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Assessing Daily Doable Language Goals


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Assessing Daily Doable Language Goals

  1. 1. Assessing daily doable language goals<br />Why assess language?<br />
  2. 2. 3/10/2010<br />Research<br />“Talk is the means through which children’s use of language occurs. Through talk with others, children build their practical knowledge of language-the-verbal system. They learn to talk by talking. This is how they learn new words and gain mastery of language rules. Children’s language knowledge, gained through talking, becomes the basis for developing essential reading and writing skills. (Roskos, Tabors, & Lenhart, 2004), p.9<br />
  3. 3. What is challenging?<br />In your content groups, discuss and list 3-5 language challenges students face in your content? <br />
  4. 4. Science<br />Reading Demands<br />Highly specialized vocabulary<br />Grammatical structures: passive voice, long phrases serving as objects or subjects.<br />Interpreting graphic material: charts, tables, figures<br />Language of expository style textbooks <br />Conflicting scientific beliefs <br />Unfamiliarity with concepts <br />
  5. 5. Social Sciences<br />Expository text/Reading demands<br />Unfamiliarity with cause and effect, drawing conclusions, making inferences .<br />Locating information in a text<br />Understanding Titles, headings, subheadings, main ideas, analyzing graphics.<br />No prior background knowledge and experiences<br />Information regarding people, places, products, events, ways of living.<br />
  6. 6. Social Sciences<br />Difficult task required of students such as analyze, inform, contrast, compare, make, adjustment, explain and describe<br />
  7. 7. Mathematics<br />Technical Vocabulary<br />Complexity of problem solving<br />Understanding specific instructions<br />Knowledge of abbreviations of mathematical terms<br />Spelling numbers<br />Difficulty in understanding relationships such as less than, larger than, more than, greater than, half as much as, twice as many etc.<br />Word problems<br />
  8. 8. Language and Content <br />Content is constructed mainly in language<br />Each subject has its own ways of using language<br />Analyzing and talking about language can help students see how meaning is constructed in English in different subjects<br />(Language and “content”- Schlepperell, 2007)<br />
  9. 9. Is this content or language?<br />What type of proficiency do you need to paraphrase this passage?<br />If cultures and civilizations are the tectonic plates of world history, frontiers are the places where they scrape against each other and cause convulsive change.<br />~ Felipe Fernandez-Armesto<br />(Quote on the cover of a 10th grade World History text)<br />
  10. 10. Levels of Vocabulary<br />Basic Vocabulary<br />These are the most basic words and expressions and do not need to be taught except to ELLs. Examples: car, water, man, answer, make up your mind, once upon a time, so finally, if,<br />Adapted from the work of Margarita Calderon, 2008 <br />
  11. 11. Levels of Vocabulary<br />Complex Vocabulary<br />These are words that have importance and utility because they are in grade level texts and appear frequently across a variety of academic domains.Examples:power, cell, radical, right, prime, imaginary, round, simple, dependent, table, root, although, in order that, as a result, in particular.<br />Adapted from the work of Margarita Calderon, 2008 <br />
  12. 12. Tier Two~ These are words that have importance and utility because they are in grade level texts and appear frequently across a variety of academic domains.Examples:power, cell, radical, right, prime, imaginary, round, simple, dependent, table, root, although, in order that, as a a result, in particular.<br />
  13. 13. Tier Three~ These are low-frequency words that are limited to specific content areas. Although they are low-frequency words, they are very important for understanding content.Examples:osmosis, sedentary, isosceles, peninsula, corpus, hyperbole.<br />
  14. 14. Designing effective instruction requires an answer to three basic questions:<br />Where are you going with this instruction?<br />Know – Understand – Be able to do<br />How do you plan to get to that end goal?<br />How will you know when students have reached the planned goal? <br />
  15. 15. Using the UbD process to support SI. (Wiggins & McTighe)<br /><ul><li>Stage 1- Desired Results
  16. 16. Identify the Content Standards
  17. 17. Identify the Language Standards
  18. 18. What will students need to understand: </li></ul>Big Idea?<br />
  19. 19. <ul><li>Stage 2- Assessment Evidence
  20. 20. How will students apply what they have learned and demonstrate their understanding? </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Stage 3- Learning Plan
  21. 21. What will you do as a teacher to design instruction that takes into consideration the language and cultural needs of ELLs?</li></li></ul><li>Key Words<br />Content<br />Apply<br />Categorize<br />Calculate<br />Design<br />Identify<br />Select<br />Create<br />Hypothesize<br />Use<br />Language<br />Compose<br />Scan<br />Discuss<br />Read<br />List<br />Persuade<br />State<br />Record<br />Listen<br />
  22. 22. Example from middle school science lesson on cell theory (Himmel, Short & Echevarria, 2009)<br />Content Objectives<br />Students will be able to produce a visual representation of each of the three types of cells.<br />Language Objectives<br />Students will be able to orally describe three types of cells to a partner<br />
  23. 23. Math EQ: How do we categorize units of measurement? (Burnell, 2008)<br />Content: (5th grade)<br />SWBAT provide examples of something they would measure using at least two of the measurement units.<br />Language<br />SWBAT to complete an exit ticket following these guidelines. <br />
  24. 24. Social Studies example (Pearson, 2006)<br />Content<br />Eight grade Texas Standard: <br />Explain how the rights of U.S. citizens reflect our national identity.<br />Student friendly version: <br />I can explain how using my rights is an important part of being an American. <br />Language<br />Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.<br />Student friendly version:<br />I can draw a picture representing my rights, explain it to someone, and write about it.<br />
  25. 25. Example of Lag Arts<br />Content: 9th grade <br />By the end of the lesson, students will be able to target and decode unfamiliar vocabulary form the context. (Story: A Walk in the Dark)<br />Language<br />By the end of the lesson, students will be able to identify five unfamiliar vocabulary words from the short story. <br />
  26. 26. Develop a doable language task/goal from your content objective (remember key to language development is listening, speaking, reading and writing) <br />Your turn in your groups<br />
  27. 27. Checking lag goal/objectives. (Pearson, 2006)<br />Are the objectives observable? <br />How will you be able to assess each student’s mastery of each objective at the end of the lesson?<br />
  28. 28. What is Higher-order thinking?<br />A guide to Productive Pedagogies: Classroom reflection manual states that:<br />Higher-order thinking by students involves the transformation of information and ideas. This transformation occurs when students combine facts and ideas and synthesise, generalise, explain, hypothesise or arrive at some conclusion or interpretation. Manipulating information and ideas through these processes allows students to solve problems, gain understanding and discover new meaning. When students engage in the construction of knowledge, an element of uncertainty is introduced into the instructional process and the outcomes are not always predictable; in other words, the teacher is not certain what the students will produce. In helping students become producers of knowledge, the teacher’s main instructional task is to create activities or environments that allow them opportunities to engage in higher-order thinking.<br />(<br />
  29. 29. Lower and Higher Order Questions<br />Lower level questions are those at the remembering, understanding and lower level application levels of the taxonomy.<br />Usually questions at the lower levels are appropriate for:<br />Evaluating students’ preparation and comprehension<br />Diagnosing students’ strengths and weaknesses<br />Reviewing and/or summarizing content<br />
  30. 30. Lower and Higher Order Questions<br />Higher level questions are those requiring complex application, analysis, evaluation or creation skills.<br />Questions at higher levels of the taxonomy are usually most appropriate for:<br />Encouraging students to think more deeply and critically<br />Problem solving<br />Encouraging discussions<br />Stimulating students to seek information on their own<br />
  31. 31. Questions for Remembering<br />What happened after...?<br />How many...?<br />What is...?<br />Who was it that...?<br />Can you name ...?<br />Find the definition of…<br />Describe what happened after…<br />Who spoke to...?<br />Which is true or false...?<br />(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 12)<br />
  32. 32. Questions for Understanding<br />Can you explain why…?<br />Can you write in your own words? <br />How would you explain…?<br />Can you write a brief outline...?<br />What do you think could have happened next...?<br />Who do you think...?<br />What was the main idea...?<br />Can you clarify…?<br />Can you illustrate…?<br />Does everyone act in the way that …….. does?<br />(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 12)<br />
  33. 33. Questions for Applying<br />Do you know of another instance where…?<br />Can you group by characteristics such as…?<br />Which factors would you change if…?<br />What questions would you ask of…?<br />From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about…?<br />(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 13)<br />
  34. 34. Question for Analysing<br />Which events could not have happened?<br />If. ..happened, what might the ending have been?<br />How is...similar to...?<br />What do you see as other possible outcomes?<br />Why did...changes occur?<br />Can you explain what must have happened when...?<br />What are some or the problems of...?<br />Can you distinguish between...?<br />What were some of the motives behind..?<br />What was the turning point?<br />What was the problem with...?<br />(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 13)<br />
  35. 35. Questions for Evaluating<br />Is there a better solution to...?<br />Judge the value of... What do you think about...?<br />Can you defend your position about...?<br />Do you a good or bad thing?<br />How would you have handled...?<br />What changes to.. would you recommend?<br />Do you believe...? How would you feel if. ..?<br />How effective are. ..?<br />What are the consequences..?<br />What influence will....have on our lives?<br />What are the pros and cons of....?<br />Why is ....of value? <br />What are the alternatives?<br />Who will gain & who will loose? <br />(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 14)<br />
  36. 36. Questions for Creating<br />Can you design<br />Can you see a possible solution to...?<br />If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...?<br />Why don't you devise your own way to...?<br />What would happen if ...?<br />How many ways can you...?<br />Can you create new and unusual uses for...?<br />Can you develop a proposal which would...?<br />(Pohl, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 14)<br />
  37. 37. Now it’s your turn…<br />Use your unit plans and text/resources and what we have discussed so far to write a clear and measurable language task/goal and explain how you will assess.<br />Think with the End in mind…(Use the three Backwards Design planning questions here) <br />
  38. 38. Gradual Release Model (Fisher & Frey, 2008)<br />I do it.. (teacher models)<br />We do it together.. (guided Instruction)<br />You do it together.. (students work together with teacher supervision)<br />You do it alone…(students responsible for their own work) <br />
  39. 39. 36<br />