Understanding the Benefits of Gaze Enhanced Visual Search<br />Pernilla Qvarfordt, Jacob T. Biehl, Gene Golovchinsky and T...
Inspecting images is common:<br />Radiologist inspect medical images<br />Airport security inspects x-rays of luggage<br /...
Visual search is error prone<br />We miss looking everywhere<br />Radiologist overall error rate ~20%<br />(Goddard et al....
Past research on improving visual inspection<br />Training<br />Prescribed scan paths<br />Kollera, Drury and Schwaninger ...
Two phase inspection method<br />Detect fixations<br />Phase 1 <br />Phase 2 <br />Cluster fixations<br />Gaze Data<br />D...
Experimental design<br />2 x 2 within-subject design & 8 participants<br />24 images: 6 images per condition<br />1 traini...
Results: Performance<br />Overall no difference in True Positive identifications after both phases<br />Increase in True P...
Results: Performance<br />Overall no difference in True Positive identifications after both phases<br />Increase in True P...
Results: Gaze Behavior<br />Longer durations on True Positives than on False Negatives<br />Inline with previous research:...
Future work<br />How to use gaze patterns to guide inspectors to better performance?<br />Optimize use of the two phases<b...
Conclusion<br />Two phase inspection method<br />Reduces workload (with gaze block)<br />Have positive effect on FN not vi...
Now for your questions…<br />Pernilla Qvarfordt, Jacob T. Biehl, Gene Golovchinsky and Tony DunniganFX Palo Alto Laborator...
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Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search

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Slides to our paper "Understanding the Benefits of Gaze Enhanced Visual Search" presented at Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium (ETRA 2010).

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Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search

  1. 1. Understanding the Benefits of Gaze Enhanced Visual Search<br />Pernilla Qvarfordt, Jacob T. Biehl, Gene Golovchinsky and Tony DunniganFX Palo Alto LaboratoryPalo Alto, California, USA<br />
  2. 2. Inspecting images is common:<br />Radiologist inspect medical images<br />Airport security inspects x-rays of luggage<br />Satellite images are inspect for threats<br />Quality control of products often include visual inspection <br />
  3. 3. Visual search is error prone<br />We miss looking everywhere<br />Radiologist overall error rate ~20%<br />(Goddard et al., 2001)<br />Current solutions:<br />Systematic inspection for all parts of the image<br />Documentation of review process<br />Second reviewer<br />Pattern recognitions models (e.g CAD)<br />(From Mello-Thoms et al. ETRA 2002)<br />
  4. 4. Past research on improving visual inspection<br />Training<br />Prescribed scan paths<br />Kollera, Drury and Schwaninger (2009), Nickles, Melloy and Gramapadhye (2003)<br />Scan paths from expert to guide novices <br />Sadasvian et al. (2005)<br />Improving user interfaces<br />Augementing display of images<br />Haiman et al (2004) <br />Segmentation of images<br />Forlines and Balakrishnan (2009)<br />Re-presentation of viewed but not selected regions <br />Nodine and Kundel (1987) <br />
  5. 5. Two phase inspection method<br />Detect fixations<br />Phase 1 <br />Phase 2 <br />Cluster fixations<br />Gaze Data<br />Determine clusters to exclude <br />
  6. 6. Experimental design<br />2 x 2 within-subject design & 8 participants<br />24 images: 6 images per condition<br />1 training image per condition<br />260-300 shapes<br />~25 x 25 pixels<br />5-20 targets per image (random)<br />10-40 close distractors<br />67.5 sec per phase<br />Each segment shown 7.5 sec<br />Gaze block: 270 ms threshold to block cluster <br />Tobii X120 Eye tracker & 18” CRT Monitor<br />Gaze block<br />No block<br />Full image<br />Segmentation<br />Target<br />Close distractors<br />
  7. 7. Results: Performance<br />Overall no difference in True Positive identifications after both phases<br />Increase in True Positive rate in 2nd phase (Block + full image)<br />Near sig. interaction<br />Increase in FN not viewed in 1st phase transitioning to TP in 2nd phase (Block + full image)<br />Sig. interaction<br />Significant reduced mental workload (TLX) for Gaze Block<br />
  8. 8. Results: Performance<br />Overall no difference in True Positive identifications after both phases<br />Increase in True Positive rate in 2nd phase (Block + full image)<br />Near sig. interaction<br />Increase in FN not viewed in 1st phase transitioning to TP in 2nd phase (Block + full image)<br />Sig. interaction<br />Significant reduced mental workload (TLX) for Gaze Block<br />
  9. 9. Results: Gaze Behavior<br />Longer durations on True Positives than on False Negatives<br />Inline with previous research:<br />(Nodine and Kundel, 1987; Manning, Ethell and Donovan, 2001)<br />Adopt to fixation length<br />Longer fixation in phase 2<br />Sig. shorter fixation on FN viewed in phase 1 with gaze block<br />550 ms<br />1032 ms<br />
  10. 10. Future work<br />How to use gaze patterns to guide inspectors to better performance?<br />Optimize use of the two phases<br />How to combine information from gaze and image processing to guide inspectors to important parts of the image?<br />
  11. 11. Conclusion<br />Two phase inspection method<br />Reduces workload (with gaze block)<br />Have positive effect on FN not viewed transitioning to TP during<br />Possible to estimate targets benefiting fromsecond review<br />
  12. 12. Now for your questions…<br />Pernilla Qvarfordt, Jacob T. Biehl, Gene Golovchinsky and Tony DunniganFX Palo Alto LaboratoryPalo Alto, California, USA<br />

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