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  • Conclusions from list
  • 20th C – value on recall and bubbling21st C – value on connecting, creating, outside the box thinking
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Vocabulary and adolescent literacy for resa Vocabulary and adolescent literacy for resa Presentation Transcript

  • Vocabulary and Adolescent Literacy
    Strategies for All Middle and High School Learners
    June 29, 2010
  • Welcome
  • Agenda
  • Shared Language Activity
  • What is Literacy?
    The ability to communicate through a wide variety of media
    Visual
    Auditory
    Oral
    Interactive media
    Written text
  • Shared Language Activity
  • Caught in the Crossfire
  • Shared Language Activity
  • Food for Thought
  • dominance hierarchy
    dominant gene
    dormancy
    dorsal
    double helix
    double pan balance
    drug
    dry mount
    dynamic equilibrium
    ecology
    ecosystem
    ectoderm
    ectotherm
    egg
    electron transport
    chain
    embryo
    emigration
    endangered species
    endocrine gland
    endocytosis
    endoderm
    endoplasmic reticulum
    endoskeleton
    endospore
    endotherm
    enzyme
    epidemic
    epidermis
    epididymis
    epiglottis
    esophagus
    estivation
    estuary
    ethylene
    eukaryotic
    evergreen
    evolution
    exocrine gland
    exocytosis
    exoskeleton
    experiment
    experimentation
    exponential growth
    external fertilization
    extinction
    facilitated diffusion
    fallopian tube
    family
    feather
    fertilization
    field of view
    filter paper
    fin
    first order consumer
    flagella
    flask
    fluid mosaic model
    follicle
    food chain
    food web
    formulate
    fossil
    fossil fuel
    frameshift mutation
    free living
    frond
    fruit
    fungus
    gall bladder
    gamete
    gene
    gene pool
    gene splicing
    gene therapy
    generalize
    genetic drift
    genetic engineering
    genetic recombination
    genetics
    genotype
    genus
    geographic isolation
    hydrogen bond
    hypertonic solution
    hypha
    hypothalamus
    hypothesis
    hypothesize
    hypotonic solution
    immunity
    imprinting
    inbreeding
    incisors
    incomplete
    dominance
    independent variable
    inductive reasoning
    infectious disease
    infer
    inference
    innate behavior
    insight learning
    instinct
    insulin
    integrate
    internal fertilization
    interphase
    interpret
    interpretation
    invalidate
    invertebrate
    investigate
    involuntary muscle
    ion
    ionic bond
    isomer
    isotope
    joint
    karyotype
    keratin
    kidney
    kingdom
    labor
    lactic acid
    large intestine
    larva
    lateral line
    Law of Independent
    Assortment
    law of segregation
    lichen
    ligament
    light reactions
    lipid
    Loquacious
    Loquacious
    Loquacious
    Loquacious
    She is loquacious.
  • Misconceptions about Teaching Vocabulary
  • What does work?
  • How Many Terms?
    Prioritize
    Categorize
    Choose Key Vocabulary or Key Terms
  • Marzano’s Five Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
  • Marzano’s Five Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
  • Five-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
    Present students with a brief explanation or description of the new term or phrase
  • Five-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
    Present students with a non-linguistic representation of the new term or phrase.
  • Images
  • Five-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
    Ask students to generate their own explanations or descriptions of the term or phrase
  • Five-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
    4. Ask students to create their own nonlinguistic representation of the term or phrase.
  • Five-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
    5. Periodically ask students to review the accuracy of their explanations and representations
  • Goals of Marzano-Style Word Walls
  • Pre-Assessment and Activating Strategies
    Brain Dump
    Knowledge Rating
    Alphabet Boxes
    Word Walls
    Stoplight Strategy/Previewing
    Lesson Writer
    Animoto
  • Brain Dump
  • Getting Started
    Low-risk activity
    Allows students to become imparters of knowledge
    Takes little instructional time
    Can be completed individually, with partners, or as whole group
    Great bell ringer or transition activity
  • Knowledge Rating
  • As a Pre-Assessment
  • As a Review
  • Knowledge Rating
  • The Research Tells Us…
  • Stumpers
    Designed to give students ownership over vocabulary instruction
    Students become experts
    Goal: Differentiate vocabulary instruction by allowing students to focus on words they find difficult.
  • How to Use Stumpers
    Students choose 2-3 “stumper” words in their reading.
    Students…
    write the word in context
    list context clues
    guess the meaning
    write a definition/part of speech
    use the word in an original sentence**
    share alternate meanings (if applicable)
  • Variations
    Provide a picture/image of the word
    Create a personal dictionary of stumpers throughout the semester
    Stump your classmate
    Use previous stumpers as…
    Test items
    Bell ringers
    Extra credit questions
    Ticket out the door
  • Alphabet Boxes
    Another modification of word walls
    Designed to provide students with ownership over their learning
    Encourages students to use text, background knowledge, and other resources to understand vocabulary
    Goal: To differentiate vocabulary instruction by individual student
  • Alphabet Boxes
  • Variations
  • Stoplight Strategy
  • Stoplight Strategy
    Can serve as a preview of review of material
  • What teachers said…
    “I used stoplight as an post-test activity. As soon as students handed in their tests, I had them go through and code each question. The next day, when tests were handed back, students were able to compare their stoplight material with the actual answers. It allowed for great feedback, and students were surprised in some cases to see how many responses they had coded as green were incorrect. I used this information to focus some re-teaching time the next day using a brain dump.”
  • Lesson Writer
  • Lesson Writer
  • Admit Slips
  • Admit Slips
    Give students a short “challenge” as homework.
    For example, students might receive a very short reading, an illustration, information from a book jacket, a typed list of the title, heading, and subheadings of a book or chapter.
    Students are asked to predict, question, and analyze what they have read.
  • Admit Slips
    Students work in small groups to discuss their predictions and questions, then compile everything into a class list.
    Students then group this master list of questions based on commonalities and decide on the three to five most important questions that they believe will be answered in the day’s reading.
  • Admit Slips
  • Comprehension Strategies
    Inner/Outer Circle
    Admit Slips
    Online Flashcards
    QAR
    Who would say it?
    Break it down and solve it
    Visuwords
    Voice Threading
    Connect Two
    LINC-ing Strategy
  • Inner/Outer Circle
  • Inner/Outer Circle
    • Study without logging in
    • Registration requires email
    • Print, export, image/audio cards require paid membership ($20)
    • Create own card sets or search
    • Study without logging in
    • Create login without email
    • Can export, share, print
    • Study and quiz
    • Create own card sets or search
  • Q(uestion) A(nswer) R(elationship)
    Literacy strategy
    Students categorize comprehension questions according to where they find information they need to answer each question
    Great for moving from recall to true comprehension and making connections from the text
  • Types of Questions
  • Types of Questions
  • :)
  • What do you do?
    Read the passage and answer the question
    List everything you did to read and understand the passage
    Share and compare with a neighbor
  • Metacognition Activity
    Loitering with a vacant eye
    Along the Grecian gallery,
    And brooding on my heavy ill,
    I met a statue standing still.
    Still in marble stone stood he,
    And steadfastly, he looked at me.
    “Well met,” I thought the look would say.
    “We both were fashioned far away;
    We neither knew, when we were young,
    These Londoners we live among.”
    A.E. Housman, 1896
    A. Why does the speaker feel the way he does at the beginning of the poem?
    He is far from home and feels out of place.
    He is in very poor health.
    He feels oppressed by the crowds of people in London.
    He has nothing to do?
    He is saddened by the fact that the statue is unhappier than he is.
  • Adolescent Reading Model
    Language Comprehension
    Word Recognition
    Executive Processes
    • Background Knowledge
    • Syntax
    • Vocabulary
    • Text Structures
    • Phonological Awareness
    • Decoding
    • Sight Word Reading
    • Fluency
    • Cognitive Strategies
    • Metacognitive Strategies
    Integration
    Reading Comprehension: Comprehension comes from
    integrating prior knowledge with new information from the text. This new
    knowledge facilitates deeper thinking about the text and can be applied to learn new information and solve problems.
    KU-CRL Hock & Deshler, 2006
  • Metacognition Activity
    Loitering with a vacant eye
    Along the Grecian gallery,
    And brooding on my heavy ill,
    I met a statue standing still.
    Still in marble stone stood he,
    And steadfastly, he looked at me.
    “Well met,” I thought the look would say.
    “We both were fashioned far away;
    We neither knew, when we were young,
    These Londoners we live among.”
    A.E. Housman, 1896
    A. Why does the speaker feel the way he does at the beginning of the poem?
    He is far from home and feels out of place.
    He is in very poor health.
    He feels oppressed by the crowds of people in London.
    He has nothing to do?
    He is saddened by the fact that the statue is unhappier than he is.
  • Some guiding questions….
    What are some of the strategies you use to learn new information?
    How did you learn these strategies?
    What are some important learning strategies to teach?
    How do we teach struggling learners to use learning strategies?
  • Content
    Skills
    Strategies
    Knowledge of the world
    Rules and procedures
    Guidelines related
    to selecting and applying skills
  • Content
    Skills
    Strategies
  • So….
    How do we teach learning strategies to students?
  • Instructional MethodologyMODELING is a MUST!
  • Who would say it?
  • Who would say it?
  • Who would say it?
    Traditional Elements
    Word
    Dictionary Definition
    Definition in Students Own Words
    Sentence where the word is found
    Non-traditional Elements
    Student chooses three people who might say the word.
    Students write a sentence the person might say if he/she used the word.
    Students…
    Extend knowledge
    Connect content to self, world, other disciplines
  • Variations
  • Break it Down and Solve it
    Math Strategy
    Adapt for any content that uses math
    Students
    Connect new knowledge to what they already know
    Create images
    Continually evaluate
    Periodically summarize
  • Break it Down and Solve it
    Variations
    Work with a partner
    Explain verbally to someone how the student solved the problem
    Metacognition Questions
    How did describing your thinking help you understand the problem?
    Which step of the process was easiest/the most difficult? Why?
    What clues did you use to determine what information you needed to solve the problem?
  • We are drowning in information but starved for knowledge.” – John NaisbittHow do you see this statement as a reality with your own students?
  • Animoto
  • WordAhead
  • Did you know?
  • The LINCS Vocabulary Strategy
    Word
    Reminding
    Word
    LINCing
    Story
    LINCing
    Picture
    Definition
  • 1
    3
    4
    5
    2
    The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
    Example LINCS Tables
    Term
    LINCing story
    Definition
    LINCing picture
    charitable
    He gave lots
    of food
    for the table.
    Giving, generous
    Reminding word
    table
  • Term
    1
    LINCing Picture
    5
    2
    LINCing Story
    Definition
    4
    3
    Reminding Word
    The LINCS Table
    List the parts
    Identify a reminding word
    Note a LINCing story
    Create a LINCing picture
    Self-test
  • A Good REMINDING WORD always…
    Sounds like part or all of the new word.
    Is a real word.
    Has a meaning that you already know.
    Helps you remember what the new word means.
  • 1
    3
    4
    5
    2
    The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
    Example LINCS Tables
    Term
    LINCing story
    Definition
    LINCing picture
    charitable
    He gave lots
    of food
    for the table.
    Giving, generous
    Reminding word
    table
  • A Good LINCing Story always….
  • 1
    3
    4
    5
    2
    The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
    Example LINCS Tables
    Term
    LINCing story
    Definition
    LINCing picture
    charitable
    He gave lots
    of food
    for the table.
    Giving, generous
    Reminding word
    table
  • A Good LINCing Picture always...
    • Contains a part related to the Reminding Word
    • Contains parts related to the important ideas in the definition.
    • Helps you remember the new term’s definition.
  • 1
    3
    4
    5
    2
    The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
    Example LINCS Tables
    Term
    LINCing story
    Definition
    LINCing picture
    charitable
    He gave lots
    of food
    for the table.
    Giving, generous
    Reminding word
    table
  • LINCS Strategy
    Step 1: List the parts
    Step 2: Identify a Reminding Word
    Step 3: Note a LINCing Story
    Step 4: Create a LINCing Picture
    Step 5: Self-test
    Transforms potentially weak linksbetween a wordand its definitioninto a chainof strong links
  • 1
    3
    4
    5
    2
    The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
    Example LINCS Tables
    Term
    LINCing story
    Definition
    LINCing picture
    mortified
    The mortician was scared to death when he saw the corpse.
    Scared to death
    Reminding word
    mortician
  • 1
    3
    4
    5
    2
    The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
    Example LINCS Tables
    Term
    LINCing story
    Definition
    LINCing picture
    tirade
    The tire screamed as it went around the corner.
    Screaming or yelling
    Reminding word
    tire
  • 1
    3
    4
    5
    2
    The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning
    Example LINCS Tables
    Term
    LINCing story
    Definition
    LINCing picture
    perpetual
    The pet
    constantly barks.
    Constantly
    Reminding word
    pet
  • Let’s Practice
  • Creating LINCS Study Cards
    Write the word to be learned on the top half of one side. Then circle it.
    Write the parts of the definition you need to remember on the top of the other side.
    Land given by king for fighting in army
    fief
  • Creating LINCS Study Cards
    Write the Reminding Word on the bottom half of the first side. Write the LINCing Story on the bottom half of the second side. Draw the LINCing Picture on the bottom half of the second side.
    fief
    Land given by king for fighting in army
    Chief of his land
    chief
  • The LINCing Routine
    Transforms potentially weak linksbetween a wordand its definitioninto a chainof strong links
  • :)
  • Break
    Back to Theory
  • Metacognitive Questions
  • The Research Tells Us…
  • Did you know that…
    Knowledge of vocabulary is one of the best predictors of success in all school subjects?
    The percentage of English language learners (ELL’s) has grown 105% since 1991 while the overall school population has grown 12%?
    A study found that as many as 80% of students from low-literacy homes could become grade-level readers if they are placed in literacy-rich classrooms?
  • Organizational Resources
    Two-Column Charts
    Adding Labels
    Frayer Model
    The Lotus
    Affinity Diagram
    Event Map
    Web Resources
  • Lexipedia
  • Visuwords
  • Organizational Resources
    Two-Column Charts
    Adding Labels
    Frayer Model
    The Lotus
    Affinity Diagram
    Event Map
    Web Resources
  • Model I
    Students provide a definition, list characteristics, and provide examples and non-examples of the concept.
  • Model II
    Includes a definition
    Omits non-essential characteristics
  • Frayer Model
    Students will:
    develop understanding of key concepts and vocabulary
    draw on prior knowledge to make connections among concepts
    compare attributes and examples
    think critically to find relationships between concepts and to develop deeper understanding
    make visual connections and personal associations
  • Lotus Diagram
    Analytical, organizational tool for breaking broad topics into components, which can then be further organized, analyzed or prioritized.
    The issue or challenge is placed in the square in the middle of the diagram.
    Students then brainstorm to define eight new, related ideas or issues (often characteristics or facts about a topic.)
  • Lotus Diagram
    Keeps students from becoming overwhelmed
    Provides an outline for students to expand their thinking
    Defines the topic being studied
    Fosters thinking skills
    Organize ideas
    Identify relationships
  • Graphic Organizers
    More graphicorganizer links
  • Question for You
    How did you learn the skill of note taking?
    How did this skill contribute to your success (or lack thereof)?
  • Interactive Notes
    Help students read and interpret informational or literary texts
    Guide students through the reading process
    Assist students as they develop their ideas and express them in academic language
  • Customizable Printables
  • Note Taking and Summarizing Strategies
    GIST
    Cornell Notes/Q-Notes
    Break it Down and Solve it
    Wordle
    FIT Sheet
    What I Know Sentences
  • What happens when you ask students to provide a summary?
    GIST: Sheltered Instructional Strategy
    Summarizing
    Develops literacy skills
  • GIST
    Read the passage – “The Underground Railroad”
    Highlight or Underline what you think are the ten most important words or concepts in this passage (3 minutes)
    Define any confusing words
    Combine lists at your table – top ten (3 minutes)
    Write one to two summary statements using as many of the listed words as possible. (2 minutes)
  • GIST: Summarizing Strategy
    Helps students separate main ideas from supporting details
    Keeps summaries short and focused
    Provides formative assessment
    Lengthy passage – break into groups
    Individual groups become the experts on their section
    Create vocabulary list from Gist activity
  • Note Taking and Summarizing Strategies
    GIST
    Interactive Notes
    Cornell Notes/Q-Notes
    Break it Down and Solve it
    Wordle
    FIT Sheet
    What I Know Sentences
  • Why Cornell Notes?
    Cornell note taking stimulates critical thinking skills.
    Note taking helps students remember what is said in class.
    A good set of notes can help students work on assignments and prepare for tests outside of the classroom.
    Good notes allow students to help each other problem solve.
    Good Notes help students organize and process data and information.
    Helps student recall by getting them to process their notes three times.
  • First & Last Name
    Class Title
    Period
    Date
    Topic
    Questions,
    Subtitles,
    Headings,
    Etc.
    Class Notes
    (Notes, Examples,
    Diagrams, Etc.)
    2 1/2”
    3 to 4 sentence summary across
    the bottom of the last page of the day’s notes
  • Subject:
    Why take Cornell notes?
    Date: 1/2/09
    P
    R
    O
    C
    E
    S
    S
    M
    a
    i
    n
    I
    d
    e
    a
    s
    (
    i
    n
    p
    u
    t
    )
    P
    R
    O
    C
    E
    S
    S
    M
    a
    i
    n
    I
    d
    e
    a
    s
    (
    i
    n
    p
    u
    t
    )
    (
    o
    u
    t
    p
    u
    t
    )
    (
    o
    u
    t
    p
    u
    t
    )
    Can
    be used to provide an outline of chapter or lecture.
    Organized by main ideas and details.
    How can
    Can be as detailed as necessary.
    Cornell notes
    Sequential
    --
    take notes as they are given by instructor or
    help me
    text in an orderly fashion.
    organize my
    After class, write a summary of what you learned to
    ideas?
    clarify and reinforce learning and to assist retention.
    Can be used as study tool:
    Which side for
    1. Define terms or explain concepts listed on left side.
    diagrams?
    2. Identify the concept or term on the right side.
    Can be used to provide a "big picture" of the chapter or
    Why use
    lecture.
    concept maps?
    Organized by main ideas and sub-topics
    Limited in how much detail you can represent.
    Simultaneous
    -
    you can use this method for instructors
    who jump around from topic to topic.
    After class, you can add questions to the left side
    What are the
    Can be used as a study tool
    --
    to get a quick overview
    benefits to me?
    and to determine whether you need more information or
    need to concentrate your study on specific topics.
    • Summary is added at the end of ALL note pages on the subject
    • Summary added AFTER questions
    are answered
    • Summary should respond to the problem or questions stated in the subject.
  • Economics
  • Example
    (Diagram copied
    during lecture)
    (Questions about it )
    • How do the ticks find the cattle?
    • Why don’t the ticks usually kill their host?
    • How could tick infestations in cattle impact humans?
  • Anthropods
    Ninth
    Grade
    Biology
    Notes
  • Great things about Cornell Notes
    Clearly incorporates Essential Questions
    Students devise their own answers based on
    Personal interaction with the content
    Text or class materials
    Learning style
    Classroom experience
    Supports good summarizing skills
    Provides a study guide
  • Online Dictionaries
  • Wordle
  • Sonnet 116
    Let me not to the marriage of true minds
    Admit impediments. Love is not love
    Which alters when it alteration finds,
    Or bends with the remover to remove:
    O no! it is an ever-fixed mark
    That looks on tempests and is never shaken;
    It is the star to every wandering bark,
    Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.
    Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks
    Within his bending sickle's compass come:
    Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
    But bears it out even to the edge of doom.
    If this be error and upon me proved,
    I never writ, nor no man ever loved.
  • FIT Sheet
    Three Steps to Better Comprehension
    Fact
    Interpretation
    Tie-In
    Instrument to assess reading comprehension, interpretive skills, and ability to tie reading selections into the real world.
    Scored on a three-point scale.
    One point for the F section
    One for the I section
    One for the T section
    Students may receive partial credit for one or more sections.
    The highest grade on a F-I-T Sheet is a 3
  • FIT Sheet
    Facts - Be careful what you choose – it must be open to interpretation.
    Interpretation – Difficult for students
    Analyzing, evaluating, synthesizing, creating ideas and information –
    Students generally lose points in this section.
    They often restate the fact until they learn how to interpret and have an opinion
    Lends itself to the teachable moment
    Tie-In – Easy for students –
    Personal responses
    Learn about students’ values, beliefs, ideas, families, etc.
  • Closure Strategies
    + Δ ?
    The Important Thing…
    Ticket out the Door
    3-2-1
    Capture your Thoughts
  • Formative Assessment
    Important part of designing lessons
    Takes place constantly and consistently with great teachers
    At the end of the class is a great time for formative assessment
    Five strategies
  • + Δ ?
    Students have an opportunity to share what they …
    + – found clear, good, fun, interesting
    Δ – found confusing, difficult, boring
    ? – have questions about
    + Δ ?
    + Δ ?
  • The Important Thing
    Student Choice and/or Teacher Choice
    If students cannot complete the response, gaps in their knowledge exist.
    The Important Thing
  • Ticket out the Door
    Flexible
    Daily
    General or Specific
    Ticket out the Door
  • 3-2-1
    3 reasons for global warming
    2 ways to improve the quality of our air in Hickory
    1 thing you can do at home to improve help the environment
    3-2-1
  • Capture Your Thoughts
    A great culminating assignment
    Conceptual
    Allows for maximum student input
    Capture your thoughts
  • Impact
  • Creating a Lesson Using Literacy and Vocabulary Strategies
  • Brain Dump
  • Previewing
    Scan “The History of Chocolate” – are there words that need to be defined?
  • Vocabulary
    Winnowing: The process of removing the shell of the bean. In chocolate making, this process is completed by a machine
    “Nibs:” The husked and winnowed beans are called nibs.
    Conching: a mixer that heats and evenly distributes cocoa butter within chocolate
    Tempering: The process of slowly and steadily cooling the mixture – it prevents separation and ensures quality
  • Five-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
    Present students with a brief explanation or description of the new term or phrase
    A conche is an agitator that evenly distributes cocoa butter in chocolate.
  • Five-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
    Present students with a non-linguistic representation of the new term or phrase.
  • Five-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
    Ask students to generate their own explanations or descriptions of the term or phrase.
    A conche is a type of big mixer that mixes cocoa butter into chocolate.
  • Five-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
    4. Ask students to create their own nonlinguistic representation of the term or phrase.
  • Five-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary
    5. Periodically ask students to review the accuracy of their explanations and representations.
  • Word Wall – Marzano Style
  • GIST Strategy
    Highlight or Underline what you think are the seven to ten most important words in this passage (5 minutes)
    Combine lists at your table – top ten (3 minutes)
    Write one to two summary statements using as many of the listed words as possible. (3 minutes)
    Online stopwatch
  • GIST and Chocolate
    After being roasted, the shells of the cacao beansare removed by a winnowing machine, and the remaining “nibs” are combined to bring out the perfect chocolateflavor before butter, sugar, and other ingredients are combined to make the bitter paste sweet.
    A rolling machine smoothes the gritty texture, and the all-important conchingprocess is used to heat and stir the aromatic mixture until it is placed in a tempering machine to slowly cool.
  • The Important Thing About…
    Conchingis…
    The most important thing about this making chocolate is…
  • From Cacao to Chocolate
  • GIST with Wordle
    After being roasted, the shells of the cacao beansare removed by a winnowing machine, and the remaining “nibs” are combined to bring out the perfect chocolateflavor before butter, sugar, milk, and other ingredientsare combined to make the bitterpaste sweet.
    A rolling machine smoothes the gritty texture, and the all-important conchingprocess is used to heat and stir the aromatic mixture until it is placed in a temperingmachine to slowly cool.
  • Comparing Sources
  • Review
    Be selective
    Teach content area vocabulary before initial reading
    Define new words
    Apply structural analysis
    Use vocabulary strategies
    Practice
    Assess!
  • :)
  • Other Online Literacy and Vocabulary Resources
  • Florida Center for Reading Research
  • ReadWriteThink
    Crossword
    Flip Book
    Flip-a-Chip
  • Scholastic Vocab Tools
  • Text-To-Speech
  • :)
  • Questions?
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  • References
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    Beers, Sue (2008). Adolescent literacy. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Blachowicz, C., & Cobb, C. (2007). Teaching vocabulary across the content areas. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Bloom, Benjamin (2008). Mastery learning. Retrieved August 25, 2009, from Funderstanding Web site: http://www.funderstanding.com/content/mastery-learning
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    Deschler, D. (2006, August 8). Using Learning Strategies to Improve How Students Learn and Perform . Oregon Department of Education - Home - Oregon Department of Education. Retrieved November 3, 2009, from http://www.ode.state.or.us/.../elarts/.../deshler_usinglearningstrategies.ppt
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    King, R. (1989). Hoshin Planning, The Developmental Approach, pp. 4-2 – 4-5. Methuen, MA: Goal/QPC.
    Marzano, R., Norton, J., Paynter, D., Pickering, D., & Gaddy, B. (2001). A handbook for classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriuclum Development.
    McKeown, M., I Beck, G. Sinartra, and J. Loxterman, 1992. “The Contribution of Prior Knowledge and Coherent Text to Comprehension.” Reading Research Quarterly 27: 79-93.
    Thompson, M., & Thompson, J. (1996). Learning-focused middle & high schools: A high achievement project. Boone: Learning Concepts, Inc.
    Visuwords online graphical dictionary. (2008). Retrieved September 27, 2008, from Visuwords online graphical dictionary and thesaurus Web site: http://www.visuwords.com/
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    (2008). [Weblog] Affinity diagram. Toolbox for IT. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from http://it.toolbox.com/wiki/index.php/Affinity_Diagram#Introduction
    York-Barr, J., Sommers, W., Ghere, G., & Montie, J. (2006). Reflective practice to improve schools: An action guide for educators. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
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    Credit info: Heather Mullins, Hickory Public Schools
    Curriculum Specialist
    Donna Murray, Hickory Public Schools
    Instructional Technology Specialist
    mullinshe@hickoryschools.net
    murraydo@hickoryschools.net