French Revolutionharrold


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French Revolutionharrold

  1. 1. The Coming of the French Revolution From Absolutism to Revolution
  2. 2. A. The Old Regime <ul><li>1. 1770’s, France of Middle ages still survived </li></ul><ul><li>2. Divided into three estates – large, rigid social classes </li></ul><ul><li>3. King Louis XVI besieged w/ calls for reform </li></ul>
  3. 3. B. The Estates <ul><li>1. First Estate = Clergy of the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>a. Owned 10 % of French land Provided education and relief to the poor </li></ul><ul><li>b. 2/5 of income in taxes </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>2. Second Estate = wealthy Nobles </li></ul><ul><li>a. 2 % of the population </li></ul><ul><li>b. owned 30 % of the land </li></ul><ul><li>c. paid almost no taxes </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3. The Third Estate <ul><li>1. 98% people divided into three groups: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Bourgeoisie  well educated merchants and artisans </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>b. Workers in cities </li></ul><ul><li>i. Paid low wages </li></ul><ul><li>ii. hungry </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Mobs  riot in bad economic times </li></ul><ul><li>c. Peasants- 80% population </li></ul><ul><li>i. Paid most of the taxes, wanted change </li></ul>
  7. 7. C. Beginning of the Revolution <ul><li>1. 1789 - meeting of Estates General = </li></ul><ul><li>2. Members of 3 rd Estate demanded more power </li></ul><ul><li>a. formed National Assembly </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>3. June 17, 1789- delegates of 3rd estate vote to establish National Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>a. ***first act of the revolution </li></ul><ul><li>4. Delegates establish the Tennis Court Oath </li></ul>
  9. 9. D. The Storming of the Bastille <ul><li>1 . Louis XVI tries to make peace w/ 3 rd estate by ordering other 2 estates to join them in Nat’l Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rumors of foreign troops coming to kill French citizens </li></ul><ul><li>a. causes agitation and panic </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>3. July 14, 1789 - a mob overtakes the Bastille - a French prison- to get gunpowder </li></ul><ul><li>4. The Bastille falls to the control of the citizens and the revolution has begun </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol = Royal Oppression </li></ul>
  11. 12. E. Reforms of the Assembly <ul><li>1. August 27th, 1789- Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man </li></ul><ul><li>a. pg. 513 </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>2. Assembly looks at relationship between Church and government- </li></ul><ul><li>a. Church land taken by state </li></ul><ul><li>b. priests/clergy must be elected by the people </li></ul>
  13. 14. 3. Other Changes made by the Assembly <ul><li>a. limited constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>b. September, 1791- National Assembly  constitution  gives power to the new Legislative Assembly </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>c. Legislative Assembly  power to create laws and approve or prevent any war declared by the king </li></ul>
  15. 16. F. The National Convention <ul><li>1. 1791 - new government elected- The National Convention </li></ul><ul><li>2. Radical groups began to form, mobs became common (more real power than government) </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>3. Sept. 1791- the National Convention abolishes the monarchy  declares France a republic </li></ul><ul><li>4. All male citizens are given the right to vote and hold office  </li></ul>I like our Republic Badge. It might last at least a year! Ooh la la…I like that sash you are wearing, too!
  17. 18. G. Death of Louis XVI <ul><li>1. 1793 - Louis XVI is tried and convicted of treason </li></ul><ul><li>2. He is sentenced to death at the guillotine </li></ul>
  18. 19. H. Struggle for power <ul><li>1. Threats from foreign armies and domestic mobs  struggle for power </li></ul><ul><li>2. Maximilien Robespierre gains power </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>3. Robespierre wipes out all traces of the monarchy and religion </li></ul><ul><li>a. Sunday  removed from calendar  too religious (religion = old fashioned) </li></ul><ul><li>5. All churches closed </li></ul>That cross is soooo last week…
  20. 21. I. Reign of Terror <ul><li>1. Summer 1793- Robespierre-leader Committee of Public Safety </li></ul><ul><li>2. Committee would decide enemy of the states </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>a. Enemies put to death </li></ul><ul><li>3. Robespierre becomes dictator </li></ul><ul><li>a. his rule  Reign of Terror </li></ul>
  22. 23. J. Victims of the Terror <ul><li>1. Most famous victim = Marie Antoinette </li></ul><ul><li>2. Even those who helped establish the revolution - not being “radical enough” </li></ul>I am so beautiful…and I am rich! I am a Hapsburg. What? Who is that knocking? You say they want bread…they don’t have any? Well, then, let them eat cake! Silly things.
  23. 24. K. End of the Reign of Terror <ul><li>1. By July 1794 - no one was safe from Robespierre </li></ul><ul><li>2. National Convention turns on Robespierre </li></ul><ul><li>a. sentenced to death (beheading) - July 28, 1794 </li></ul>Oh, no! Everyone can see my pantaloons!
  24. 25. <ul><li>4. The Directory </li></ul><ul><li>a. legislative body </li></ul><ul><li>b. five man executive </li></ul><ul><li>c. could not make voting safe </li></ul><ul><li>5. Napoleon Bonaparte  put in charge of France’s armies </li></ul>L. 1795 - New government
  25. 27. B. Napoleon’s France They say I have what is known as “The Short Man’s Complex.” You wanna go, huh? Do ya?
  26. 28. C. Military Commander <ul><li>1. Brigadier General </li></ul><ul><li>2. Napoleon married Josephine </li></ul><ul><li>3.Gained command of French army in Italy  defeated Austrians </li></ul><ul><li>4. Widespread popularity </li></ul>
  27. 29. 5. Made First Consul- consolidated power <ul><li>a. Coup d’etat = Stroke of State </li></ul>I found the crown of France lying on the ground, and I picked it up with my sword.
  28. 30. <ul><li>b. Made peace between France and the Church </li></ul><ul><li>c. Made peace with British </li></ul><ul><li>d. 1803 Sold France's Louisiana territory to the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>e.1804  set foundation for much of Europe's legal system  Napoleonic Code </li></ul>France =
  29. 31. <ul><li>f. Bank of France </li></ul><ul><li>g. Public education (HS+) </li></ul><ul><li>h. Constitution approved by people </li></ul>
  30. 32. 6.1804  Napoleon crowned himself Emperor And I made all the tall men with pointy hats sit lower than me… Now what? Huh?! You wanna go?
  31. 33. 7. Napoleonic Wars <ul><li>a. 1805, planning invasion of England when Russian & Austrian armies marched towards France </li></ul><ul><li>b. Napoleon's forces defeated them at Austerlitz </li></ul><ul><li>i. British fleet had destroyed Napoleon's navy at Trafalgar. </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>c. Expanding Empire  Confederation of the Rhine in Germany and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in Poland </li></ul><ul><li>i. By now, Napoleon controlled almost all of Western Europe with the exception of Spain </li></ul>
  33. 35. d. Continental System <ul><li>i. Destroy economy of Britain  all European ports were to refuse British shipments </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Failed and in trying to force Spain to comply began the Peninsular War (Brother Joseph) </li></ul>England Portugal & Britain vs. Spain
  34. 37. e. Napoleon marries again <ul><li>i. 1810, Josephine  two children previously  None by Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Annulled and married the 18-year-old Austrian archduchess Marie Louise. </li></ul><ul><li>iii. 1811  son!!! </li></ul>It's a boy!!!
  35. 38. f. Beginning of the End <ul><li>i. Czar Alexander I withdrew Russia from the Continental System </li></ul><ul><li>ii. 1812, Napoleon's Grand Army entered Russia in order to punish Alexander </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Scorched-earth policy </li></ul><ul><li>iv. Great Military DISASTER!! </li></ul>D-d-d-d-do y-y-you w-w-w-wa-an-n-na gggo? Huh? Dddoo y-y-ya? 2/3 of the Grand Army died
  36. 39. <ul><li>iii. Affairs in France  unstable </li></ul><ul><li>iv. Napoleon rushed back to Paris  defeated by coalition of European forces at Leipzig 1814 </li></ul>
  37. 40. Napoleonic Europe Late 1812
  38. 41. Napoleonic Europe East 1812
  39. 42. Peninsular War Late 1812
  40. 43. f. Congress of Vienna <ul><li>i. Met to punish Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>* military controls </li></ul><ul><li>* war debt = indemnity </li></ul><ul><li>* Balance of power </li></ul><ul><li>* Concert of Europe </li></ul>
  41. 44. Europe after Congress of Vienna
  42. 45. g. Exile!!! <ul><li>i. Elba </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Escape!!! </li></ul><ul><li>* raised a new army in the period = Hundred Days </li></ul><ul><li>iii. June 1815, Wellington defeated Napoleon at Waterloo </li></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>iv. Exile…again  Saint Helena in the South Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>v. Died in 1821 </li></ul>I wish my ashes to rest on the banks of the Seine, in the midst of that French people which I have loved so much. . . . I die before my time, killed by the English oligarchy and its hired assassins.
  44. 47. D. France back to Monarchy <ul><li>1. King Louis XVIII </li></ul>
  45. 48. Up to WWI <ul><li>Louis XVIII  Charles X (not popular)  Louis Philippe (“citizen king”) – Revolution of 1848  Second Republic  Louis-Napoleon (nephew) used a coup d’etat for Second French Empire = Emperor Napoleon III  Crimean War (Russia vs. France, G.B., Ottoman Turks) [Florence Nightingale]  Franco-Prussian War (Otto von Bismarck) </li></ul><ul><li>*** France gave up Alsace and Lorraine </li></ul><ul><li> Third Republic </li></ul>