Protected Areas benefits at Moscow international conference
Adding Value through Protected Areas Patrick ten Brink TEEB for Policy Makers Co-ordinator Head of Brussels Office Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP ) building on presentation by Marianne Kettunen IEEP Coordinator of TEEB Ch8: Protected Areas and on work by with Berghöfer, A., Bruner, A., Conner, N., Dudley, N., Ervin, J., Gidda, S. B., Mulongoy, K. J., Pabon, L., Vakrou, A. et al International conference"Integration of the ecosystem services in the economy NIS" 28-29 March 2011, settlement Dubrovsky, Moscow Region 1
Protected Areas Protected areas, regarded as a safe haven for nature’s jewels, are central to global efforts to conserve biodiversity. There are already over 120,000 designated protected areas covering around 12.9% of the Earth’s land surface. Marine protected areas still cover 6.3% of territorial seas and 0.5% of the high seas - but they are also increasing rapidly in number and area. - IUCN and UNEP-WCMC 2010 – - Objective is to
Benefits from protected areas: water • 1/3 of the world’s 100 largest cities draw a large part of their drinking water from PAs. • PAs & forests purify water for NY city = US$ 6 billion (total) savings in water treatment costs • Venezuela’s national PA system prevents sedimentation that would reduce farm earnings by around US$ 3.5 million/year.Dudley and Stolton 2003, Pabon-Zamora et al. 2009
Benefits from protected areas: climate regulation • Mitigation: 15% of global terrestrial carbon stock is contained in PAs • Adaptation: PAs can reduce climate change induced risks of landslides, floods and storms by stabilising soil, providing space for floodwaters to disperse, blocking storm surges. Campbell et al. 2008
Benefits from protected areas: food securityMarine Protected Areas(MPAs) can support therecovery of fish stocks.A review of 112 studies in 80 MPAs: fishpopulations, size & biomass alldramatically increased inside reserves,allowing spill-over to nearby fishinggrounds. (Halpern 2003)Note: Need to addressshort-term costs ofrestricted access beforelong-term benefits arise
Benefits from protected areas: employment • Bolivia - PA tourism generates over 20,000 jobs, indirectly supporting over 100,000 people. • New Zealand (the west coast of South Island) – in 2004 PAs provided 15% of total jobs and created 10% of total spending in the region. • Finland: Visitor spending in national parks supports local employment by creating 893 person-years of employment. • Wales: PAs support nearly 12,000 jobs, produce a total income of approximately € 250 million and generate € 300 million in GDP.Butcher Partners 2005, Pabon-Zamora et al. 2009, Metsahallitus & Metla 2009, National Trust 2006
Benefits from protected areas: tourism• Germany: National park Wattenmeer in Germany is responsible of around 23 per cent of total tourists in the region, with associated gross economic income of over EUR 100 million in 2003 (Neidlein & Walser 2005).• France: Annual income of Parc du Mecantour amounts to roughly € 3.8 million per year (Credoc 2008)• Finland: Due to visitor spending, 1 EUR investment in national parks & key recreational areas provides 20 EUR return (Metsahallitus & Metla 2009).
Costs related to protected areas• PA management costs• Loss of access to resources• Foregone opportunities• Human-wildlife conflict• Displacement http://www.sacred-destinations.com
Globally & nationally: benefits > costs• Globally - PA network covering 15% of the land and 30% of the sea: costs ~US$ 45 billion / year vs. benefits from the ecosystems of ~US$ 4.4 trillion / year (Balmford et al. 2005)• Brazil’s Amazon - benefits from ecosystems within PAs draw three times more money into the state economy than the most likely alternative use (extensive cattle ranching) (Amend et al. 2007)• Scotland - ecosystems protected by Natura 2000 sites provide public three times more benefits than associated costs (Jacobs 2004)
Before Designation as protected area designation as protected area Policy On Additional benefits from designation, management and investment Risk of degradation and loss of value of services without protected area Policy Off … Ecological services that would have remained without protected area Time Cost of management, Opportunity Costs implementation,Costs investment, control
Globally & nationally: benefits > costs Benefits of conservation / sustainable use higher than benefits of land convertion !
Leuser National Park on Sumatra, IndonesiaDistribution of ecosystem benefits What is “best” depends on who you are – understanding who wins and who stands to lose in decisions is paramount. Local community “best option” Logging industry “best option”Sources: van Beuk ering, P.J.H., H.S.J. Cesar, M.A. Janssen (2003). Economic valuation of the Leuser National Park on Sumatra, Indonesia. EcologicalEconomics 44, pp 43-62. and van Beuk ering, P.J.H., H.S.J. Cesar, M.A. Janssen (2002). Economic valuation of the Leuser Ecosystem in Sumatra. In:
Summary PAs, designated for biodiversity values, offer economic benefits These economic benefits can be significantly larger than the costs Some benefits real market, some in due course real (e.g. carbon values/markets), others wellbeing/welfare values Public and private values, incentives and interests may differ Need for public policy to protect key biodiversity and invest in PAs One immediate priority is marine protected areas (MPAs). Another priority is sustainable financing. Critical for both is communicating the value of nature – intrinsic and the value for society/economy.
Thank you TEEB Reports available on http://www.teebweb.org/The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in National and International Policy Making and other TEEB books available on Earthscan and follow us on http://twitter.com/TEEB4ME & http://www.facebook.com/TEEB4me Patrick ten Brink, email@example.com Marianne Kettunen, Mkettunen@ieep.euIEEP is an independent, not-for-profit institute dedicated to the analysis, understanding and promotion of policies for a sustainable environment. www.ieep.eu The Manual of European Environmental Policy http://www.europeanenvironmentalpolicy.eu/
Contribution to Governance solutions -Understanding the value of natureTEEB reports and TEEB Books TEEB Interim Climate Issues TEEB for Policy TEEB Foundations Book announcement:Report (May 2008) Update (Sept. 2009) Makers (Nov 2009) (Oct. 2010) The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in National and International Policy Making now available from EarthscanTEEB for Business TEEB for Local TEEB Synthesis (July 2010) Policy (Sept. 2010) (Oct. 2010) Edited By Pushpam Kumar (Univ. of Liverpool) A landmark study on one of the most pressing problems facing society, balancing economic growth and ecological protection to achieve a sustainable future.‘ Simon Levin, Moffett Professor of Biology, Department of Ecology and Ev olution Behav iour, Princeton Univ ersity , USA Edited By Patrick ten Brink (Institute for European environmental Policy, IEEP) This work is a landmark. It shows not only that we have been extraordinarily wasteful, destructive and inefficient in our treatment of the natural environment but also how careful analysis and measurement can help us change our ways towards a more productive and responsible relationship with our environment. It provides a fundamental contribution which TEEB Reports: http://www.teebweb.org/ shows how careful attention to ecosystems and biodiversity can help guide our response to the two defining challenges of our century: managing climate change and overcoming poverty.‘ Summaries (in range of languages) and chapters Professor Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics