Water, ecosystem services and nature:
putting the ‘green’ into green economy
Marianne Kettunen
Senior policy analyst, Inst...
Key messages
•

Value: nature (inc. wetlands) has socio-economic
importance, most of which not reflected by the current
ec...
Context: the value of nature

© M. Kettunen
2001- 05

xxxx
•

xxxxxxxxxxxx

© M.
Kettunen
2001- 05

Biodiversity underpins ecosystem services:
direct and indirect benefits & resilience

© Guardian
2001- 05
Wetlands & water related ecosystem service

© M.
Kettunen

Wetlands need water …

Wetland ecosystem
services:
wat...
2001- 05
2001- 05
Wetlands & other ecosystem services
Agriculture

Recreation / Bird watching

Fisheries

Aesthetics
Subsi...
TEEB initiative (2008-2010): assessing the
value of biodiversity & ecosystem services
•

Demonstrate biodiversity, ecosyst...
xxxx
•

xxxxxxxxxxxx

Not appreciated by
economy !
- Adopted from TEEB Policy-makers 2009 / 2011, based on a presentation by Ben ten Brink -
xxxx
•

xxxxxxxxxxxx

Rockström et al. 2009. Planetaring boundaries: Exploring the safe operating space for humanity. Ecol...
Source: TEEB case by L. Brander & K. Schyut (2010) The economic value of world’s wetlands (benefit transfer) www.teebweb.o...
Solutions: how can valuation help?

© M. Kettunen
© M. Kettunen
TEEB approach
1. Recognising value: in addition to its intrinsic value,
nature supports all human wellbeing
2. Demonstrati...
Increasing system complexity
ecosystems, scales, no. of actors

Usefulness of economic valuation

Monetary valuations more...
How can valuation help wetland conservation?
• Advocacy & awareness raising: examples of benefits lost / costs
related to ...
Future: wetlands & the Green Economy

© M. Kettunen
The Ramsar convention: a pioneer in
conservation & sustainable use of wetlands
Mission: “the conservation and wise use of ...
Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands
Cost savings: flood management (regional)
• Situation: The Napa River Bas...
Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands
Cost savings: flood management (local)
• Situation: Surface runoff from t...
Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands
Cost savings: drinking water management
• Situation: In the Andean region...
Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands
Cost savings: climate change mitigation
• Situation: drainage of 930,000 ...
Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands
Protected areas: benefits for biodiversity & water management
•

1/3 of t...
Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands
Business opportunities: payments for ecosystem services (PES)
• Situation...
Conclusions

© M. Kettunen
Conclusions: wetlands & green economy

Key conclusions
• A ‘truly green’ green economy rests on sustainably managing
natur...
Key messages to the Ramsar community:
• There is a need to identify / communicate / capture
the value(s) of wetland – to a...
Starting now: TEEB for Water & Wetlands!
•

A joint effort between Ramsar, IUCN Water Programme and IEEP
to provide a targ...
Thank you
Marianne Kettunen
Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP)
mkettunen@ieep.eu
This presentation builds ...
Contribution to Governance solutions Understanding the value of nature
TEEB reports and TEEB Books
TEEB Interim Report
(Ma...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Water, ecosystem services and nature: putting the ‘green’ into green economy_MKettunen

373 views

Published on

Presentation at The Future of Wetlands - 40 Years of Global Wetland Conservation International Conference, 25 Oct 2011, Finlandia Hall, Helsinki, Finland

Published in: Career, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
373
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Water, ecosystem services and nature: putting the ‘green’ into green economy_MKettunen

  1. 1. Water, ecosystem services and nature: putting the ‘green’ into green economy Marianne Kettunen Senior policy analyst, Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP) (London & Brussels) Guest researcher at the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) (Helsinki) The Future of Wetlands - 40 Years of Global Wetland Conservation International Conference 25 Oct 2011 Finlandia Hall, Helsinki, Finland
  2. 2. Key messages • Value: nature (inc. wetlands) has socio-economic importance, most of which not reflected by the current economic systems. • Valuation: valuation can support more holistic decisionmaking and boost wetland conservation. • Future opportunities: wetlands can be a ‘green’ in green economy. © M. Kettunen
  3. 3. Context: the value of nature © M. Kettunen
  4. 4. 2001- 05 xxxx • xxxxxxxxxxxx © M. Kettunen
  5. 5. 2001- 05 Biodiversity underpins ecosystem services: direct and indirect benefits & resilience © Guardian
  6. 6. 2001- 05 Wetlands & water related ecosystem service © M. Kettunen Wetlands need water … Wetland ecosystem services: water retention, aquifer recharge water regulation water purification Water (quantity & quality) needs wetlands … © M. Kettunen © SYKE Kuvapankki ©www.cleanwatertea © www.clevergreen.co.za m.com
  7. 7. 2001- 05 2001- 05 Wetlands & other ecosystem services Agriculture Recreation / Bird watching Fisheries Aesthetics Subsistence Carbon storage © photos: www.ramsar.org © M. Kettunen
  8. 8. TEEB initiative (2008-2010): assessing the value of biodiversity & ecosystem services • Demonstrate biodiversity, ecosystems & their services have multiple values – to economy, society, communities, business & individuals • Highlight the benefits (vs. costs) of protecting nature & natural capital • Show how to assess the value of bd and ES – and how it can be used • Show how to integrate these values into everyday decision-making
  9. 9. xxxx • xxxxxxxxxxxx Not appreciated by economy !
  10. 10. - Adopted from TEEB Policy-makers 2009 / 2011, based on a presentation by Ben ten Brink -
  11. 11. xxxx • xxxxxxxxxxxx Rockström et al. 2009. Planetaring boundaries: Exploring the safe operating space for humanity. Ecology and Society 14(2).
  12. 12. Source: TEEB case by L. Brander & K. Schyut (2010) The economic value of world’s wetlands (benefit transfer) www.teebweb.org © Photos EEA report
  13. 13. Solutions: how can valuation help? © M. Kettunen
  14. 14. © M. Kettunen
  15. 15. TEEB approach 1. Recognising value: in addition to its intrinsic value, nature supports all human wellbeing 2. Demonstrating value: in economic terms (qualitative/ quantitative / monetary) to support decision making 3. Capturing value: introduce mechanisms that incorporate the values of ecosystems into decision making Source: TEEB final synthesis report 2010
  16. 16. Increasing system complexity ecosystems, scales, no. of actors Usefulness of economic valuation Monetary valuations more difficult / less robust Monetary easier / more robust Commoditytype values Value plurality Ethical / cultural convictions (c) J. Forster (UFZ), redrawn from O‘Connor and Frame (2008) in TEEB Foundations (2010), Chapter 4 .
  17. 17. How can valuation help wetland conservation? • Advocacy & awareness raising: examples of benefits lost / costs related to the loss of wetlands • Concrete support to decision-making: enabling all values of wetlands are accounted for (eg public, non-market values) → identifying trade-offs, making more sustainable decisions • Wetlands as an investment (eg. restoration): seeing wetlands as green infrastructure that support both biodiversity and ecosystem services
  18. 18. Future: wetlands & the Green Economy © M. Kettunen
  19. 19. The Ramsar convention: a pioneer in conservation & sustainable use of wetlands Mission: “the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world”. Wise use: “the maintenance of their ecological character, achieved through the implementation of ecosystem approaches, within the context of sustainable development”. → A strong and relevant legacy to build on!
  20. 20. Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands Cost savings: flood management (regional) • Situation: The Napa River Basin (California) suffers from frequent flooding. • Assessment: Levees & channel modification to prevent flooding were deemed unsustainable by the citizens (eg with several negative impacts to water quality) • Outcome: A comprehensive flood control plan to restore river’s original capacity to handle flood waters was adopted. Significant mitigation of damages and over US$ 1.6 billion savings in flood protection. • Costs of managing green infra < Costs of damage & manmade infra - See TEEB for local & regional policy makers 2010 for references - © Andre Kunzelmann / UFZ
  21. 21. Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands Cost savings: flood management (local) • Situation: Surface runoff from the city of Nummela (Fin) has been increasing since the expansion of the city, affecting the quality of surrounding water bodies. • Assessment: Management of surface runoff via ‘natural’ means (eg through wetland restoration) more sustainable and cost effective than manmade solutions. Such approach also brings co-benefits for recreation. • Outcome: Restoration costs for 1 ha of wetland were 62 000 EUR total (inc. infra for recreation) vs. costs of manmade infra 50 000 EUR / every 100 meters. • Costs of restoring green infra < Costs of manmade infra - Hannele Ahponen & Outi Salminen for TEEB Nordic (upcoming) - © Ympäristölehti 3/2010
  22. 22. Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands Cost savings: drinking water management • Situation: In the Andean region, upstream ecosystems regulate water supply and purify water for downstream users. • Assessment: Maintaining ecosystems’ natural capacity to maintain and purify water provides a low-cost option for maintaining access to clean, regular water supply. • Outcome: ‘Water Funds’ was established to compensate upstream land users for managing forest and grasslands in sustainable manner. • Costs of green infra < Costs of manmade infra - See TEEB for local & regional policy makers 2010 for references - ©http://conservationvalue.blogspot .com/2006_05_01_archive.htm
  23. 23. Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands Cost savings: climate change mitigation • Situation: drainage of 930,000 ha peatlands in Germany for agriculture cause emissions of 20 Mio. t of CO2-eq. per year. Total damage of these emissions amounts to 1.4 billion EUR • Assessment: peatland restoration considered as low cost and biodiversity friendly mitigation option • Outcome: Restoration of 30,000 ha peatlands (10%) → emission savings of ~ 300,000 t CO2-eq., avoidance cost of 8 to 12 EUR / t CO2. In combination with alternative land use options (extensive grazing, reed production or alder forest) costs decrease to 0 to 4 EUR / t CO2. • Costs of restoring green infra < Costs of manmade infra ©http://conservationvalue.blogspot .com/2006_05_01_archive.htm Restored peatland in Trebeltal 2007 Foto: D. Zak, http://www.fv-berlin.de - Federal Environmental Agency 2007; MLUV MV 2009; Schäfer 2009. See TEEB for local & regional policy makers 2010 -
  24. 24. Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands Protected areas: benefits for biodiversity & water management • 1/3 of the world’s 100 largest cities draw a large part of their drinking water from PAs. • PAs & forests purify water for NY city = US$ 6 billion (total) savings in water treatment costs • 80% of Quito’s drinking water originate from two PAs • Venezuela’s national PA system prevents sedimentation that would reduce farm earnings by around US$ 3.5 million/year. • Costs of green infra < Costs of manmade infra - See TEEB for national & international / local & regional policy makers 2010 for references -
  25. 25. Green infrastructure: opportunities for wetlands Business opportunities: payments for ecosystem services (PES) • Situation: Vittel natural mineral water (FR) depends on high quality water from Vosges Mountains (no pre-treatment allowed by law). • Assessment: Costs of managing upstream ecosystems in a manner that guarantees continued supply of clean water are lower than the costs of moving the sourcing of water elsewhere. • Outcome: Farmers upstream are paid to adopt best low-impact farming practises. • Maintaining green infra → maintaining business opportunities ©http://www.globalpackagegallery.com/main.p ©http://oc.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kampal hp/v/bev/bottled+water/?g2_page=2 a - See TEEB for national & international policy makers 2010 for references -
  26. 26. Conclusions © M. Kettunen
  27. 27. Conclusions: wetlands & green economy Key conclusions • A ‘truly green’ green economy rests on sustainably managing natural capital, eg. wetlands. • Ecosystem services provided by wetlands underpin / provide opportunities for green economy. • Investing in wetlands (green infrastructure) can lead to cost savings, create business opportunities and - if appropriately planned and implemented – provide win-wins for biodiversity and socio-economic development.
  28. 28. Key messages to the Ramsar community: • There is a need to identify / communicate / capture the value(s) of wetland – to avoid future losses and support restoration. • Ramsar community is well placed to identify, communicate and ‘market’ the best possible win-wins for biodiversity & ecosystem services.
  29. 29. Starting now: TEEB for Water & Wetlands! • A joint effort between Ramsar, IUCN Water Programme and IEEP to provide a targeted TEEB synthesis for water & wetlands. • Case studies, examples and cooperation with Nordic and Baltic countries warmly welcomed! • For information & cooperation: please contact Marianne Kettunen (mkettunen@ieep.eu) and Andrew Farmer (afarmer@ieep.eu)
  30. 30. Thank you Marianne Kettunen Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP) mkettunen@ieep.eu This presentation builds on the work carried out in the context of TEEB for National & International / Local & Regional Policy-makers (2009 - 2010) IEEP is an independent, not-for-profit institute dedicated to the analysis, understanding and promotion of policies for a sustainable environment in Europe. See IEEP Manual of European Environmental Policy: http://www.europeanenvironmentalpolicy.eu/
  31. 31. Contribution to Governance solutions Understanding the value of nature TEEB reports and TEEB Books TEEB Interim Report (May 2008) TEEB for Business (July 2010) Climate Issues Update (Sept. 2009) TEEB for Local Policy (Sept. 2010) TEEB for Policy Makers (Nov 2009) TEEB Synthesis (Oct. 2010) TEEB Foundations (Oct. 2010) Book announcement: The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity in National and International Policy Making now available from Earthscan Edited By Pushpam Kumar (Univ. of Liverpool) 'A landmark study on one of the most pressing problems facing society, balancing economic growth and ecological protection to achieve a sustainable future.‘ Simon Levin, Moffett Professor of Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution Behaviour, Princeton University, USA Edited By Patrick ten Brink (Institute for European environmental Policy, IEEP) TEEB Reports: http://www.teebweb.org/ Summaries (in range of languages) and chapters 'This work is a landmark. It shows not only that we have been extraordinarily wasteful, destructive and inefficient in our treatment of the natural environment but also how careful analysis and measurement can help us change our ways towards a more productive and responsible relationship with our environment. It provides a fundamental contribution which shows how careful attention to ecosystems and biodiversity can help guide our response to the two defining challenges of our century: managing climate change and overcoming poverty.‘ Professor Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics

×