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Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search
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Etra 2010 Gaze Enhanced Visual Search

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Slides to our paper "Understanding the Benefits of Gaze Enhanced Visual Search" presented at Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium (ETRA 2010).

Slides to our paper "Understanding the Benefits of Gaze Enhanced Visual Search" presented at Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium (ETRA 2010).

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  • 1. Understanding the Benefits of Gaze Enhanced Visual Search<br />Pernilla Qvarfordt, Jacob T. Biehl, Gene Golovchinsky and Tony DunniganFX Palo Alto LaboratoryPalo Alto, California, USA<br />
  • 2. Inspecting images is common:<br />Radiologist inspect medical images<br />Airport security inspects x-rays of luggage<br />Satellite images are inspect for threats<br />Quality control of products often include visual inspection <br />
  • 3. Visual search is error prone<br />We miss looking everywhere<br />Radiologist overall error rate ~20%<br />(Goddard et al., 2001)<br />Current solutions:<br />Systematic inspection for all parts of the image<br />Documentation of review process<br />Second reviewer<br />Pattern recognitions models (e.g CAD)<br />(From Mello-Thoms et al. ETRA 2002)<br />
  • 4. Past research on improving visual inspection<br />Training<br />Prescribed scan paths<br />Kollera, Drury and Schwaninger (2009), Nickles, Melloy and Gramapadhye (2003)<br />Scan paths from expert to guide novices <br />Sadasvian et al. (2005)<br />Improving user interfaces<br />Augementing display of images<br />Haiman et al (2004) <br />Segmentation of images<br />Forlines and Balakrishnan (2009)<br />Re-presentation of viewed but not selected regions <br />Nodine and Kundel (1987) <br />
  • 5. Two phase inspection method<br />Detect fixations<br />Phase 1 <br />Phase 2 <br />Cluster fixations<br />Gaze Data<br />Determine clusters to exclude <br />
  • 6. Experimental design<br />2 x 2 within-subject design & 8 participants<br />24 images: 6 images per condition<br />1 training image per condition<br />260-300 shapes<br />~25 x 25 pixels<br />5-20 targets per image (random)<br />10-40 close distractors<br />67.5 sec per phase<br />Each segment shown 7.5 sec<br />Gaze block: 270 ms threshold to block cluster <br />Tobii X120 Eye tracker & 18” CRT Monitor<br />Gaze block<br />No block<br />Full image<br />Segmentation<br />Target<br />Close distractors<br />
  • 7. Results: Performance<br />Overall no difference in True Positive identifications after both phases<br />Increase in True Positive rate in 2nd phase (Block + full image)<br />Near sig. interaction<br />Increase in FN not viewed in 1st phase transitioning to TP in 2nd phase (Block + full image)<br />Sig. interaction<br />Significant reduced mental workload (TLX) for Gaze Block<br />
  • 8. Results: Performance<br />Overall no difference in True Positive identifications after both phases<br />Increase in True Positive rate in 2nd phase (Block + full image)<br />Near sig. interaction<br />Increase in FN not viewed in 1st phase transitioning to TP in 2nd phase (Block + full image)<br />Sig. interaction<br />Significant reduced mental workload (TLX) for Gaze Block<br />
  • 9. Results: Gaze Behavior<br />Longer durations on True Positives than on False Negatives<br />Inline with previous research:<br />(Nodine and Kundel, 1987; Manning, Ethell and Donovan, 2001)<br />Adopt to fixation length<br />Longer fixation in phase 2<br />Sig. shorter fixation on FN viewed in phase 1 with gaze block<br />550 ms<br />1032 ms<br />
  • 10. Future work<br />How to use gaze patterns to guide inspectors to better performance?<br />Optimize use of the two phases<br />How to combine information from gaze and image processing to guide inspectors to important parts of the image?<br />
  • 11. Conclusion<br />Two phase inspection method<br />Reduces workload (with gaze block)<br />Have positive effect on FN not viewed transitioning to TP during<br />Possible to estimate targets benefiting fromsecond review<br />
  • 12. Now for your questions…<br />Pernilla Qvarfordt, Jacob T. Biehl, Gene Golovchinsky and Tony DunniganFX Palo Alto LaboratoryPalo Alto, California, USA<br />

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