Biomagnification 10-2
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Biomagnification 10-2






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Biomagnification 10-2 Biomagnification 10-2 Presentation Transcript

  • Lillyana Georgieva Rumyana Nikolova Georgi Rusinov 10/2 Biomagnification
  • What is bioaccumulation?
    • Definition: “Increase in concentration of a pollutant from the environment to the first organism in a food chain”. (1)
    • When a pollutant enters a food chain (1)
    • Occurs when the rate of absorption of a pollutant is greater than the rate of excretion. (1)
  • What is biomagnification?
    • Definition: “I ncrease in concentration of a pollutant from one link in a food chain to another ”. (1)
    • Transfer of a pollutant from one trophic level to another. (1)
  • How does biomagnification look like?
  • What causes biomagnification and bioaccumulation?
    • Presence of food chains in which higher trophic levels depend heavily on large number of organisms from lower trophic levels
    • (in the last picture, the osprey gets energy fixed in the form of food by a vast number of zooplankton organisms) (2)
    • The Rule of 10: 10 % of the energy of one trophic level passes to the next trophic level in a food chain (4)
    • The rate of absorption of a pollutant should be greater than the rate of excretion (depends on the physiology of organisms in the system) (1)
  • What are some substances that bioaccumulate?
    • Bioaccumulating substances should meet the following criteria:
    • long-lived
    • mobile
    • soluble in fats
    • biologically active (1).
    • Examples: metals (mercury, cadmium, arsenic), pesticides (DDT, HCB), radioactive materials (2).
  • DDT
    • “ A chlorinated hydrocarbon with a half-life of 15years” (1).
    • Comes into ecosystems as a synthetic pesticide. (1)
    • Almost non-toxic to humans but damaging to the nervous systems of insects. (1)
    • Exemplary Case: Long Island Estuary, U.S.A., 1967
    • - extensive use of the pesticide over the years
    • - biomagnification factor of DDT: 800x
    • - effects: DDT was absorbed by zooplankton and was biomagnified as it moved through crustaceans and fish -> hell-thinning in birds, the last trophic level (ospreys, eagles, etc.) -> inability to brood
    • - solution: banning of DDT in the U.S.A. in 1972 -> birds gradually recovered. The bold eagle came back (1)
  • Radioactive Materials
    • Unstable substances that emit energy
    • Damage all kinds of living tissue
    • Exemplary Case: The Chernobyl Accident,
    • Ukraine, 1986
    • - large amounts of caesium-137 released in the air and brought around northern Europe
    • - resulted in genetic damage in fish species and bird species that feed on them in the Baltic Sea
    • - in Bulgaria, there was a ban on milk products because there were biomagnified as cows consumed contaminated grass
    • - solution: the Chernobyl NPP plant was sealed, and milk and meat consumption was restricted over Europe to prevent human casualties. (5)
  • Works Cited
    • “ Bioaccumulation & Biomagnification.” The Department of Biology and Environmental Science . N.p., 3 Apr. 2002. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <‌~biol/‌102/‌2bioma95.html>.(1)
    • “ Biomagnification.” Wikipedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <‌wiki/‌Biomagnification>. (2)
    • “ Bioaccumulation.” Wikipedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <‌wiki/‌Bioaccumulation>.(3)
    • “ The Rule of 10.” The Leading from the Heart Workshop . N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <‌2007/‌02/‌rule-of-10.html>. (4)
    • “ Types of Pollution (I).” ChemgaPedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <‌vsengine/‌vlu/‌vsc/‌en/‌ch/‌16/‌uc/‌vlus/‌introductiontopollution.vlu/‌Page/‌vsc/‌en/‌ch/‌16/‌uc/‌pollution/‌introduction/‌types/‌typesofpoll1.vscml.html>. (5)
    • &quot;What Does It Mean When a Substance Is Said to Bioaccumulate?&quot; WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions . Web. 16 Dec. 2010. <>.
  • Works Cited (pictures)