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Diversity Of Life


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Diversity Of Life

  1. 1. Diversity of Life By: Celine Rodriguez Period 2 Nettuno- Honors Bio
  2. 2. Kingdom Anamaila Pal Science. “African Lion.&quot; No date. Online image. Monkey Picture Gallery. 11 May 2010. <>.  
  3. 3. Bilateral Symmetry Ahmad Ali Karim. “Pretty Butterfly.&quot; February 2009. Online image. Pictures. 11 May 2010. <>.  
  4. 4. Radial Symmetry
  5. 5. Asymmetrical
  6. 6. Sponge
  7. 7. Cnidarians <ul><li>Coral Reefs </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Jellyfish </li></ul>
  9. 9. Flatworms <ul><li>Tapeworms </li></ul>Hebert, Lauren. “World on Alert as Urban Tapeworms Grow In Power.&quot; July 27,2009. Online image. Scrape TV. 10 May 2010. <>.  
  10. 10. Roundworms <ul><li>Trichinella cyst </li></ul>N/A. “Human Parasitology Lab.&quot; Fall 09. Online image. Trichinella Cyst. 10 May 2010. <>.  
  11. 11. Cephalopod <ul><li>Octopus </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bivalve <ul><li>Clams </li></ul>
  13. 13. Gastropod <ul><li>Snail </li></ul>
  14. 14. Annelids <ul><li>Earthworms </li></ul>
  15. 15. Arthropods <ul><li>Spider </li></ul>Knights, Brian. “Spider Spraying.&quot; No date. Online image. Around the Bend. 10 May 2010. <>.  
  16. 16. <ul><li>Grasshopper </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Crab </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Dragonflies </li></ul>Kimbler, John. “How to Photograph Dragon Flies.&quot; No date. Online image. Wonderful Photos. 10 May 2010. <>.
  19. 19. <ul><li>Beetles </li></ul>None. “Japanese Beetles: What Works and What Doesn’t.&quot; No date. Online image. Japanese Beetles. 10 May 2010. <>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Butterflies </li></ul>Ahmad Ali Karim. “Pretty Butterfly.&quot; February 2009. Online image. Pictures. 11 May 2010. <>.
  21. 21. Trilobitomorpha <ul><li>Asaphug Kowalewskii </li></ul>None. “Asaphus kowalewskii Russian Trilobite with Enormous Eyestalks .&quot; No Date. Online image. Pictures. 11 May 2010. <>.
  22. 22. Crustacea <ul><li>Shrimp </li></ul>
  23. 23. Chelicerata <ul><li>Crab </li></ul>
  24. 24. Hexapods <ul><li>Wasp </li></ul><ul><li>Fly </li></ul><ul><li>Bee </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquitoe </li></ul>Clive, Lewis. “ The Swarming Hordes .&quot; No Date. Online image. Pictures. 11 May 2010. <>.
  25. 25. Myriapoda <ul><li>Millipedes </li></ul>None. “ Ghana Chocolate Millipede .&quot; No Date. Online image. Pictures. 11 May 2010. <>.
  26. 26. Echinoderms <ul><li>Sea Stars </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Dollars </li></ul>
  27. 27. Kingdom Animalia Fact Sheet <ul><li>General Description- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multicellular, mitochondrial heterotrophs; have multiple cells with mitochondria and rely on other organisms for nourishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce by: sexually, by means of different haploid cells (eggs and sperm). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most animals are diploid, meaning that the cells of adults contain two copies of the genetic material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals can either have a few cells or tons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining Characteristics- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized, made up of cells, metabolize, maintain an internal environment, respond, reproduce, evolve, ingest food in some type of internal cavity, contain animal cells (has organelles and no cell wall) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Advances- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most have the ability of rapid or quick movement compared to plants and other organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps the world from being over populated (Animals are consumers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as a Food Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation and Economic Resources </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Example from Kingdom Animalia <ul><li>Oreaster reticulatus / Carribean Starfish </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Description- bilateral symmetry when larvae, five rays or arms which come off of a central disk, bodies of starfish are made up of calcium carbonate components (ossicles) which form an endoskeleton, body surface of sea stars usually is made up of several structures that make up the basic anatomy of the animal and can help in identification of the animal </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat- Tropical Coral Reefs, Kelp Forests, Deep Sea Floors, NO FRESHWATER ENVIORNMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting Facts- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 1800 species of starfish found in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starfish can regenerate and also feed on mussels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The circulatory system of starfish is called the hemal system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some types of starfish can use their water vascular system to pry open shells of bivalve mollusks by injecting their stomachs into shells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starfish do not contain a true centralized brain </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Vertebrates
  30. 30. Invertebrate Chordate <ul><li>Sea Squirt </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Shark </li></ul>Chondrichthyes
  32. 32. <ul><li>Skates and Rays </li></ul>
  33. 33. Osteichthyes <ul><li>Bony Fish </li></ul>
  34. 34. Amphibians Zoomed in Frogs
  35. 35. <ul><li>Caecilians </li></ul>Coleman, Lauren. “Giant Worms of Japan.&quot; September 27,2009. Online image. Pictures. 11 May 2010. <>.
  36. 36. <ul><li>Salamanders </li></ul>None. “ Salamander Migration .&quot; March 27, 2007. Online image. Pictures. 11 May 2010. <>.
  37. 37. Reptiles <ul><li>Crocodiles </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Alligator </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Lizards </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Turtle </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Snake </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Birds </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Birds cont. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Birds cont. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Mammals <ul><li>Rat </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Kangaroo- Marsupial </li></ul>None. “Kangaroo and Joey.&quot; September 27,2009. Online image. Pictures. 11 May 2010. <>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Humans </li></ul>
  48. 48. Vertebrates Fact Sheet <ul><li>General Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any animal having a backbone or a spine column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses red blood cells to the body tissues through the circulatory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 5,000,000 red blood cells in one drop of blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebrates reproduce sexually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They receive their nutrition from eating other organisms (Consumers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has backbone, large in size, has numerous specialized parts, bilaterally symmetrical, and distributed widely around earth. Has an internal skeleton of bone and cartilage or just cartilage, vertebrates have a spinal cord, a brain enclosed in a cranium, a closed circulatory system, and a heart divided in up to four chambers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Advances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have muscles and skeleton which allow them to move rapidly and perform complex moves rather than invertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They also have nervous systems which includes brains that makes them smarter than invertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a vast amount of Biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammals change the physical state of abiotic and biotic factors in ecosystems (ecological landscapers), this changes the flow of resources to other species </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Example from Vertebrates <ul><li>Homo sapiens/Mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Two Legs, Two Arms, Spinal Cord, Nervous System, Hair on body, Highly Developed Brain, Circulatory System, Skin, Teeth, Fingers, Toes, two ears, two eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat- Earth/Land </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means “wise man” or “knowing man” in Latin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondrial DNA and fossil evidence show that the first modern humans originated in Africa 200,000 years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are the only species know to man that use fire, clothe themselves, cook their own food, and use other technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 1800, the human pop. Has grown from 1 billion to 6 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are one of the nine species that passed the “mirror test”. This means they can recognize their own reflection. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Kingdom Eubacteria
  51. 51. <ul><li>Cheese </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Vinegar </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Soil </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Yogurt </li></ul>
  55. 55. Kingdom Eubacteria Fact Sheet <ul><li>General Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular, Prokaryotic Cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few micrometers in length, wide range of shapes (spheres, rods), on every habitat on earth, has a flagella, important in recycling nutrients, first forms of life to be developed on earth (40 billion years ago) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses binary fission as reproduction (asexual reproduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eats by: self feeding, or decomposes dead material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic Cell, 1-10 micrometers long or across, three basic shapes; coccus, bacillus, and spiral. Has pilli which are used to attach to other organisms, has membrane receptors (change shape when they absorb light or chemical compounds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Advances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Flagellum is an Evolutionary Advance against plant- like protists because the flagellum is a basal body that allows the bacteria to move. The flagellum is pretty much acting like a motor plant- like protists are sessile, meaning they cannot move. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria is important to the enviornment because it returns nutrients to the soil such as nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria also decomposes decaying material such as dead animals. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Example from Kingdom Eubacteria <ul><li>Nitrobacter/ Nitrifying Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Short rods, single subterminal flagella, membrane system arranged as a polar cap, reproduce budding </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat- Soil, Freshwater, Marine </li></ul><ul><li>Intresting Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylogentic Group- Alpha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrifying bacteria thrive in lakes and streams with high inputs of sewage and wastewater because of the high ammonia content. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemoautotrophic- gets energy from chemical reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram negative bacteria- doesn’t retain crystal violet dye in the gram staining protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidizes nitrite into nitrate in soil </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Kingdom Protista
  58. 58. Animal-Like Protist <ul><li>Amoeba </li></ul>
  59. 59. Plant-Like Protist <ul><li>Algae </li></ul>
  60. 60. Fungus-Like Protist <ul><li>Oomycota </li></ul>
  61. 61. Fact Sheet for Kingdom Protista <ul><li>General Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are unicellular but most are multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No specialized tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Different Types: Plant-Like, Animal-Like, Fungus-Like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phototrophs- Use sunlight for energy, Filter feeding is used by flagellates, others can engulf bacteria and digest them internally using their cell membrane (endocytosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can reproduce sexually by conjugation and Asexually by binary fission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be heterotrophic or autrophic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has membrane enclosed organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has flagella and Cillia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant-Like Protists are Sessile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Advances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal- Like Protists with cilia are an improvement from Animal-like Protists that have pseudopods. Pseudopods are structures that act as a “false foot”, that slowly move the protist. Animal- Like Protists use cilia which beats back and fourth. The cilia helps it move quickly through water and also as it beats back and fourth food is moved into its body. Cilia is much more efficient than pseudopods because they help Animal-Like Protists move faster while capturing their prey. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant-Like Protists: act as producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal-Like Protists: Maintains balance of ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungus-Like: Decomposers </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Example for Kingdom Protista <ul><li>Oomycota/ Water Molds </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic microorganisms, absorptive organisms, large round oogonia (structures containing female gametes), produce two distinct types of spores, close relationship with photosynthetic organisms, cell walls composed of cellulose instead of chitin. </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat- High Humidity and running surface water </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also referred to as pseudofungi, or lower fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the vegetative state, they have a diploid nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to the enviornment because they are aggressive plant pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some can cause disease in fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oomycota means “egg fungi” </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Kingdom Fungi
  64. 64. Asomycota <ul><li>Lichens </li></ul>
  65. 65. Basidiomycota <ul><li>Mushrooms </li></ul>
  66. 66. Zygomycota <ul><li>Black Bread Mold </li></ul>
  67. 67. Imperfect Fungi <ul><li>Athlete’s Foot </li></ul>
  68. 68. Fact Sheet for Kingdom Fungi <ul><li>General Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic Organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtains its nutrition from sending parts of their body (hyphae) directly into their food, secrete chemicals which helps to break the food down into simpler molecules, and then absorb the food directly into their cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce sexually or asexually (budding) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a nucleus and a cell wall made of chitin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four types of Fungi: Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycetes, and Basidiomycetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be aquatic fungi, molds on foods, mildews, yeasts, mushrooms etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi break down organic molecules, which are large complex structures, too large to pass across the cell walls of roots, like carbon and nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When they break down organic materials, this makes it easier for plants to absorb simple compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps in proper plant root function </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Example for Kingdom Fungi <ul><li>Basidiomycetes/ Club Fungi, Mushrooms </li></ul><ul><li>25,000 species, majority of fungus is underground, when the mushroom needs to reproduce the fruiting body (basidiocarp) is formed. Mushroom starts with a universal veil over the entire organism. As mushroom grows the universal veil reaches the top, the universal veil is left behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat- woodlands, grasslands, tree stumps, yards, and forests </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On Amanitas mushrooms, the universal veil is still attached, this is called the volva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The name of mushrooms comes from the latin word “basidium”, which means “little pedestal” referring the mushroom’s shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mushrooms have a stem, cap, and gills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mushrooms grow more quickly when they are kicked. (Spores are spread) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mushroom fruiting bodies have a short life-spand. </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Kingdom Plantae
  71. 71. Different Tropism
  72. 72. Other Tropism
  73. 73. Pistil
  74. 74. Stamen
  75. 75. Bryophytes <ul><li>Liverworts </li></ul>
  76. 76. <ul><li>Mosses </li></ul>
  77. 77. Seedless Vascular Plants <ul><li>Ferns </li></ul>
  78. 78. <ul><li>Club Mosses </li></ul>
  79. 79. Gymnosperms <ul><li>Male Pinecones </li></ul>
  80. 80. <ul><li>Female Pinecones </li></ul>
  81. 81. <ul><li>Conifers </li></ul>
  82. 82. <ul><li>Pine Trees </li></ul>
  83. 83. Angiosperms
  84. 84. Kingdom Plantae Fact Sheet <ul><li>General Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eukaryotic organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plant cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce sexually as well as asexually (Pollination) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtains energy using sunlight (Photosynthesis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall made of cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain Chlorophyll which gives plants their green color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has leaves that absorb light to convert into glucose and roots to absorb water and provides support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves contain waxy coat to help hold in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem provides support and stamen and pistil are reproductive organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are Bryophytes, Seedless Vascular Plants, Angiosperms, and Gymnosperms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Advances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants cannot move so they have to obtain energy from another form other than eating other organisms. They use sunlight to perform Photosynthesis which converts sunlight into glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- They are the Producers of the enviornment and they also provide all the oxygen on earth by releasing taking in carbon and releasing oxygen </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Example from Kingdom Plantae <ul><li>Pteridophyta/ Ferns </li></ul><ul><li>No seeds or flowers, has stems leaves and roots like other vascular plants, reproduces by spores, unlike mosses they contain xylem and phloem, not of major economic importnace </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of habitats- mountains, deserts, forests </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes used in medicine to treat cuts and clean them out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life cycle is referred to as alternation of generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferns’ gametophyte is a free-living organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many ferns only grow with specific pH ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferns first appear in the fossil record in the early-carboniferous periods </li></ul></ul>
  86. 86. Kingdom Archaebacteria
  87. 88. Kingdom Archaebacteria Fact Sheet <ul><li>General Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular microorganisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic Organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No nucleus or any other organelles within their cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce by asexual reproduction (binary fission) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some obtain their energy from inorganic compounds like sulfur or ammonia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others are Phototrophs and use Sunlight as a a form of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to bacteria in their cell structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membrane is bounded by a cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swim by use of one or more flagella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a singular circular chromosome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis doesn’t occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce asexually by binary or multiple fission, fragmentation, or budding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Advances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism with protozoa and methanogenic archaea in the digestive tracts of animals that digest cellulose. Protozoa breaks down cellulose from plant material to obtain energy. This releases hydrogen as a waste product. Protozoa benefit because they will gain more energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaebacteria is important to the environment because they are part of he systems on earth that recycle elements like carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur through a variety of habitats in the environment. </li></ul></ul>
  88. 89. Example from Kingdom Acrhaebacteria <ul><li>Extreme Environments/ Volcanic Hot Springs </li></ul><ul><li>A spring that is produced from the geothermally heated ground water from the crust of the Earth. (Yellow Stone National Park) </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat- All over earth, on every continent, under the oceans as well as the seas </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowstone National Park is in an active volcanic zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A hot spring usually has temperatures warmer than 36.7 degrees Celsius (98.1 degrees Fahrenheit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water may be heated by coming into contact with magma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaebacteria was first detected in extreme environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically Classified as Extremophiles </li></ul></ul>
  89. 90. Nature Video- Information Sheet <ul><li>Name: Life </li></ul><ul><li>Total Length: 60 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Date Watched: 4/29/10 </li></ul>
  90. 91. <ul><li>THE END </li></ul>