding schemes § European Commission embraced RRI in Von Schomberg’s reading: Responsible research and innovation means that societal actors work together during the whole research and innovation process in order to better align both the process and its outcomes, with the values, needs and expectations of European society. RRI is an ambitious challenge for the creation of a research and innovation policy driven by the needs of society and engaging all societal actors via inclusive participatory approaches (EC, 2014) § Operationalised in 6 keys: Public engagement, Gender Equality, Science Education, Open Access (Open Science), Ethics and Governance 7
  8. 8. POSSIBILITIES TO IMPROVE INTEGRATION OF RRI IN ITN PROPOSALS Generally § ITN’s training next generation of promising researchers: transferable/soft skills training à specifically integrate training programmes on (aspects of) RRI (e.g. two-way Public Engagement, Gender Dimension, Science education, Research Integrity and long-term Ethical implications of research, Open Data Management) § Room for inter-/multi-disciplinarity and intersectoral exchange à integration of CSOs and other non-academic public representative organisations Under specific evaluation criteria § Gender dimension under Excellence-criterion; § Science education and Public engagement (competitive edge) under Impact-criterion; § Open Access under Impact; § Ethics as something beyond ticking boxes. 8
  9. 9. EXAMPLES OF BEST PRACTICES – ITN-ETN Improving Genome Editing Efficiency (IMGENE / 2017-2021 / coordinated in Denmark) ‘IMGENE unites expert European research groups of academia and industry to address by innovative and complementary approaches the low efficiency of precise genome editing using CRISPR technology’ ‘The IMGENE consortium consisting of 6 academic and 1 industrial beneficiary (AstraZeneca), 2 industrial partners (Taconic; MilliporeSigma), and the patient organization Genetic Alliance, aims to improve the genome editing efficiency of CRISPR by research training of 8 ESRs to unleash the full potential of this technology.’ ‘IMGENE will establish novel tools and protocols for improved CRISPR genome editing efficiency that will be of immediate benefit for health and life science research, the pharmaceutical industry, and the application of gene therapy. In addition, IMGENE addresses crucial ethical questions related to the application of genome editing technology in animals, plants, and humans, which have to be solved to gain acceptance by the society. ‘ (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/765269) 9
  10. 10. EXAMPLES OF BEST PRACTICES – ITN-ETN Social Science Aspects of Fisheries for the 21st Century (SAF21 / 2015-2028 / coordinated in Norway) ‘SAF21 is an interdisciplinary and intersectoral network that embeds the social scientists of the future into EU fisheries management systems. […] an integrated understanding of the fine mechanisms governing fishers’ behaviour in relation with the regulative processes is needed, to the benefit of decision makers, fishing industry and the environment alike. Academic research and training have insufficiently reflected this need. SAF21 will contribute to rectifying this by training researchers in using tools of the 21st century […] The wide-ranging training envisaged will offer a structured doctoral training in academic and transferable skills in addition to highly intersectoral non-academic mobility opportunities. Thus, the SAF21 candidates will have the necessary skills and experience to cross disciplines and work sectors. SAF21 will provide researchers the opportunity to fulfill their scientific social responsibility at a higher level than conventional doctoral programs, by ensuring significant time and training for public engagement and outreach.‘ (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/642080) 10
  11. 11. RRI TOOLS 11 Source: www.rri-tools.eu
  12. 12. RRI THINKING TOOL 12 Source: www.thinkingtool.eu
  13. 13. FURTHER BACKGROUND AND TOOLS 13
  14. 14. ‘Engagement of all societal actors - researchers, industry, policy-makers and civil society – and their joint participation in the research and innovation process, in accordance with the value of inclusiveness, as reflected in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. A sound framework for excellence in Research & Innovation entails that the societal challenges are framed on the basis of widely representative social, economic and ethical concerns and common principles. Moreover, mutual learning and agreed practices are needed to develop joint solutions to societal problems and opportunities, and to pre-empt possible public value failures of future innovation’ (EC, 2012) PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT 14
  15. 15. PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT Facilitate structures for participation -Including public groups (CSOs, patient organizations, trade unions, citizen panels) in the definition and supervision of R&I (advisory and evaluation boards, research ethics committees...) -Developing the creation of Science Shops, Living Labs and other related structures aiming at promoting multi- stakeholder dialogue. Influence R&I Agendas -Promoting the use of facilitating deliberations methods to induce citizens participation into R&I policy- making. -Increasing citizens engagement in monitoring transparency and traceability of outcomes of R&I projects. -Advancing towards future- oriented decision making. Co-develop and co-decide about R&I -Fostering research projects with more societally relevant outcomes, implementing participatory research designs in an iterative fashion. -Promoting community- based research. -Fostering participatory Technology Assessment. Source: https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/public-engagement-responsible-research-and- innovation & https://www.rri-tools.eu/documents/10184/193151/Explaining_RRI_Share.pptx/ 15
  16. 16. PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT The Engage 2020 Action catalogue is an online decision support tool that is intended to enable researchers, policy- makers and others wanting to conduct inclusive research, to find the method best suited for their specific project needs. (http://actioncatalogue.eu/) The Living Knowledge network of Science Shops aims to build partnerships for public access to research. A Science Shop provides independent, participatory research and support in response to concerns experienced by civil society. (http://www.livingknowledge.org/) ENoLL is the international federation of benchmarked Living Labs in Europe and worldwide. It provides co- creation, user engagement, test and experimentation facilities targeting innovation in many different domains. (http://www.openlivinglabs.eu/) EUSEA is an international knowledge-sharing platform and accelerator of innovation in the fields of public engagement. The association addresses experts involved in public engagement activities across Europe. (http://www.eusea.info/) 16
  17. 17. EXAMPLE – SPARKS PROJECT Sparks is an ambitious engagement project on the topic of technology shifts in health and medicine in multiple countries. Sparks has organized an interactive touring exhibition and innovative participatory activities such as science cafés, pop-up science shops, incubation activities and scenario workshops. Creative disruptions —in the form of artistic inputs and questioning— help it to engage more stakeholders. Sparks’ methodology emphasizes interdisciplinary (science, art, policy, industry, research, science education) and participatory approaches to promote RRI in relation to health. This is a highly relevant research topic which is able to motivate citizens’ and other stakeholders’ engagement in science and research. (http://www.sparksproject.eu/) 17
  18. 18. EXAMPLE - ZOONIVERSE 18 (https://www.zooniverse.org/)
  19. 19. ‘Engagement means that all actors – women and men – are on board. The underrepresentation of women must be addressed. Research institutions, in particular their human resources management, need to be modernized. The gender dimension must be integrated in research and innovation content’ (EC, 2012) GENDER EQUALITY 19
  20. 20. GENDER EQUALITY Gender Balance in decision making -European Commission aims at 40% of the under- represented sex in expert groups and evaluation panels. -H2020, however, aims at 50% for the under- represented sex in expert groups and evaluation panels. -Inclusion of gender experts in expert groups and evaluation panels. Gender balance in research teams -Funding applications request promotion of gender balance at all levels in their teams and in management structures. -Commitment to promote equal opportunities between men and women in grant agreements. Gender dimension in the content of R&I -R&I need to adequately take into account the needs, behaviours and attitudes of both women and men. -Consider gender-specific research to fill knowledge gaps. -Gender is an important factor in excellent research. Source: http://ec.europa.eu/research/swafs/index.cfm?pg=policy&lib=gender & https://www.rri- tools.eu/documents/10184/193151/Explaining_RRI_Share.pptx/ 20
  21. 21. GENDER EQUALITY Gender in research as a mark of excellence A practical toolkit that comprises an overall introduction into gender and research and shows how gender is interwoven with all aspects of research. It then examines in pragmatic terms how the gender dimension of research content contributes to excellence in research. (https://www.yellowwindow.com/genderinresearch) Genport is a community and repository of resources, projects, organisations, events and experiences regarding gender issues and science. (http://www.genderportal.eu/) Case studies analysis of Gendered innovations and knowledge change in basic science, engineering & technological development, environment, food & nutrition, health & medicine, transport and communication science. (http://ec.europa.eu/research/science- society/document_library/pdf_06/gendered_inno vations.pdf)21
  22. 22. EXAMPLE – GENDERED INNOVATIONS IN BASIC SCIENCE ‘Gendered Innovations: 1. Studying sex differences in animal models has led to new treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBi). 2. Accounting for pregnancy, estrous cycle, and menopausal status in animal models has revealed the biological influence of hormones on basic molecular pathways and has been important to understanding certain autoimmune diseases. 3. Regulators have considered sex in order to improve animal models for toxicity; this has led to stronger environmental health standards.’ (EC, 2013, 15) (http://ec.europa.eu/research/science- society/document_library/pdf_06/gendered_innovations.pdf) 22
  23. 23. ‘In order to be responsible, research and innovation must be both transparent and accessible. Our fourth key is to make Open Access a reality. This means giving free online access to the results of publicly-funded research (publications and data). This will boost innovation and further increase the use of scientific results by all societal actors’ (EC, 2012) OPEN ACCESS 23
  24. 24. OPEN ACCESS Embed open access in research practice -Fostering innovation in publishing pathways and implementation of current open access roads and tolls (Green and Gold). -Improving and maximizing access to use and re-use of research data generated by projects. -Joining the Pilot on Open Research Data in Horizon 2020 project. Ensure open access policies -Improving data hosting, access and Governance. -Reviewing researchers' careers with a view on creating incentives and awarding researchers. -Developing institutional repositories to deposit research data and associated metadata. Foster Open Science -Incentivizing Open Science in education programs and best practices and extending the input of knowledge producers in a more open science environment. -Embedding Open Science as a socio-economic driver. -Changing the way the quality and impact of research are evaluated Source: http://ec.europa.eu/research/openscience/index.cfm & https://www.rri- tools.eu/documents/10184/193151/Explaining_RRI_Share.pptx/ 24
  25. 25. Source: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/- /publication/3213b335-1cbc-11e6-ba9a-01aa75ed71a1 25
  26. 26. OPEN ACCESS OpenAire is a network of Open Access repositories, archives and journals that support Open Access policies. (https://www.openaire.eu/) FOSTER is an e-learning platform that brings together the best training resources for those who need to know more about Open Science, or who need to develop strategies and skills for implementing Open Science practices in their daily workflows. (https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/) 26
  27. 27. OPEN ACCESS https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/foster-taxonomy/open-access-routes 27
  28. 28. ‘Europe must not only increase its number of researchers, it also needs to enhance the current education process to better equip future researchers and other societal actors with the necessary knowledge and tools to fully participate and take responsibility in the research and innovation process. There is an urgent need to boost the interest of children and youth in maths, science and technology, so they can become the researchers of tomorrow, and contribute to a science-literate society. Creative thinking calls for science education as a means to make change happen’ (EC, 2012) SCIENCE EDUCATION 28
  29. 29. SCIENCE EDUCATION Incentivize learning-by- doing pedagogies -Connecting innovation and science education strategies (curricula, skills, programs...) at local, regional, national, European and international levels, taking into account societal needs and global developments. -Enhancing professional development of teachers to improve learning outcomes. Promote multi- stakeholder collaboration -Fostering motivations and attractiveness for younger people and general population towards science. -Increasing collaboration between formal, non-formal and informal education providers, enterprise, industry and civil society. Co-decide education policies -Promoting multi- stakeholder participation into science education policy-making, advancing towards future-oriented decision making. -Shifting from STEM towards STEAM –linking the arts and humanities with science, technology, engineering and mathematics to foster scientific inquiry and innovation. Source: https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/science-education & https://www.rri- tools.eu/documents/10184/193151/Explaining_RRI_Share.pptx/ 29
  30. 30. Ecsite, the European network of science centres and museums, was created in 1990. Ecsite’s mission is to inspire and empower science centres, museums and all organisations that engage people with science, and to promote their actions. (https://www.ecsite.eu/) Scientix is a community that promotes and supports a Europe-wide collaboration among STEM teachers, education researchers, policymakers and other STEM education professionals. (www.scientix.eu ) The HEIRRI project fosters alignment of RRI and Higher Education curricula at all levels (undergraduate, MD and PhD), and created a stock-taking inventory of good practices. (https://www.rri-tools.eu/heirri-training- programmes) SCIENCE EDUCATION 30
  31. 31. 31 Transformative educational modules for future-proofing European food systems are developed as part of the FIT4FOOD2030 project, which is funded by the Horizon 2020 framework of the European Union for research and innovation. The project brings together a consortium of eighteen partners. […] As part of these efforts, students’ competences at all levels are also strengthened as current and future researchers, entrepreneurs, policy- makers and citizens at large. Eighteen educational modules are co- created as part of the FIT4FOOD2030 City Labs, which are hosted by various science centres and museums, educational organisations and science shops. These educational modules address research and innovation on food systems and touch upon topics such as circularity, resource efficiency, nutrition and health, as well as climate and sustainability. (http://www.scientix.eu/projects/project-detail?articleId=770418)
  32. 32. ‘European society is based on shared values. In order to adequately respond to societal challenges, research and innovation must respect fundamental rights and the highest ethical standards. Beyond the mandatory legal aspects, this aims to ensure increased societal relevance and acceptability of research and innovation outcomes. Ethics should not be perceived as a constraint to research and innovation, but rather as a way of ensuring high quality results.’ (EC, 2012) ETHICS 32
  33. 33. ETHICS Promote and foster research integrity -Observing and promoting honesty, reliability, impartiality and independence and objectivity in performing research. -Avoiding fabrication, falsification, plagiarism or other research misconduct. -Implementing legislation about privacy and data protection issues. Facilitate structures for ethical reflection -Strengthening ethical committees and reflection on critical issues: - the involvement of children, patients, vulnerable populations in research - the use of human embryonic stem cells - research on animals and non-human primates - other critical issues. Mitigate and reduce ethics dumping -Expanding ethical issues in research beyond EU countries -Counteracting the application of double ethical standards (low and middle income countries) -Raising awareness of insufficient ethical standards when exploiting vulnerable parties in research. Source: https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/ethics & https://www.rri- tools.eu/documents/10184/193151/Explaining_RRI_Share.pptx/ 33
  34. 34. ETHICS The Integrity in Practice toolkit features a series of case studies of positive interventions made by individuals and organisations from across the globe, to improve research culture and integrity. (http://ukrio.org/ukrio-and-the-royal-society-launch-integrity-in-practice-toolkit/) SATORI has developed an ethics assessment framework based on thorough analysis, commonly accepted ethical principles, participatory processes and engagement with stakeholders, including the public, in Europe and beyond. (http://satoriproject.eu/media/D9.4_Outline_of_an_Ethics_Assessment_Fram ework.pdf) The Ethical Operating System can help makers of tech, product managers, engineers, and others get out in front of problems before they happen. It’s been designed to facilitate better product development, faster deployment, and more impactful innovation. All while striving to minimize technical and reputational risks. (https://ethicalos.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Ethical-OS-Toolkit.pdf) 34
  35. 35. EXAMPLE – RESEARCH INTEGRITY TRAINING FRAMEWORK UCL 35 (https://www.ucl.ac.uk/research/integrity/research-integrity- training-framework)
  36. 36. ‘The umbrella for all the others: […]. Policymakers also have a responsibility to prevent harmful or unethical developments in research and innovation. Through this key we will develop harmonious models for Responsible Research and Innovation that integrate public engagement, gender equality, science education, open access and ethics’ (EC, 2012) GOVERNANCE 36
  37. 37. GOVERNANCE Incentivize RRI from institutions -Embracing recognition systems of RRI implementation, such as labels, rewards and indicators. -Setting up funding calls for research that take into account RRI issues. -Measuring the impact of mainstreaming and standardising RRI. Incorporate future- oriented governance -Promoting foresight analysis in a multi- stakeholder basis including public groups (CSOs, patient organizations, trade unions, citizen panels) to incorporate RRI principles in all phases of R&I. -Facilitating frameworks for RRI implementation throughout all stages of R&I process. Foster participatory governance -Promoting the use of facilitating deliberations methods to induce multifactor participation into R&I policy-making. -Including public interest groups (CSOs, patient organizations, trade unions, citizen panels) in the supervision of R&I. 37 Source: https://www.rri-tools.eu/documents/10184/193151/Explaining_RRI_Share.pptx/
  38. 38. GOVERNANCE The major goal of the Res-AGorA project is to develop a normative and comprehensive governance framework for RRI. This has been achieved through a series of case studies examining in depth existing RRI governance across different scientific technological areas. Resulted in a Responsibility Navigator and The Co-construction method. (http://www.res-agora.eu/) And…. MoRRI was a project tasked with implementing a monitoring system for RRI. In addition to identifying indicators for the evolution of RRI, it identified social, democratic, economic and scientific benefits of RRI, and also conducted preliminary work to lay out routes towards implementing impact indicators. (https://morri.netlify.com/reports/2018-05-24-final-report- summarising-insights-from-the-morri-project) 38
  39. 39. ….RRI is further elaborated in SwafS projects: GREAT, PRoGReSS, RESPONSIBILITY, NERRI, SYNENERGENE, IRRESISTIBLE, PIER, RRI Tools, RRI Trends, ENGAGE, SATORI, PARRISE, CONSIDER, RESPONSIBLE-INDUSTRY, NanoDiode, RRI-ICT Forum, HEIRRI, Ark of Inquiry, SPARKS, FoTTRIS, NUCLEUS, PROSO, TRUST, RRI- Practice, JERRI, PRISMA, SMART-map, COMPASS, InSPIRES Res-AGorA, MoRRI and NewHoRRIzon (http://res-agora.eu/rri-resources/) 39
  40. 40. WWW.NEWHORRIZON.EU 40
  41. 41. NEWHORRIZON MSCA SOCIAL LAB Social Lab 3 on the “Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions” brings together stakeholders from research – including current and former MSCA fellows, representatives from the Marie Curie Alumni Association, National Contact Points, principal investigators, project coordinators, evaluators, and RRI related experts – to develop pilot activities which might help to implement elements of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in the practices and policies related to MSCA. • 3 Workshops – 1st Workshop in June 2018 • 4 Pilot Actions: PA 1: Research Kiosk PA 2: RRI Career Assessment Matrix PA 3: RRI Training PA 4: RRI Manifesto https://newhorrizon.eu/sl3/ 41 ©Anne Loeber, 2018
  42. 42. To be continued… Thank you for your attention: Comments/questions are more than welcome! Joshua B. Cohen – University of Amsterdam j.b.cohen@uva.nl msca@newhorrizon.eu www.newhorrizon.eu/sl3/ 42
  43. 43. FURTHER READING Burget, M., Bardone, E., & Pedaste, M. (2017). Definitions and conceptual dimensions of responsible research and innovation: A literature review. Science and engineering ethics, 23(1): 1-19. European Commission (EC) (2012). Responsible Research and Innovation. Europe’s Ability to Respond to Societal Challenges. https://ec.europa.eu/research/swafs/pdf/pub_public_engagement/responsible-research- and-innovation-leaflet_en.pdf. Accessed 25 February 2019. European Commission (EC). (2013). Gendered Innovations How Gender Analysis Contributes to Research. http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/document_library/pdf_06/gendered_innovations.pdf. Accessed 25 February 2019. European Commission (EC). (2014). Responsible Research and Innovation. Europe’s Ability to Respond to Societal Challenges.. https://ec.europa.eu/research/swafs/pdf/pub_rri/KI0214595ENC.pdf. Accessed 25 February 2019 Owen, R., Macnaghten, P., & Stilgoe, J. (2012). Responsible research and innovation: From science in society to science for society, with society. Science and public policy, 39(6): 751-760. Stilgoe, J., Owen, R., & Macnaghten, P. (2013). Developing a framework for responsible innovation. Research Policy, 42(9): 1568-1580. Von Schomberg, R. A. (2011). Towards responsible research and innovation in the information and communication technologies and security technologies fields. A Report from the European Commission Services, DG Research and Innovation - https://philarchive.org/archive/VONTRR. 43

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