French Revolutionharrold

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  • 1. The Coming of the French Revolution From Absolutism to Revolution
  • 2. A. The Old Regime
    • 1. 1770’s, France of Middle ages still survived
    • 2. Divided into three estates – large, rigid social classes
    • 3. King Louis XVI besieged w/ calls for reform
  • 3. B. The Estates
    • 1. First Estate = Clergy of the Catholic Church
    • a. Owned 10 % of French land Provided education and relief to the poor
    • b. 2/5 of income in taxes
  • 4.
    • 2. Second Estate = wealthy Nobles
    • a. 2 % of the population
    • b. owned 30 % of the land
    • c. paid almost no taxes
  • 5. 3. The Third Estate
    • 1. 98% people divided into three groups:
    • a. Bourgeoisie  well educated merchants and artisans
  • 6.
    • b. Workers in cities
    • i. Paid low wages
    • ii. hungry
    • iii. Mobs  riot in bad economic times
    • c. Peasants- 80% population
    • i. Paid most of the taxes, wanted change
  • 7. C. Beginning of the Revolution
    • 1. 1789 - meeting of Estates General =
    • 2. Members of 3 rd Estate demanded more power
    • a. formed National Assembly
  • 8.
    • 3. June 17, 1789- delegates of 3rd estate vote to establish National Assembly
    • a. ***first act of the revolution
    • 4. Delegates establish the Tennis Court Oath
  • 9. D. The Storming of the Bastille
    • 1 . Louis XVI tries to make peace w/ 3 rd estate by ordering other 2 estates to join them in Nat’l Assembly
    • 2. Rumors of foreign troops coming to kill French citizens
    • a. causes agitation and panic
  • 10.  
  • 11.
    • 3. July 14, 1789 - a mob overtakes the Bastille - a French prison- to get gunpowder
    • 4. The Bastille falls to the control of the citizens and the revolution has begun
    • Symbol = Royal Oppression
  • 12. E. Reforms of the Assembly
    • 1. August 27th, 1789- Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man
    • a. pg. 513
  • 13.
    • 2. Assembly looks at relationship between Church and government-
    • a. Church land taken by state
    • b. priests/clergy must be elected by the people
  • 14. 3. Other Changes made by the Assembly
    • a. limited constitutional monarchy
    • b. September, 1791- National Assembly  constitution  gives power to the new Legislative Assembly
  • 15.
    • c. Legislative Assembly  power to create laws and approve or prevent any war declared by the king
  • 16. F. The National Convention
    • 1. 1791 - new government elected- The National Convention
    • 2. Radical groups began to form, mobs became common (more real power than government)
  • 17.
    • 3. Sept. 1791- the National Convention abolishes the monarchy  declares France a republic
    • 4. All male citizens are given the right to vote and hold office 
    I like our Republic Badge. It might last at least a year! Ooh la la…I like that sash you are wearing, too!
  • 18. G. Death of Louis XVI
    • 1. 1793 - Louis XVI is tried and convicted of treason
    • 2. He is sentenced to death at the guillotine
  • 19. H. Struggle for power
    • 1. Threats from foreign armies and domestic mobs  struggle for power
    • 2. Maximilien Robespierre gains power
  • 20.
    • 3. Robespierre wipes out all traces of the monarchy and religion
    • a. Sunday  removed from calendar  too religious (religion = old fashioned)
    • 5. All churches closed
    That cross is soooo last week…
  • 21. I. Reign of Terror
    • 1. Summer 1793- Robespierre-leader Committee of Public Safety
    • 2. Committee would decide enemy of the states
  • 22.
    • a. Enemies put to death
    • 3. Robespierre becomes dictator
    • a. his rule  Reign of Terror
  • 23. J. Victims of the Terror
    • 1. Most famous victim = Marie Antoinette
    • 2. Even those who helped establish the revolution - not being “radical enough”
    I am so beautiful…and I am rich! I am a Hapsburg. What? Who is that knocking? You say they want bread…they don’t have any? Well, then, let them eat cake! Silly things.
  • 24. K. End of the Reign of Terror
    • 1. By July 1794 - no one was safe from Robespierre
    • 2. National Convention turns on Robespierre
    • a. sentenced to death (beheading) - July 28, 1794
    Oh, no! Everyone can see my pantaloons!
  • 25.
    • 4. The Directory
    • a. legislative body
    • b. five man executive
    • c. could not make voting safe
    • 5. Napoleon Bonaparte  put in charge of France’s armies
    L. 1795 - New government
  • 26.  
  • 27. B. Napoleon’s France They say I have what is known as “The Short Man’s Complex.” You wanna go, huh? Do ya?
  • 28. C. Military Commander
    • 1. Brigadier General
    • 2. Napoleon married Josephine
    • 3.Gained command of French army in Italy  defeated Austrians
    • 4. Widespread popularity
  • 29. 5. Made First Consul- consolidated power
    • a. Coup d’etat = Stroke of State
    I found the crown of France lying on the ground, and I picked it up with my sword.
  • 30.
    • b. Made peace between France and the Church
    • c. Made peace with British
    • d. 1803 Sold France's Louisiana territory to the U.S.
    • e.1804  set foundation for much of Europe's legal system  Napoleonic Code
    France =
  • 31.
    • f. Bank of France
    • g. Public education (HS+)
    • h. Constitution approved by people
  • 32. 6.1804  Napoleon crowned himself Emperor And I made all the tall men with pointy hats sit lower than me… Now what? Huh?! You wanna go?
  • 33. 7. Napoleonic Wars
    • a. 1805, planning invasion of England when Russian & Austrian armies marched towards France
    • b. Napoleon's forces defeated them at Austerlitz
    • i. British fleet had destroyed Napoleon's navy at Trafalgar.
  • 34.
    • c. Expanding Empire  Confederation of the Rhine in Germany and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in Poland
    • i. By now, Napoleon controlled almost all of Western Europe with the exception of Spain
  • 35. d. Continental System
    • i. Destroy economy of Britain  all European ports were to refuse British shipments
    • ii. Failed and in trying to force Spain to comply began the Peninsular War (Brother Joseph)
    England Portugal & Britain vs. Spain
  • 36.  
  • 37. e. Napoleon marries again
    • i. 1810, Josephine  two children previously  None by Napoleon
    • ii. Annulled and married the 18-year-old Austrian archduchess Marie Louise.
    • iii. 1811  son!!!
    It's a boy!!!
  • 38. f. Beginning of the End
    • i. Czar Alexander I withdrew Russia from the Continental System
    • ii. 1812, Napoleon's Grand Army entered Russia in order to punish Alexander
    • iii. Scorched-earth policy
    • iv. Great Military DISASTER!!
    D-d-d-d-do y-y-you w-w-w-wa-an-n-na gggo? Huh? Dddoo y-y-ya? 2/3 of the Grand Army died
  • 39.
    • iii. Affairs in France  unstable
    • iv. Napoleon rushed back to Paris  defeated by coalition of European forces at Leipzig 1814
  • 40. Napoleonic Europe Late 1812
  • 41. Napoleonic Europe East 1812
  • 42. Peninsular War Late 1812
  • 43. f. Congress of Vienna
    • i. Met to punish Napoleon
    • * military controls
    • * war debt = indemnity
    • * Balance of power
    • * Concert of Europe
  • 44. Europe after Congress of Vienna
  • 45. g. Exile!!!
    • i. Elba
    • ii. Escape!!!
    • * raised a new army in the period = Hundred Days
    • iii. June 1815, Wellington defeated Napoleon at Waterloo
  • 46.
    • iv. Exile…again  Saint Helena in the South Atlantic
    • v. Died in 1821
    I wish my ashes to rest on the banks of the Seine, in the midst of that French people which I have loved so much. . . . I die before my time, killed by the English oligarchy and its hired assassins.
  • 47. D. France back to Monarchy
    • 1. King Louis XVIII
  • 48. Up to WWI
    • Louis XVIII  Charles X (not popular)  Louis Philippe (“citizen king”) – Revolution of 1848  Second Republic  Louis-Napoleon (nephew) used a coup d’etat for Second French Empire = Emperor Napoleon III  Crimean War (Russia vs. France, G.B., Ottoman Turks) [Florence Nightingale]  Franco-Prussian War (Otto von Bismarck)
    • *** France gave up Alsace and Lorraine
    •  Third Republic