The French Revolution

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The French Revolution

  1. 1. The French Revolution When Revolution goes Right, Left or Wrong?
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Crisis in the French Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>The Revolution of 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>The Reconstruction of France </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>The Reign of Terror </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Crisis in the French Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>The financial crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV was a weak ruler </li></ul><ul><li>The Estates General </li></ul>
  4. 4. A. The financial crisis <ul><li>France was in massive debt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 7 year war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The American Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle of the Bourbon family </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nobility or the Parlements refused to increase taxes </li></ul>
  5. 5. B. Louis XVI was a weak ruler <ul><li>Little influence over nobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobility did not want to increase taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would not raise taxes unless Estates General met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It had not met since 1614. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Little influence with public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex scandals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Often unable to address pressing issues </li></ul>
  6. 6. C. The Estates General <ul><li>The First Estate: Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled about 10% of the land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid a 2% gift to the monarch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Second Estate: The Nobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 2% of the population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owned 25% of the land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could tax peasants at will. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resented authority of crown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Third Estate: everyone else </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The emerging Bourgeoisie. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The urban working class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasant farmers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried the majority of the tax burden. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. II. The Revolution of 1789 <ul><li>Meeting of the Estates General </li></ul><ul><li>The National Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>The Tennis Court Oath </li></ul><ul><li>Fall of the Bastille </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Fear </li></ul><ul><li>March on Versailles </li></ul>
  8. 8. A. Meeting of the Estates General <ul><li>All Estates agreed change was needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But bitter division over how to vote. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vote by order, Third Estate will lose 2-1. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vote by Head, Third Estate wins 610-591. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King Louis XVI requests estates to meet separately </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Estates General Meets
  10. 10. B. The National Assembly <ul><li>Third Estate refuses and forms National Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Invites 2 nd and 3 rd Estate to sit with them </li></ul><ul><li>Seized power away from the First and Second estates </li></ul>
  11. 11. C. The Tennis Court Oath <ul><li>Vowed to write a constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Members of other estates joined </li></ul><ul><li>King capitulated to National Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>The Declaration of the Rights of Man and citizen’s. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tennis Court Oath
  13. 13. D. Fall of the Bastille: 7/14/1789 <ul><li>Paris was a model of instability. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor wheat crop cause price increases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High price of bread diminished demand for other goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Riots over rising prices of bread. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Louis XVI called for his Swiss guards to come to Paris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To Protect the crown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The crowds feared this move. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Assembly feared the Guards were coming after them. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peasants attack Bastille to seize weapons for defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is NOT the Assembly </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. E. The Great Fear spreads: Summer 1789. <ul><li>Peasant mobs rise against nobility. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked manors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed legal documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopped paying taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Assembly forces Louis XVI to end Feudalism </li></ul>
  15. 16. F. The March on Versailles: 10/5/1789 <ul><li>Rising bread prices anger woman of Paris. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They march on the assembly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They march to Versailles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The woman and mobs attack Versailles. </li></ul><ul><li>Force King to agree to return to Paris. </li></ul>
  16. 17. The March on Versailles
  17. 20. III. The Reconstruction of France <ul><li>Political reorganization </li></ul><ul><li>Economic policy </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Constitution of the Clergy </li></ul><ul><li>The Counter Revolution </li></ul>
  18. 21. A. Political reorganization <ul><li>Citizenship and voting based on tax payers </li></ul><ul><li>Created 83 departments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced all provincial power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further crippled nobility </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. B. Economic policy <ul><li>Assembly outlawed labor unions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counter to individualism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assembly confiscated the land of the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Issued Assignats or bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issued too many and led to inflation </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. C. Civil Constitution of the Clergy <ul><li>Transformed Catholic Church into secular part of state. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between loss of lands and this catholic church was very angry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even members of Church who supported the assembly opposed the Revolution now. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Really angered the Pope </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. D. The Counter Revolution <ul><li>The revolution threatened political and social order across Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Vatican </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French Nobility or Emigres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The King tried to flee, but was caught </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchs of Europe saw its as a threat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declaration of Pillnitz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frederick II of Prussia vowed to protect Marie Antoinette </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 25. IV. The Second Revolution <ul><li>The Jacobins </li></ul><ul><li>The Paris Commune </li></ul><ul><li>The Sans-Culottes </li></ul>
  23. 26. A. The Jacobins <ul><li>Political Party of the Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Rousseau and Enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerged as early leaders of assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declared war on Austria as a threat to the Revolution (1792) </li></ul>
  24. 27. B. The Paris Commune <ul><li>Formed to govern Paris during the war </li></ul><ul><li>Consisted of mobs of people to protect the revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feared the counter revolutionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attacked the prison </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked the royal residence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imprisoned the family </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. C. The Sans-Culottes <ul><li>Shop keepers, workers and artisans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very angry at price of food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People have a right to food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angry at the Jacobins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divisions in the assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The left was extremely revolutionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Right wanted a constitutional Monarchy </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. The King is dead !!!
  27. 31. V. The Reign of Terror <ul><li>War with Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The Levee en Masse </li></ul><ul><li>Committee on Public safety </li></ul><ul><li>The end of Terror </li></ul>
  28. 32. A. War with Europe <ul><li>France was at war with Britain, Austria and Prussia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe feared the revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The radicals of the revolution saw a need to defend the revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed early leaders of the revolution as a threat </li></ul></ul>
  29. 33. B. The Levee en Masse <ul><li>Mobilize the entire population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 1 million men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Included women </li></ul></ul>
  30. 34. C. Committee on Public safety <ul><li>Had power to defend the revolution from internal threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headed by Maximillian Robespierre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determined to build a “Republic of Virtue” </li></ul><ul><li>From 1793 –1794 put on trial all enemies of the state. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians and women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone less radical than Robespierre. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40,000 people killed. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. The fate of those who threatened the Revolution
  32. 36. D. The End of Terror <ul><li>Robespierre creates “Cult of Supreme Being” </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining leaders fear his power </li></ul><ul><li>Robespierre accuses them of conspiracy </li></ul><ul><li>This is the end of Robespierre </li></ul><ul><li>Period becomes known as Reign of Terror </li></ul>
  33. 37. Robespierre Is Killed in 1794
  34. 38. Closure… <ul><li>The French monarchy failed in addressing the problems of France. </li></ul><ul><li>How the Enlightenment influenced the Third Estate. </li></ul><ul><li>How economic conditions radicalized the revolution from the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>How the revolution challenged the social order of all of Europe </li></ul>
  35. 39. Terms

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