Biomagnification 10-2

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Biomagnification 10-2

  1. 1. Lillyana Georgieva Rumyana Nikolova Georgi Rusinov 10/2 Biomagnification
  2. 2. What is bioaccumulation? <ul><li>Definition: “Increase in concentration of a pollutant from the environment to the first organism in a food chain”. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>When a pollutant enters a food chain (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when the rate of absorption of a pollutant is greater than the rate of excretion. (1) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is biomagnification? <ul><li>Definition: “I ncrease in concentration of a pollutant from one link in a food chain to another ”. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of a pollutant from one trophic level to another. (1) </li></ul>
  4. 4. How does biomagnification look like? http://web.bryant.edu/~dlm1/sc372/readings/toxicology/biomagnification.jpg
  5. 5. What causes biomagnification and bioaccumulation? <ul><li>Presence of food chains in which higher trophic levels depend heavily on large number of organisms from lower trophic levels </li></ul><ul><li>(in the last picture, the osprey gets energy fixed in the form of food by a vast number of zooplankton organisms) (2) </li></ul><ul><li>The Rule of 10: 10 % of the energy of one trophic level passes to the next trophic level in a food chain (4) </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of absorption of a pollutant should be greater than the rate of excretion (depends on the physiology of organisms in the system) (1) </li></ul>
  6. 6. http://mff.dsisd.net/Environment/PICS/Trophics.jpg
  7. 7. What are some substances that bioaccumulate? <ul><li>Bioaccumulating substances should meet the following criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>long-lived </li></ul><ul><li>mobile </li></ul><ul><li>soluble in fats </li></ul><ul><li>biologically active (1). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: metals (mercury, cadmium, arsenic), pesticides (DDT, HCB), radioactive materials (2). </li></ul>http://www.tc.umn.edu/~allch001/1815/pestcide/sim/background.htm
  8. 8. DDT <ul><li>“ A chlorinated hydrocarbon with a half-life of 15years” (1). </li></ul><ul><li>Comes into ecosystems as a synthetic pesticide. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Almost non-toxic to humans but damaging to the nervous systems of insects. (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplary Case: Long Island Estuary, U.S.A., 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>- extensive use of the pesticide over the years </li></ul><ul><li>- biomagnification factor of DDT: 800x </li></ul><ul><li>- effects: DDT was absorbed by zooplankton and was biomagnified as it moved through crustaceans and fish -> hell-thinning in birds, the last trophic level (ospreys, eagles, etc.) -> inability to brood </li></ul><ul><li>- solution: banning of DDT in the U.S.A. in 1972 -> birds gradually recovered. The bold eagle came back (1) </li></ul>http://marine.usgs.gov/fact-sheets/fs41-98/
  9. 9. Radioactive Materials <ul><li>Unstable substances that emit energy </li></ul><ul><li>Damage all kinds of living tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplary Case: The Chernobyl Accident, </li></ul><ul><li>Ukraine, 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>- large amounts of caesium-137 released in the air and brought around northern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>- resulted in genetic damage in fish species and bird species that feed on them in the Baltic Sea </li></ul><ul><li>- in Bulgaria, there was a ban on milk products because there were biomagnified as cows consumed contaminated grass </li></ul><ul><li>- solution: the Chernobyl NPP plant was sealed, and milk and meat consumption was restricted over Europe to prevent human casualties. (5) </li></ul>http://atomwatch.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.html
  10. 10. Works Cited <ul><li>“ Bioaccumulation & Biomagnification.” The Department of Biology and Environmental Science . N.p., 3 Apr. 2002. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://www.marietta.edu/‌~biol/‌102/‌2bioma95.html>.(1) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Biomagnification.” Wikipedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/‌wiki/‌Biomagnification>. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bioaccumulation.” Wikipedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/‌wiki/‌Bioaccumulation>.(3) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Rule of 10.” The Leading from the Heart Workshop . N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://allsquareinc.blogspot.com/‌2007/‌02/‌rule-of-10.html>. (4) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Types of Pollution (I).” ChemgaPedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://www.chemgapedia.de/‌vsengine/‌vlu/‌vsc/‌en/‌ch/‌16/‌uc/‌vlus/‌introductiontopollution.vlu/‌Page/‌vsc/‌en/‌ch/‌16/‌uc/‌pollution/‌introduction/‌types/‌typesofpoll1.vscml.html>. (5) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;What Does It Mean When a Substance Is Said to Bioaccumulate?&quot; WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions . Web. 16 Dec. 2010. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-does-it-mean-when-a-substance-is-said-to-bioaccumulate.htm>. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Works Cited (pictures) <ul><li>http://www.tc.umn.edu/~allch001/1815/pestcide/sim/background.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://mff.dsisd.net/Environment/PICS/Trophics.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://marine.usgs.gov/fact-sheets/fs41-98/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://atomwatch.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://web.bryant.edu/~dlm1/sc372/readings/toxicology/biomagnification.jpg </li></ul>

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