French Absolutism


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French Absolutism

  1. 1. French Absolutism<br />World History<br />Chapter 7<br />
  2. 2. Absolutism<br /> a form of monarchical power that is unrestrained by any other institutions, such as churches, legislatures, or social elites<br />
  3. 3. French Absolutism<br />
  4. 4. Henry IV of NavarrePont Neuf, Paris<br />
  5. 5. Henry IV of Navarre<br />Bourbon<br />“Le Bon Roi Henri”<br />State of France = mess (religious wars)<br />Wedding of Henry IV to Margot de Valois (MOB = Catherine de’ Medici)<br />
  6. 6. Wars of Religion<br /><ul><li> Catholics vs. Huguenots
  7. 7. Huguenot = French Protestant
  8. 8. Henry IV = Huguenot = trouble</li></li></ul><li>St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre<br />St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre<br />August 24, 1572<br />Over 3,000 Huguenots massacred<br />Catherine de Medici (plotter??)<br />Conversion of Henry IV to Catholicism<br />
  9. 9. Edict of Nantes<br />1598<br />Ends French Wars of Religion<br />Grants religious tolerance to Huguenots<br />Huguenots could:<br />Worship freely without persecution<br />Fortify their towns and cities<br />Greatly resented by Catholics<br />
  10. 10. Reforms of Henry IV<br />Government involved in all aspects of life in France  foundation for absolutism<br />Government under Henry IV:<br />Justice Dept.<br />Built & improved roads<br />Built bridges<br />Revived agriculture<br />Built royal bureaucracy<br />Decreased power of nobles<br />
  11. 11. Demise of Henry IV<br />May 14, 1610 <br />François Ravaillac stabbed Henry IV to death<br />Ravaillac imprisoned,<br /> then drawn & quartered<br />
  12. 12. The Assassination of Henry IV<br />
  13. 13. Henry IVof NavarreTombBasilique St. Denis, Paris<br />
  14. 14. Louis XIII<br />Son of Henry IV and Marie de’ Medici (Henry’s 2nd wife)<br />Inherited throne at the age of 9<br />Mom claimed regent<br />
  15. 15. Tomb of Louis XIIIBasilique St. Denis, Paris<br />
  16. 16. Cardinal Armand Richelieu<br />Chief advisor to Louis XIII<br />Laid foundation for absolutism<br />Main goals:<br />Destroy power of nobles <br />Defeated private armies<br />Destroyed fortified castles<br />Brought them to court<br />Destroy Huguenots <br />Outlawed armies<br />Still let them practice religion<br />
  17. 17. Cardinal Jules Mazarin<br />Chief minister to Louis XIV<br />Picked up where Richelieu left off<br />Barely escaped with life during La Fronde<br />
  18. 18. Louis XIV<br />Son of Louis XIII and Anne of Austria<br />Louis XIV’s birth considered a miracle<br />Queen Anne childless after 23 years of marriage<br />Prayed to Virgin Mary<br />Val-de-Grâce (Benedictine Convent) built in gratitude<br />
  19. 19. Louis XIV<br />Louis XIV became king at age 5<br />Reigned for 72 years (54 personally)<br />Name became synonymous with absolutism<br />
  20. 20. La Fronde<br />An uprising of the nobles, peasants, urban poor, and merchant classes<br />Louis XIV (child) and Mazarin nearly died<br />Major impact on Louis XIV and how he viewed the nobility<br />
  21. 21. “L’etat c’est moi”<br />“I am the state”<br />Believed in divine right<br />King is answerable to God alone<br />Never called a meeting of Estates General<br />Sun = Louis’ symbol (center of the universe)<br />Defined absolutism<br />
  22. 22. Louis XIV<br />The Sun King<br />
  23. 23. Reign of Louis XIV<br />Expanded bureaucracy<br />Built up Army<br />Revoked Edict of Nantes<br />Patron of the Arts<br />Built Le Château de Versailles <br />
  24. 24. Expanded Bureaucracy<br />Appointed intendants<br />Public officials (“civil service”)<br />Usually upper and middle class<br />The intendants<br />Justice (oversaw courts)<br />Police (protection & military affairs)<br />Finance (taxes & financial affairs)<br />
  25. 25. Jean-Baptiste Colbert<br />Chief Financial Minister of Louis XIV<br />Financial whiz<br />Economy & trade flourished<br />France still in debt (why???)<br />
  26. 26. Colbert’s TombSt. EustacheParis<br />
  27. 27. Built Up Army<br />Paid, fed, trained, & supplied over 300,000 soldiers<br />Built Hôtel des Invalides (military hospital) <br />
  28. 28. Hôtel desInvalidesParis<br />
  29. 29. Revoked Edict of Nantes<br />October 1685 – Edict of Fontainebleau <br />Perhaps his biggest mistake<br />Protestantism made illegal<br />Exodus of over 100,000 Huguenots (to Great Britain, Prussia, Dutch Republic, etc.)<br />
  30. 30. Revoked Edict of Nantes<br />France lost skilled workers with the exodus, thus negatively affecting France’s economy<br />Also damaged Louis XIV’s reputation – bordering Protestant nations became more hostile<br />
  31. 31. Patron of the Arts<br />Louis XIV strongly supported the arts<br />Brought to court <br />Playwrights & authors<br />Artists<br />Composers & musicians<br />
  32. 32. Portrait of MolièreMusée Carnavalet, Paris<br />
  33. 33. Place de la Victoire<br />
  34. 34. Louis XIVTomb of the Sun KingBasilique St. Denis Paris<br />