Ecosystem-based approaches to
  mitigation and adaptation at
 landscape and seascape scale:
       tools and dynamics




...
Ecosystems are fundamental to
the objectives of the Convention

“to achieve.. stabilization of greenhouse
gas concentratio...
Sustain the
  Maintain the                   ecosystem
  resilience of                   services
                        ...
Maintaining healthy forests
  Palas Valley, Pakistan
        • Increasing frequency and
          intensity of natural
   ...
Resilience in practice:
Tarobi Community Marine PA
           • Customary marine tenure
           • Key sources of income...
optimal use




oil palm suitability              forest carbon




                tiger habitat suitability




        ...
C a St                           ct e
      pt ore                      te i d
         ur                     ro ov
     ...
Natural solutions: the role of PAs

                       “This book clearly
                  indicates for the first ti...
TNC AMAZON PROGRAM – AN EXAMPLE OF INTEGRATING INDIGENOUS LANDS
                      WITH CONSERVATION




              ...
Ecosystem-based adaptation
“Ecosystem-based adaptation is the use of
  biodiversity and ecosystem services as
  part of an...
Promote     Maintain   Support     Reduce     Comple-      Avoid
resilient     eco-     sectoral   risks and     ment     ...
Promote     Maintain   Support     Reduce     Comple-      Avoid
resilient     eco-     sectoral   risks and     ment     ...
Promote     Maintain   Support     Reduce     Comple-      Avoid
resilient     eco-     sectoral   risks and     ment     ...
Promote     Maintain   Support     Reduce     Comple-      Avoid
resilient     eco-     sectoral   risks and     ment     ...
Promote     Maintain   Support     Reduce     Comple-      Avoid
resilient     eco-     sectoral   risks and     ment     ...
Promote     Maintain   Support     Reduce     Comple-      Avoid
resilient     eco-     sectoral   risks and     ment     ...
Some considerations
          We have to focus:
          A socio-economica
          A human solve
          Global to lo...
Ecosystem-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation at landscape and seascape scale: tools and dynamics
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Ecosystem-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation at landscape and seascape scale: tools and dynamics

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Presentation by Trevor Sandwith, The Nature Conservancy
Landscape approaches to mitigation and adaptation, Forest Day 3
Sunday, 13 December 2009
Copenhagen, Denmark

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Ecosystem-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation at landscape and seascape scale: tools and dynamics

  1. 1. Ecosystem-based approaches to mitigation and adaptation at landscape and seascape scale: tools and dynamics Trevor Sandwith
  2. 2. Ecosystems are fundamental to the objectives of the Convention “to achieve.. stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner” Article 2, UNFCCC
  3. 3. Sustain the Maintain the ecosystem resilience of services they provide, e.g. intact natural water, food ecosystems carbon storage C a St ct e pt ore te i d ur ro ov e P r P mitigation adaptation
  4. 4. Maintaining healthy forests Palas Valley, Pakistan • Increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters • Preparation of new natural resource management plan for restoring and maintaining healthy ecosystems and maintaining services • Development of new income sources from non-timber forest products • Community governance of forests, enabled in national legislation (Birdlife, 2009)
  5. 5. Resilience in practice: Tarobi Community Marine PA • Customary marine tenure • Key sources of income cacao, oil palm, coconut/copra, fish and marine products • Draws on traditional management practices • Continuous monitoring between development and protection • Maximize long-term benefits and minimize natural resource loss (The Nature Conservancy)
  6. 6. optimal use oil palm suitability forest carbon tiger habitat suitability land use economics + climate planning
  7. 7. C a St ct e pt ore te i d ur ro ov e P r P mitigation adaptation Effectiveness requires: Governance and safeguards Permanence Effectiveness Monitoring, reporting and verification protected areas systems in the wider landscape/seascape across all management categories and governance types
  8. 8. Natural solutions: the role of PAs “This book clearly indicates for the first time how protected areas contribute significantly to reducing the impacts of climate change … …it is important that these messages reach policy makers loud and clear and are translated into effective policies and funding mechanisms” Preface by LORD NICHOLAS STERN
  9. 9. TNC AMAZON PROGRAM – AN EXAMPLE OF INTEGRATING INDIGENOUS LANDS WITH CONSERVATION adaptation mitigation Protected areas already store 15% of 33 of theforest carbonlargest cities derive World’s world’s 105 their drinking water from protected areas The adaptation of protected arealands Protected areas and indigenous design and governance Amazon deforestation by in the Brazilian in Kimbeare likely to of Bay, Papua prevent 670,000 km2 coral reefs, coastal New Guinea, protects billion t of avoided 2050 representing 8 habitatscommissions. carbon and food security Alex Goulart, Paulina Arroya, Luis Pabon
  10. 10. Ecosystem-based adaptation “Ecosystem-based adaptation is the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services as part of an overall adaptation strategy to help people to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. Ecosystem-based adaptation uses the range of opportunities for the sustainable management, conservation, and restoration of ecosystems to provide services that enable people to adapt to the impacts of climate change." Report of the CBD’s Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change
  11. 11. Promote Maintain Support Reduce Comple- Avoid resilient eco- sectoral risks and ment mal- eco- system adapta- disasters infra- adapta- systems services tion . structure tion Apply ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation • Modeling of projected climate change • Revised systematic conservation plans • Revision of projected area system design • Use of all PA governance types • Involvement of local communities in restoration and management in PAs, buffer zones • Adjusted management plans and programs
  12. 12. Promote Maintain Support Reduce Comple- Avoid resilient eco- sectoral risks and ment mal- eco- system adapta- disasters infra- adapta- systems services tion . structure tion Apply ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation • Valuation of ecosystem services • Assess impact of CC on ecosystem services • Understand how users are affected • Involve user communities in adaptation action involving ecosystem services
  13. 13. Promote Maintain Support Reduce Comple- Avoid resilient eco- sectoral risks and ment mal- eco- system adapta- disasters infra- adapta- systems services tion . structure tion Apply ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation • Inclusion of ecosystem-based approaches in national adaptation plans; • Incorporation of biodiversity into land-use management frameworks • Influence sectoral development plans e.g. for agriculture or water production/adaptation • Ensure adequacy of coastal zone management
  14. 14. Promote Maintain Support Reduce Comple- Avoid resilient eco- sectoral risks and ment mal- eco- system adapta- disasters infra- adapta- systems services tion . structure tion Apply ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation • Restore key habitats that reduce vulnerability e.g. coastal wetlands, mangroves, forests on steep slopes • Identify vulnerable communities and involve them in restoration efforts
  15. 15. Promote Maintain Support Reduce Comple- Avoid resilient eco- sectoral risks and ment mal- eco- system adapta- disasters infra- adapta- systems services tion . structure tion Apply ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation • Maintain ecological flows in rivers – dam re- engineering • Restoration of flood plains in for flood attenuation in addition to levees and berms;
  16. 16. Promote Maintain Support Reduce Comple- Avoid resilient eco- sectoral risks and ment mal- eco- system adapta- disasters infra- adapta- systems services tion . structure tion Apply ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation • Improve impact assessment to deal with impacts of adaptation activities on the natural environment • Avoid inadvertent impacts on natural ecosystems, communities
  17. 17. Some considerations We have to focus: A socio-economica A human solve Global to local scale: simultaneous equation: perspective: are trying We have to combine The problem we We have to of projected knowledge determine the The most compelling to solve isbetween one, a human trade-offsis economic – climate change at global evidence potentialonlyscales with and can responses and be solved conserving natural and regional through concerted solution ecosystems is the global achieve an optimalmost observation and and local action that does not undermine cost-effective and equitable the prospects at local understandingfor long-term measure, whether applied scales sustainability globally or locally

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