The Communication Process• Source (the sender) 2. Message3. Channel (medium) 4. Receiver5. Feedback 6. Environment 7. Noise(Distractions can have pervasive influence onall components of communication process.)
Communication and Information Technology• E-Mail (Written messages have replaced many telephone and in-person interchanges.)• Company blogs or Web logs (Sends information with soft, human touch.)• Presentation technology (Eye contact and human touch still needed.)• Telecommuting and the distributed workforce (Many positives and negatives.)
Impact of Computer-Mediated Communication on Behavior• Communication more widespread and immediate, and can be fast-paced• Limited human touch a problem• Invites Web surfing and useless e-mails• Repetitive motion disorder widespread• Too many wired managerial workers• Multitasking has benefits but can lead to rudeness and low productivity
Nonverbal Communication1. Environment (setting 6. Voice tone of message) 7. Clothing, dress, and2. Body placement appearance (How you3. Posture look and act sends a4. Hand gestures message.) 8. Mirroring5. Facial expression and movement 9. Touching (Be careful here.)
Informal Communication Channels• Grapevine is major informal channel.• Rumors thrive when communication is vague.• Chance encounters with managers work well as communication vehicle.• Management by walking around enhances open communication.
Grapevine• Grapevine Characteristics – Informal, not controlled by management. – Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications. – Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it. – Results from: • Desire for information about important situations • Ambiguous conditions • Conditions that cause anxiety
Barriers to Interpersonal Communication1. Semantics (Meanings 5. Different frames of to words vary.) reference2. Filtering of negative 6. Value judgments (Don’t jump too soon.) information (Why upset the boss?) 7. Information overload (The brain has limits.)3. Lack of credibility of 8. Poor communication sender skills4. Mixed signals (Which message is true?)
Barriers to EffectiveFiltering CommunicationA sender’s manipulation of information so that it willbe seen more favorably by the receiver.Selective PerceptionPeople selectively interpret what they see on thebasis of their interests, background, experience, andattitudes.Information OverloadA condition in which information inflow exceeds anindividual’s processing capacity.
Barriers to Effective Communication (cont’d)EmotionsHow a receiver feels at the time a message is receivedwill influence how the message is interpreted.LanguageWords have different meanings to different people.Communication ApprehensionUndue tension and anxiety about oralcommunication, written communication, or both.
Overcoming Communication Barriers via Sending Messages 1. Clarify ideas first. 6. Be aware of nonverbal 2. Motivate the communication. receiver. 7. Obtain feedback. 3. Discuss differences 8. Adapt to other’s in frames of communication style. reference. 9. Engage in meta- 4. Foster informal communications. communication. 5. Communicate feelings behind facts.
Overcoming Cross-Cultural Communication Barriers• Show respect for all workers.• Easy language, slow and clear talk.• Be alert to differences in customs and behavior.• Watch for differences in nonverbal communication.• Overlook style, accent, grammar, personal appearance.
Overcoming Cross-Cultural Communication Barriers, cont.• Listen for understanding, not agreement.• Be attentive to individual differences in appearance. (Do not confuse people because they belong to same race or ethnic group.)