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  1. 1. Napoleon
  2. 2. Key Events of the Empire <ul><li>Loss of Haiti, Sale of Louisiana, 1803 </li></ul><ul><li>Loss at Trafalgar, 1805 </li></ul><ul><li>Victories in Central Europe, 1805-1807 </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of Continental System </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Napoleonic Code </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Events of the Empire <ul><li>Nationalist Resistance to Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>Retreat from Russia, 1812-13 </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat at Leipzig, 1813 </li></ul><ul><li>Return, and defeat at Waterloo, 1815 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Napoleon, The Romantic Figure <ul><li>Movement from Enlightenment to Romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>Reason and debate  Intuition and Action </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy  Individual Hero </li></ul><ul><li>Failure  Destiny </li></ul>
  5. 5. They Say A Picture is Worth 1000 Words - This Graph Tells a Fascinating Story - What is it?!
  6. 6. Height of Napoleon’s Power
  7. 7. Napoleon <ul><li>Brilliant General </li></ul><ul><li>1799- Coup d’etat takes power from Directory </li></ul><ul><li>1804- French plebiscite (vote) to allow him to be an emperor </li></ul>
  8. 8. Social Achievements <ul><li>Concordat: Patch relationship with Catholic Church - 1801 </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleonic Code: Uniform laws for all (except women and slaves) - 1804 (still basis of Louisiana’s law) </li></ul><ul><li>Lycees: Public Schools for all </li></ul><ul><li>National Bank and Tax Reform: To fix France’s financial Problems </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ambitions for Empire <ul><li>Americas: </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana territories (N. America) </li></ul><ul><li>Guiana (S. America - still a French colony) </li></ul><ul><li>Saint-Domingue (Haiti) (Caribbean) </li></ul>
  10. 10. … But Napoleon Decides to Ditch the Americas <ul><li>Sells Louisiana Territory to U.S. for $15 million to finance war, spite British </li></ul><ul><li>Slave revolt in Saint-Domingue creates world’s first black republic (Haiti) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Haitian Independence, 1792-1804 Toussaint L’Ouverture
  12. 12. Louisiana Purchase, 1803 $15,000,000
  13. 13. Europe: <ul><li>Emperor of France </li></ul><ul><li>Controls Spain, Confederation of Rhine, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Italy, Kingdom of Naples, Switzerland (brothers and in-laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Divorced Wife and “Married Up” into Austrian Royal Family (grand-niece of Marie Antoinette) </li></ul>Au Revroir Hey there…
  14. 14. Josephine’s Divorce Statement (1807) With the permission of our august and dear husband, I must declare that, having no hope of bearing children who would fulfill the needs of his policies and the interests of France, I am pleased to offer him the greatest proof of attachment and devotion ever offered on this earth.
  15. 15. Napoléon’s Divorce Statement (1807) Far from ever finding cause for complaint, I can to the contrary only congratulate myself on the devotion and tenderness of my beloved wife. She has adorned thirteen years of my life; the memory will always remain engraved on my heart.
  16. 16. “ Consecration of the Emperor Napoléon & the Empress Josephine,” 1806 by David December 2, 1804
  17. 17. “ Consecration of the Emperor Napoléon & the Empress Josephine,” (Detail) 1806 by David
  18. 18. Napoléon’s Throne
  19. 19. The Imperial Image
  20. 20. The “Empire” Style Madame Recamier by David, 1808
  21. 21. Marie Louise (of Austria) married Napoléon on March 12, 1810 in Vienna
  22. 22. Marie Louise (of Austria) with Napoléon’s Son (Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles: 1811-1832)
  23. 23. Napoléon’s Family Rules! <ul><li>Jerome Bonaparte - King of Westphalia. </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Bonaparte - King of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Louise Bonaparte - King of Holland </li></ul><ul><li>Pauline Bonaparte - Princess of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles - King of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Elisa Bonaparte - Grand Duchess of Tuscany </li></ul><ul><li>Caroline Bonaparte - Queen of Naples </li></ul>
  24. 24. Napoleonic Europe
  25. 25. Napoleon Reaches His Peak from 1807-1812… <ul><li>But, Problems Are Forming: </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s control over other countries makes them realize that they are more loyal to their own people than Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>France’s Empire is huge and difficult to control </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon was his own worst enemy! </li></ul>
  26. 26. … And Then Things Fall Apart! <ul><li>Three Costly Mistakes: </li></ul><ul><li>The Continental System </li></ul><ul><li>The Peninsular War </li></ul><ul><li>The Invasion of Russia </li></ul>
  27. 27. Napoléon’s Major Military Campaigns Trafalgar (Lord Nelson: Fr. Navy lost!)  Britain France  1805: Sea Power
  28. 28. Battle of Trafalgar
  29. 29. Continental System - November 1806 <ul><li>A blockade designed to cut England off from Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s navy lost at Trafalgar, so direct naval conflict out of question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To destroy British trade, undermine it economically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To exclude it from Europe’s affairs </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Problems with Continental System <ul><li>Was not executed correctly - weakened British trade, did not destroy it </li></ul><ul><li>British retaliated, made own blockade, and stopped all neutral ships going to Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including American ships, causing War of 1812 (only war in which U.S. invaded by foreign power) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weakened economy of France and lands controlled by Napoleon </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Peninsular War - 1808 <ul><li>Portugal ignored Continental System </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon sent army through Spain to overthrow Royal Family </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish towns rioted in response, so Napoleon deposed Spanish king and made brother king of Spain and Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Port. Royals fled to Brazil, which became only colony to be the capital of its “mother country” </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Peninsular War - 1808 <ul><li>REALLY made Spanish mad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very loyal to king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feared that Napoleon would weaken power of Church as had happened in France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaged in 5 years of guerrilla warfare , which cost Napoleon 300,000 troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged Nationalism in other countries like Germany and Italy, who also started guerrilla warfare </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. “ Third of May, 1808” by Goya (1810)
  34. 34. The Surrender of Madrid May, 1809
  35. 35. Invasion of Russia - 1812 <ul><li>Invading Russia = Losing Prospect! </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon and Czar of Russia were allies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon thought that czar was selling grain to Britain behind his back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N. feared that czar wanted Poland from France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N. decided to invade Russia </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Invasion of Russia, cont’d. <ul><li>June, 1812: 420,000 Grand Army leaves for Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All drafted from throughout Europe and not loyal to Napoleon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scorched Earth Policy: EVERYTHING destroyed to keep from French: deaths and desertions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sept. 14, 1812: Entered Moscow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Czar ordered it burned down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N. lingered for 5 weeks, waiting for peace offer - none came </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Invasion of Russia, cont’d. <ul><li>Oct./Nov. 1812 - Ordered retreat from Moscow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snows began to fall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barefoot, starving soldiers attacked by Russians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature: on one day, -30º: Birds fell dead from sky </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mid-December 1812: Remaining 10,000 soldiers left Russia </li></ul>
  38. 38. Napoléon Invades Russia: 1812 614,000 French troops
  39. 39. Moscow on Fire!
  40. 40. Napoléon & His Grand Armée at the Gates of Moscow
  41. 41. Russian General Kutuzov The Russian army defeated the French at Borodino.
  42. 42. Napoléon’s Retreat from Moscow (Early 1813) 100,000 French troops retreat—40,000 survive!
  43. 43. So, A Picture is Worth 1000 words!
  44. 44. Mop-Up Duty <ul><li>Oct. 1813 - N. no longer has trained army - draftees destroyed by Allies at Leipzig </li></ul><ul><li>Jan. 1814 - Austrians and Russians enter Paris </li></ul><ul><li>April 1814 - Napoleon Abdicates, accepts surrender written by czar </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon given pension and banishment to Elba </li></ul><ul><li>New French king: Brother of Louis XVI installed as ruler </li></ul>
  45. 45. Napoléon’s Defeat at Leipzig (October 16-17, 1813) “ Battle of the Nations” Memorial
  46. 46. Napoléon Abdicates! <ul><li>Allied forces occupied Paris on March 31, 1814. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoléon abdicated on April 6 in favor of his son, but the Allies insisted on unconditional surrender. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoléon abdicated again on April 11. </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Fontainbleau exiles Napoléon to Elba with an annual income of 2,000,000 francs. </li></ul><ul><li>The royalists took control and restored Louis XVIII to the throne. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Napoléon in Exile on Elba
  48. 48. Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824)
  49. 49. One More Time for Old Time’s Sake <ul><li>New French king unpopular </li></ul><ul><li>Mar. 1815 - escaped Elba and landed in France </li></ul><ul><li>Within days, become Emperor again and Louis XVIII flees </li></ul>
  50. 50. Napoléon on His Way to His Final Exile on St. Helena
  51. 51. Napoléon’s Tomb
  52. 52. Waterloo - The Final Showdown <ul><li>Fought between Napoleon and British </li></ul><ul><li>June 15, 1815: French attacked </li></ul><ul><li>June 17, 1815: French lost </li></ul><ul><li>Died 6 years later (stomach cancer) </li></ul><ul><li>Marie Louise left him for Austrian officer assigned to watch over her </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s son died of tuberculosis in Austria </li></ul>
  53. 53. Aftermath <ul><li>Napoleon roused nationalism throughout Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to unification of Germany and Italy as we know them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. gained middle 1/3 of its current land </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti first colony other than US to win independence </li></ul><ul><li>US attacked by British </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish American colonies like semi-independence, rebel against re-establishment of Spanish King (Simon Bolivar) </li></ul>
  54. 54. Europe in 1800
  55. 55. The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815) <ul><li>It’s job was to undo everything that Napoléon had done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce France to its old boundaries - her frontiers were pushed back to 1790 level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore as many of the old monarchies as possible that had lost their thrones during the Napoléonic era. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supported the resolution: There is always an alternative to conflict . </li></ul>
  56. 56. Key Players at Vienna The “Host” Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.) Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.) Tsar Alexander I (Rus.) King Frederick William III (Prus.) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)
  57. 57. Key Principles Established at Vienna <ul><li>Balance of Power </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul>Coalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years. France would have to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs.
  58. 58. <ul><li>France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoléon. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia was given most of Duchy of Warsaw (Poland). </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia was given half of Saxony, parts of Poland, and other German territories. </li></ul><ul><li>A Germanic Confederation of 39 states (including Prussia) was created from the previous 300, under Austrian rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria was given back territory it had lost recently, plus more in Germany and Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>The House of Orange was given the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands to rule. </li></ul>Changes Made at Vienna (1)
  59. 59. Changes Made at Vienna (2) <ul><li>Norway and Sweden were joined. </li></ul><ul><li>The neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed. </li></ul><ul><li>Hanover was enlarged, and made a kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain was given Cape Colony, South Africa, and various other colonies in Africa and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Sardinia was given Piedmont, Nice, Savoy, and Genoa. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bourbon Ferdinand I was restored in the Two Sicilies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Duchy of Parma was given to Marie Louise. </li></ul><ul><li>The slave trade was condemned (at British urging). </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Napoléon’s Empire in 1810
  61. 61. Europe After the Congress of Vienna
  62. 62. To wrap up… <ul><li>After the death of Napoleon, how was France and Europe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same as it had always been? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely different? </li></ul></ul>