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FISH 10-2 kiril, siyana

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  • For the full information + citation see the provided handout.
  • For the full information + citation see the provided handout.
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  • Transcript

    • 1. A Biodiversity Project Kiril Krendov Siyana Petrova Teodora Zdravkova 10/2
    • 2. What is actually a fish? Hm…
      • The Name
      • “ Ichthyoid” – fish-like
      • Ichthyology = from the Greek ἰχθυ, (ikhthu , fish) and λόγος ( logos, reason), the study (scientific) of fish
      • What makes a fish really a fish? – Derived Characteristics
      • Skin covered with scales.
      • Limbs modified into fins for swimming.
      • Gills for breathing.
      • *Bilateral symmetry
    • 3. Fish Evolution: Cladogram
      • Cladogram
      • Closely related are the
      • Amphibians.
      • Domain: Eukarya;
      • Kingdom: Animalia;
      • Phylum: Chordata
      • Human and fishes
      • – common ancestor?
      • Only 12 chromosomes
      • Paleozoic era (about 450 million years ago)
      • Two lineages – to fish and mammals
      http://reptilis.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/cladogram1.gif
    • 4. Bony vs. Cartilaginous
      • Large marine organisms
      • Body is flat, disc shaped or spindle shaped
      • Body is covered with placoid scales
      • Skeleton is cartilaginous
      • Respiration is through gills
      • Heart is two chambered
      • Ex. Rays and Sharks
      http://www.tutorvista.com/content/science/science-i/diversity-living-organisms/phylum-chordata.php
      • Found in lakes, rivers and seas
      • Spindle shaped body covered with cycloid or tenoid scales
      • Mouth is anterior
      • Skeleton is partly or completely bony
      • Gills are filamentous
      • Heart is two chambered
      • Ex. Sea horse, lung fish, flying fish
    • 5. Gases, Food/Waste Exchange
      • Respiration
      • Gas exchange due to gills.
      • Exchange of O2 and CO2 => process of respiration
      • Simple closed-circle circulatory system.
      • Food/Waste Exchange
      • Jaws
      • Plants and other organisms
      • Ammonia.
      • Some wastes - diffused through the gills, blood wastes are filtered by the kidneys.
    • 6. Reproduction
      • Three ways of reproducing:
      • Ovopartity - undeveloped eggs & external/internal fertilization
      • Ovoviviparity- internal development- without direct maternal nourishment: advanced birth & larval birth
      • Viviparity - internal development-direct nourishment from mother( fully advanced at birth)
      • Hermaphroditism:
      • Where density is low.
      • Some can alternate between sexes.
      • 21 families of fish!!!
    • 7. Movement
      • H2O denser than air => more difficult to move.
      • BUT:
      • Skeleton- most complex of all vertebrates
      • Fins- directing thrust,
      • supplying lift, brakes
      • Muscles – power, 80% of the body
      • Streamlined shape
      • Special slime excreted from the skin
      http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_ DV8Vs5zZsU0/SGS3rDVwkRI/AAAAAAAABhI/tgB2RqF-w5c/s320/%D0%BF% D1%8A%D1%81%D1%82%D1%8A%D1%80%D0%B2%D0%B0.jpg Trout
    • 8. http://211.67.160.206/jpkc/yuleixue/English/english.htm#FISH SEX- how fish reproduce
    • 9. Thermal “Strategies”
      • In general, cold blooded. They derive their body heat from their environment and conform its temperature.
      • Two types of fish:
      • Ectothermic - derive heat from environment
      • Poikilothermic – conform to heat of environment
      • High temperature = increased speed
    • 10. The Whale Shark
      • Class Chondrichthyes
      • Common Name: Whale Shark
      • Latin Name: Rhincodon  typus
      • The largest fish on earth
      • Filter feeders
      • Habitat: tropical parts of the Atlantic, Indian and the Pacific ocean
      • Life: 100 years
      • Migrating animals
      • Endangered species
      • Reproduction: viviparous
    • 11. The Clown Fish
      • Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fish)
      • Common Name: Clown Fish
      • Latin Name: A mphiprion percula
      • Very small animal
      • Habitat : lives near anemone plant
      • Reproduction: by eggs + hermaphrodites
      • Not an endangered species
    • 12. The Hagfish
      • Class Agnatha
      • Common Name: Hagfish
      • Latin Name: Myxine glutinosa
      • Most primitive fish
      • Habitat: muddy sea bottoms
      • Food: dead fish + worms
      • Partial hermaphrodites
      • Not big interaction with humans
      Is it a fish?
    • 13. Human vs. Fish Interactions
      • Human and animal food source
      • ‘ Hunted’ in wild fisheries or in ‘farms’.
      • Caught and raised by fish keepers and scientists, then exhibited in public aquaria.
      • Culture role through the ages:
        • Deities
        • Religious symbols .
          • Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Christian traditions ( referring to feeding the multitude in the desert).
        • Subjects of art and books.
    • 14. Fun Facts
      • If you keep a goldfish in a dark room, it will eventually turn white.
      • A shark can detect one part of blood in 100 million parts of water.
      • The most poisonous fish in the world is the Stone fish.
      • The largest known fish in the sea is the Whale Shark. It weighs up to 20 tons and grows to a length of 40 feet.
      • In Texas it is illegal to have sex with a fish, in Florida it is illegal to get a fish drunk.
    • 15. Works Cited
      • 1. Klappenbach, Laura. &quot;Whale Shark - Rhincodon typus.&quot; About.com . About.com, a part of The New York Times Company., n.d. Web. 21 Mar 2010. <http://animals.about.com/od/cartilaginousfishes/p/whaleshark.htm>.
      • 2. &quot;Whale shark.&quot; Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 23 March 2010 . Web. 24 Mar 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whale_shark>.
      • 3. &quot;WHALE SHARK.&quot; Enchanted Learning.com . EnchantedLearning.com , 2009. Web. 25 Mar 2010. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Whaleshark.shtml>.
      • 4. Gaut, Alex. &quot;The Whale Shark.&quot; Marine Education Society of Australasia . MESA, n.d. Web. 21 Mar 2010. <http://www.mesa.edu.au/seaweek2005/pdf/infosheet05.pdf>.
      • 5. &quot;Whale Shark Question and Answer.&quot; Shark Research Institute . Shark Research Institute, n.d. Web. 25 Mar 2010. <http://www.sharks.org/whale_shark/whalesharks_questions.htm#SIXTEEN>.
      • 6. Same Source like #3 http :// www . enchantedlearning . com / subjects / fish / printouts / Clownfishprintout . shtml
      • 7. &quot;An Exploration of the Clownfish.&quot; Tree of Life Web Project . Havergal College, 2005. Web. 21 Mar 2010. <http://tolweb.org/treehouses/?treehouse_id=3390>.
      • 8. Same Source like #2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_anatomy
      • 9. &quot;Hagfish.&quot; Hagfish . Gulf of Main Research Institute, Gulf of Main Research Institute. Web. 21 Mar 2010. <http://www.gma.org/fogm/myxine_glutinosa.htm>.
      • 10. &quot;Hagfish.&quot; Science Encyclopedia . Net Industries and its Licensors , 2010. Web. 21 Mar 2010. <http://science.jrank.org/pages/3185/Hagfish.html>.
      • 11. Same source like #2 dhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagfish
      • 12. Buchheim, Jason. &quot;FISH, a Quick Course on Ichthyology.&quot; Odyssey Expeditions - Tropical Marine Biology Voyages! Web. 25 Mar. 2010. <http://www.marinebiology.org/fish.htm#How%20Fish%20Breath>.
      • 13. &quot;Useless Fish Trivia and Fun Facts about Fish.&quot; Comedy Zone for Jokes, Funny Pictures, Cartoons and Stand Up Comedians. Web. 25 Mar. 2010. <http://comedy-zone.net/triviazone/animals/page6.htm>.
      • 14. Cladogram. Digital image. Reptilis.net. Web. <http://reptilis.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/cladogram1.gif>.
      • 15. &quot;Our Fish Ancestors.&quot; Site Du Genoscope. Web. 25 Mar. 2010. <http://www.cns.fr/externe/English/Actualites/Presse/201004_1.html>.
      • 16. &quot;Dictionary of Ichthyology.&quot; Brian W. Coad - Personal Website. Web. 25 Mar. 2010. <http://www.briancoad.com/Dictionary/I.htm>.

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