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Design & implementation of phasor data concentrator compliant to ieee c37.118 synchrophasor standard in wide area measurement system
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Design & implementation of phasor data concentrator compliant to ieee c37.118 synchrophasor standard in wide area measurement system

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The use of synchrophasors for monitoring and improving the stability of power transmission networks is gaining in significance all over the world. The aim is to monitor the system state, to intensify …

The use of synchrophasors for monitoring and improving the stability of power transmission networks is gaining in significance all over the world. The aim is to monitor the system state, to intensify awareness for system stability and to make optimal use of existing lines. This way, system stability can be improved overall and even the transmission performance can be increased. The data from so many PMU’s and PDC’s needs to be collected and directed to proper channels for its efficient use. Thus we need to develop an efficient, flexible and hybrid data concentrator that can serve this purpose. Besides accepting the data from PMU’s, PDC should be able to accept the data also from other PDC. We have designed such a PDC (iPDC) that accepts data from PMU & PDC that are IEEEC37.118 standard compliant.

WAMS architecture with iPDC and PMU at different levels. This architecture enables iPDC to receive data either from a PMU or other iPDC. Both PMU and iPDC from whom the data is being received should be IEEE C37.118 synchrophasor standard compliant. It is hybrid architecture.

iPDC Design
The client server architecture is common in networks when two peers are communicating with each other. Of the two peers (PMU and iPDC) that are communicating with each other in WAMS one acts as a client and the other as a server. Since PMU saves the requests coming
from iPDC by sending data or configuration frames it acts as a server. It listens for command frames from iPDC. PMU-iPDC communication can be either over TCP or UDP communication protocols. On receiving command frames, PMU replies to the iPDC with data or configuration frames according to the type of request.
iPDC functionality is bifurcated as server and client. iPDC as a Client - When iPDC receives data or configuration frames its acts as a client. When acting as a client, it creates a new thread for each PMU or a PDC from whom it is going to receive data/configuration frames. This thread would establish connection between the two communication entities. It handles both TCP and UDP connections. The first frame that the server (PMU/PDC) would receive is the command for sending the configuration frame. When the server replies with the configuration frame, iPDC (client) would generate another request to start sending the data frames. On receiving
such a command frame, the server starts sending the data frames. If there is some change in the status bits of data frame which the client (iPDC) notices, it would take an action. For example if it notices a bit 10 has been set, it would internally send a command to server to send the latest configuration frame.
iPDC as a Server- When iPDC receives command frames from another PDC it would acts as a server. There would be two reserved ports one for UDP and other for TCP on which the PDC would receive command frame requests. Thus PDC now plays the role of PMU waiting
for command frames.

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  • 1. Design & Implementation of Phasor Data Concentrator  compliant to IEEE C37.118 Synchrophasor Standard in  Wide Area Measurement System by Kedar Khandeparkar Nitesh Pandit Under the guidance of Prof. V.Z. Attar Prof. A. M. Kulkarni Prof. S.A. Soman Department of Computer Engineering and IT    College of Engineering, Pune
  • 2. Index Introduction IPDC Features iPDC Design Communication and Processing of frames Data Storage & iPDC Database Experiment & Results   
  • 3. Wide Area Measurement System(WAMS)  WAMS has two components   Phasor Measurement Unit(PMU)  Phasor Data Concentrator(PDC)   
  • 4. WAMS   
  • 5. PMU Standards  IEEE1344  IEEEC37.118(2005)   
  • 6. IEEE C37.118 Message types Command Data Configuration Header   
  • 7. Configuration Frame   
  • 8. Data Frame   
  • 9. Command Frame   
  • 10.    
  • 11. PDC comparison Chart   
  • 12. Features of iPDC  It is a generalized PDC. Is a multithreaded application.   
  • 13. Cont....              It is built on Open Source platform and released under GPL v3. Compliant to IEEEC37.118 Standards. Support for both TCP and UDP communication Protocols. Each received packet is authenticated. Integrity of the packet is verified. Provides local storage of data. A GUI to setup PMU­PDC and PDC­PDC connection.   
  • 14. iPDC Design   
  • 15. Handling configuration frames   
  • 16. Handling change in PMU/iPDC Configuration  frame   
  • 17. Recreate configuration objects from file  cfg.bin   
  • 18. Handling Data Frames   
  • 19. Check Stat Word of data frames   
  • 20.    
  • 21. Time Aligning of Data Frames   
  • 22. Sorting of Data Frames inside TSB   
  • 23. Configuration Frame Generation for iPDC Number of PMU is sum of all PMU. Data rate is the highest among all PMU/iPDC data rate. Combined configuration frame compliant with IEEEC37.118 std.   
  • 24. Data Storage   
  • 25. iPDC Database   
  • 26. Requirements  Software Requirements :  Programming Languages C, GTK+  Database MySQL  Packages libmysqldev  System Requirements  Memory 512 MB  OS     Linux
  • 27. Experimental Setup   
  • 28.  Case1 :   
  • 29. Case 1 contd...   
  • 30.  Case2 :   
  • 31. Case 2 contd...   
  • 32.  Case3 :   
  • 33. Case 3 contd...   
  • 34.  Case4 :   
  • 35. Case 4 contd...   
  • 36. Results   
  • 37. iPDC Interface   
  • 38. Future Enhancements  Need to study and implement iPDC on RTOS and check its  performance & scalability in Real Time.  Different aspects of security in WAMS need to studied and  implemented.  On field testing of iPDC application need to be done to know its  performance & limitations.  iPDC can be updated to support more PMU standards.   
  • 39. References  Ken Martin, "IEEE Standard for Synchrophasors for Power Systems", IEEE Std C37.118 ­2005.  Moustafa Chenine,"Analysisof Data Quality Issues in Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems",  IREP Symposium on Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control, Aug 1­6, 2010.  Yingchen Zhang, "Wide­Area Frequency Monitoring Network (FNET) Architecture and  Applications", IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 1, No.2, Sep 2010.  Andrew Armenia, Student Member, IEEE, and Joe H. Chow, Fellow, IEEE, "A Flexible Phasor Data  Concentrator Design Leveraging Existing Software Technologies”, IEEE Transactions ON SMART  GRID, VOL. 1, NO. 1, JUNE 2010.  Moustafa Chenine, Student Member, IEEE, " Investigation of Communication Delays and Data  Incompleteness in Multi­PMU Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems".   
  • 40. Source Code & Documentation http://sourceforge.net/projects/iitbpdc/ http://freshmeat.net/projects/ipdc http://ipdc.codeplex.com/   
  • 41. Thank You