Napoleon BonaparteCorsican, not FrenchLoved to stress his non-aristocratic rootsCalled the “LittleCorporal” as a term ofendearment by Frenchpeople
Early Education & CareerGiven a rare scholarship—attendedmilitary academy in FranceGraduated at age 16 having studiedlaw, history, mathematicsTypical Enlightenment scholarJoined French artillery as 2dLieutenant Young Napoleon, the officerWas a captain by age 23! Promotedon merits (as opposed to purchasingpromotion, a common practice then)
The Directory Napoleon in Paris 1795 & helped put down a riot Made a major general & came to the attention of the government His commander was named one of the Directory because of Napoleon’s actions
Napoleon & JosephineNapoleon marriedJosephine deBeauharnais in 1796A widow 6 years hissenior, beautiful with 2childrenMet at a Paris restaurant& marriage for loveBut she was a leader inParis society & he was arapidly advancinggeneral, so it was anadvantageous marriagefor both
Napoleon the Hero! Sent to Italy where French fighting Austrians Napoleon defeated the Austrians in northern Italy Crossed the Alps and threatened Vienna! Returned to Paris a hero Austrians sign peace Napoleon Crossing the Alps, treaty in 1797 Jacques-Louis David
Jacques-Louis DavidArtist who began as neo- Impressed with theclassical painter of the romantic image ofFrench Revolution—very Napoleon, changes stylestark style, simple to become a Romantic— wild, heroic imagery
Napoleon’s Rise to PowerAfter similar military success in Egypt (to disrupt theBritish), Napoleon returned to Paris a bigger heroDirectory was weak, government in shamblesNapoleon staged a coup d’etat, dismissing theLegislative Assembly at gunpointHe & two others (with no real power) named consulsof FranceNew constitution written & overwhelmingly ratifiedby the people of FranceAt age 30, Napoleon was effective ruler of France!
Napoleon Bonaparte Gained Bourgeoisie support Jobs in government & army Restored order, so business happy Taxes on imports to promote trade & industry Set up national bank to stabilize the economy Gained working class (peasant) support Created new jobs Made food available at lower prices Allowed them to keep land gained in Revolution
Gained support of Nobles Offered pardons to nobles who had fled during revolution Appointed many to high government postsCompromised with the Church Revolution had tried to eliminate religion 1801 signed the Concordat that balanced the rights of church & state Napoleon had right to appoint Bishops & pay the clergy Catholics gained total freedom of worship in France again, so Pope happy
Greatest Achievement for France 1804, reorganized & revised the laws of France The Code Napoleon became basis for all countries who follow civil law Followed enlightenment ideals However, laws on women MORE restrictive!
NapoleonSuccesses of Napoleon1. Napoleonic Code2. All French men, regardless of birth, equal treatment before law3. All remaining class privileges abolished4. Allowed religious freedom5. Started free schools in every French town6. Started academy in Paris to train teachers7. Stabilized the economy with Bank of France8. Started awards annually for achievements in sciences a) France’s greatest scientists during Napoleonic period!9. Equal or better treatment for Jews
Emperor NapoleonIn 1804, Napoleonfelt secure enoughin his position toname himselfemperorCrowned in NotreDamePope was to do it,but at last minute,Napoleon took Coronation of Napoleon, Jacques- Louis David, 1804crown & placed onown head!
Napoleonic Wars Occupied Italy, so declared himself to be King of Italy Annexed Belgium Tried to invade Great Britain, stopped at battle of Trafalgar where French fleet destroyed Could not invade Britain, so Continental System employed
Napoleon Conquests throughout Europe Alliance with Austria, Russia, Sweden, & Great Britain to try and stop him Benefits to Europe1. Reforms of revolution brought to other parts of Europe2. Set up Napoleonic Code & constitutions3. Reduced privileges of nobles & clergy4. Brought an end to serfdom, started public education supported religious toleration
Negative Conseqences:1. Forced conquered people to supply his armies2. Taxes increased as wars cost money!3. Soldiers conscripted from conquered lands4. Opposition ruthlessly quelled everywhere5. Did not allow free press anywhere (even in France)
Defeat in Spain & Portugal Set up his brother as King of Spain (1808) but Spanish people rebelled against this British came to Spanish aid Sent Portuguese king to Brazil to safety Guerilla warfare that sapped his resources Shootings of May 3, 1808, Francisco Goya
Invasion ofRussiaInvaded Russia June 1812Russian strategy was toburn & runNapoleon reachesMoscow, but no suppliesand has to retreatWorst defeat in history Episode fromArmy of 614,000 returns Napoleon’s Retreat fromwith only approximately Russia, 1812,40,000 Theodore Gericault
First DefeatNapoleon still raises army of over 350,000within 6 months returning to EuropeCoalition of Russia, Prussia, Austria, GBlaunch army to finally stop himDefeated at Battle of the Nations 1813 - atLeipzig in GermanyNapoleon abdicated and sent to Elba, anisland off coast of Italy (near his home ofCorsica—see map on next page)
The Hundred Days Escaped from Elba 1815 Troops rallied to him as he marched to Paris King Louis XVIII fled as he marched in Crushed at Battle of Waterloo in Belgium (see map on previous slide) spring of 1815; English General Wellington hero Sent to remote island in Atlantic, St. Helena Very tight security with British soldiers Probably died of stomach cancer 1821
The Battle of Waterloo andNapoleon’s defeat at hand ofBritish commander Wellington