A Biodiversity Project Kiril Krendov Siyana Petrova Teodora Zdravkova 10/2
What is actually a fish? Hm… <ul><li>The Name </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ichthyoid” – fish-like </li></ul><ul><li>Ichthyology = f...
Fish Evolution: Cladogram <ul><li>Cladogram </li></ul><ul><li>Closely related are the  </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibians. </li>...
Bony vs. Cartilaginous <ul><li>Large marine organisms  </li></ul><ul><li>Body is flat, disc shaped or spindle shaped  </li...
Gases, Food/Waste Exchange <ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Gas exchange due to gills. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of ...
Reproduction   <ul><li>Three ways of reproducing: </li></ul><ul><li>Ovopartity - undeveloped eggs & external/internal fert...
Movement <ul><li>H2O denser than air => more difficult  to move. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT: </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton- most c...
http://211.67.160.206/jpkc/yuleixue/English/english.htm#FISH SEX- how fish reproduce
Thermal “Strategies” <ul><li>In general, cold blooded. They derive their body heat from their environment and conform  its...
The Whale Shark <ul><li>Class Chondrichthyes  </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name:   Whale Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Latin Name:  ...
The Clown Fish <ul><li>Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fish) </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name:  Clown Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Latin N...
The Hagfish <ul><li>Class Agnatha   </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name:  Hagfish  </li></ul><ul><li>Latin Name: Myxine  glutino...
Human vs. Fish Interactions <ul><li>Human and animal food source </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Hunted’ in wild fisheries or in ‘farm...
Fun Facts <ul><li>If you keep a goldfish in a dark room, it will eventually turn white. </li></ul><ul><li>A shark can dete...
Works Cited <ul><li>1.  Klappenbach, Laura. &quot;Whale Shark - Rhincodon typus.&quot;  About.com . About.com, a part of T...
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  • FISH 10-2 kiril, siyana

    1. 1. A Biodiversity Project Kiril Krendov Siyana Petrova Teodora Zdravkova 10/2
    2. 2. What is actually a fish? Hm… <ul><li>The Name </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ichthyoid” – fish-like </li></ul><ul><li>Ichthyology = from the Greek ἰχθυ, (ikhthu , fish) and λόγος ( logos, reason), the study (scientific) of fish </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a fish really a fish? – Derived Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Skin covered with scales. </li></ul><ul><li>Limbs modified into fins for swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Gills for breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>*Bilateral symmetry </li></ul>
    3. 3. Fish Evolution: Cladogram <ul><li>Cladogram </li></ul><ul><li>Closely related are the </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibians. </li></ul><ul><li>Domain: Eukarya; </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia; </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Human and fishes </li></ul><ul><li>– common ancestor? </li></ul><ul><li>Only 12 chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Paleozoic era (about 450 million years ago) </li></ul><ul><li>Two lineages – to fish and mammals </li></ul>http://reptilis.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/cladogram1.gif
    4. 4. Bony vs. Cartilaginous <ul><li>Large marine organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Body is flat, disc shaped or spindle shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Body is covered with placoid scales </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton is cartilaginous </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration is through gills </li></ul><ul><li>Heart is two chambered </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Rays and Sharks </li></ul>http://www.tutorvista.com/content/science/science-i/diversity-living-organisms/phylum-chordata.php <ul><li>Found in lakes, rivers and seas </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle shaped body covered with cycloid or tenoid scales </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth is anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton is partly or completely bony </li></ul><ul><li>Gills are filamentous </li></ul><ul><li>Heart is two chambered </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Sea horse, lung fish, flying fish </li></ul>
    5. 5. Gases, Food/Waste Exchange <ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Gas exchange due to gills. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of O2 and CO2 => process of respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Simple closed-circle circulatory system. </li></ul><ul><li>Food/Waste Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Plants and other organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia. </li></ul><ul><li>Some wastes - diffused through the gills, blood wastes are filtered by the kidneys. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Reproduction <ul><li>Three ways of reproducing: </li></ul><ul><li>Ovopartity - undeveloped eggs & external/internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Ovoviviparity- internal development- without direct maternal nourishment: advanced birth & larval birth </li></ul><ul><li>Viviparity - internal development-direct nourishment from mother( fully advanced at birth) </li></ul><ul><li>Hermaphroditism: </li></ul><ul><li>Where density is low. </li></ul><ul><li>Some can alternate between sexes. </li></ul><ul><li>21 families of fish!!! </li></ul>
    7. 7. Movement <ul><li>H2O denser than air => more difficult to move. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT: </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton- most complex of all vertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Fins- directing thrust, </li></ul><ul><li>supplying lift, brakes </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles – power, 80% of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Streamlined shape </li></ul><ul><li>Special slime excreted from the skin </li></ul>http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_ DV8Vs5zZsU0/SGS3rDVwkRI/AAAAAAAABhI/tgB2RqF-w5c/s320/%D0%BF% D1%8A%D1%81%D1%82%D1%8A%D1%80%D0%B2%D0%B0.jpg Trout
    8. 8. http://211.67.160.206/jpkc/yuleixue/English/english.htm#FISH SEX- how fish reproduce
    9. 9. Thermal “Strategies” <ul><li>In general, cold blooded. They derive their body heat from their environment and conform its temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of fish: </li></ul><ul><li>Ectothermic - derive heat from environment </li></ul><ul><li>Poikilothermic – conform to heat of environment </li></ul><ul><li>High temperature = increased speed </li></ul>
    10. 10. The Whale Shark <ul><li>Class Chondrichthyes </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name: Whale Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Latin Name: Rhincodon  typus </li></ul><ul><li>The largest fish on earth </li></ul><ul><li>Filter feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat: tropical parts of the Atlantic, Indian and the Pacific ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Life: 100 years </li></ul><ul><li>Migrating animals </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered species </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction: viviparous </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Clown Fish <ul><li>Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fish) </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name: Clown Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Latin Name: A mphiprion percula </li></ul><ul><li>Very small animal </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat : lives near anemone plant </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction: by eggs + hermaphrodites </li></ul><ul><li>Not an endangered species </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Hagfish <ul><li>Class Agnatha </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name: Hagfish </li></ul><ul><li>Latin Name: Myxine glutinosa </li></ul><ul><li>Most primitive fish </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat: muddy sea bottoms </li></ul><ul><li>Food: dead fish + worms </li></ul><ul><li>Partial hermaphrodites </li></ul><ul><li>Not big interaction with humans </li></ul>Is it a fish?
    13. 13. Human vs. Fish Interactions <ul><li>Human and animal food source </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Hunted’ in wild fisheries or in ‘farms’. </li></ul><ul><li>Caught and raised by fish keepers and scientists, then exhibited in public aquaria. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture role through the ages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious symbols . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Christian traditions ( referring to feeding the multitude in the desert). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects of art and books. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Fun Facts <ul><li>If you keep a goldfish in a dark room, it will eventually turn white. </li></ul><ul><li>A shark can detect one part of blood in 100 million parts of water. </li></ul><ul><li>The most poisonous fish in the world is the Stone fish. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest known fish in the sea is the Whale Shark. It weighs up to 20 tons and grows to a length of 40 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>In Texas it is illegal to have sex with a fish, in Florida it is illegal to get a fish drunk. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Works Cited <ul><li>1. Klappenbach, Laura. &quot;Whale Shark - Rhincodon typus.&quot; About.com . About.com, a part of The New York Times Company., n.d. Web. 21 Mar 2010. <http://animals.about.com/od/cartilaginousfishes/p/whaleshark.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>2. &quot;Whale shark.&quot; Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 23 March 2010 . Web. 24 Mar 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whale_shark>. </li></ul><ul><li>3. &quot;WHALE SHARK.&quot; Enchanted Learning.com . EnchantedLearning.com , 2009. Web. 25 Mar 2010. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Whaleshark.shtml>. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Gaut, Alex. &quot;The Whale Shark.&quot; Marine Education Society of Australasia . MESA, n.d. Web. 21 Mar 2010. <http://www.mesa.edu.au/seaweek2005/pdf/infosheet05.pdf>. </li></ul><ul><li>5. &quot;Whale Shark Question and Answer.&quot; Shark Research Institute . Shark Research Institute, n.d. Web. 25 Mar 2010. <http://www.sharks.org/whale_shark/whalesharks_questions.htm#SIXTEEN>. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Same Source like #3 http :// www . enchantedlearning . com / subjects / fish / printouts / Clownfishprintout . shtml </li></ul><ul><li>7. &quot;An Exploration of the Clownfish.&quot; Tree of Life Web Project . Havergal College, 2005. Web. 21 Mar 2010. <http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=3390>. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Same Source like #2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>9. &quot;Hagfish.&quot; Hagfish . Gulf of Main Research Institute, Gulf of Main Research Institute. Web. 21 Mar 2010. <http://www.gma.org/fogm/myxine_glutinosa.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>10. &quot;Hagfish.&quot; Science Encyclopedia . Net Industries and its Licensors , 2010. Web. 21 Mar 2010. <http://science.jrank.org/pages/3185/Hagfish.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Same source like #2 dhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagfish </li></ul><ul><li>12. Buchheim, Jason. &quot;FISH, a Quick Course on Ichthyology.&quot; Odyssey Expeditions - Tropical Marine Biology Voyages! Web. 25 Mar. 2010. <http://www.marinebiology.org/fish.htm#How%20Fish%20Breath>. </li></ul><ul><li>13. &quot;Useless Fish Trivia and Fun Facts about Fish.&quot; Comedy Zone for Jokes, Funny Pictures, Cartoons and Stand Up Comedians. Web. 25 Mar. 2010. <http://comedy-zone.net/triviazone/animals/page6.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Cladogram. Digital image. Reptilis.net. Web. <http://reptilis.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/cladogram1.gif>. </li></ul><ul><li>15. &quot;Our Fish Ancestors.&quot; Site Du Genoscope. Web. 25 Mar. 2010. <http://www.cns.fr/externe/English/Actualites/Presse/201004_1.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>16. &quot;Dictionary of Ichthyology.&quot; Brian W. Coad - Personal Website. Web. 25 Mar. 2010. <http://www.briancoad.com/Dictionary/I.htm>. </li></ul>
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