LEQ: What key factors allowed Britainto lead the way in the IndustrialRevolution?
A number of characteristics made Britain ripe for industrialization in the eighteenth century. • Natural ports Britain had plentiful natural • Navigable rivers resources, • Water for canals including: • Access to the sea • A plentiful supply of coal • Vast supplies of iron
In the 1700s, Britain had skilled inventors,a ready workforce, and a growing population. To meet the growing demand Money to for jobs and start new products, one businesses. more thing was needed.
• capital – money to invest in enterprises• enterprise – a business organization in an area such as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories• entrepreneur – someone who manages and assumes the financial risks of starting a new business Entrepreneurs needed capital, or money to invest, in business enterprises such as shipping, mining, and manufacturing. With a healthy From the A business economy, many mid-1600s, class had were now willing England had accumulated to risk their prospered the needed money on new from trade. capital. ventures.
Britain had additional advantages.• Britain had a stable government that supported economic growth.• Other countries had river tolls, but Britain had no such barriers.• The powerful British navy protected shipping and overseas trade.
• putting-out system – cottage industry; raw cotton was distributed to peasant families, who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their homes In the 1600s, cotton cloth from India became popular in Britain. Using the putting-out system, merchants began a cotton cloth industry in Britain. Merchants gave cotton to Skilled artisans peasant families, who spun in towns then thread and wove cloth at finished and home as a cottage industry. dyed the cloth.
The demand for cotton cloth products, or textiles, made it Britain’s largest industry. The putting-out system was too New inventions would slow to meet the help to increase and growing demand speed up production. for cotton cloth.
• The flying shuttle sped up weaving. • The spinning jenny spun several threads at once. • The water frame used water to power the process.John Kay’s flying shuttle, 1733
• Eli Whitney – in 1793, invented the cotton gin, which sped up the previously time-consuming job of separating cotton fibers from cotton seeds • It took a long time to But the new separate cotton fibers machines posed from the cotton seeds, a problem. How limiting production. could farmers provide enough • In 1793 an American, cotton to meet Eli Whitney, invented English demand? the cotton gin, which quickly did the job. • Cotton production soon increased exponentially.
Machines were too large toThe new put in peasant homes, somachines they were placed in largedoomed the sheds along swift-movingputting-out rivers, which provided power.system. Workers came to labor in these factories. Factories brought together workers andmachinery to produce large quantities of goods.
• turnpike – private road built by an entrepreneur who charged travelers a toll, or fee, for use As production increased, cheaper ways were needed to move products. Some entrepreneurs invested in turnpikes. Products traveled faster on these roads. England was soon linked by a series of roads.
• Canals were dug toFactory owners link rivers or toneeded still connect inland townsmore efficient to coastal ports.and inexpensiveways to move • Engineers designedgoods. stronger bridges and upgraded harbors.
In 1763, the The owners This successBridgewater profited from set off acanal was the tolls, while canal-buildingopened. the price of frenzy. coal in the city of Manchester was cut in half.
• Liverpool to Manchester – site of the worlds first major rail line in 1830 Railroads did not have to follow rivers, allowing the shipment of goods efficiently and quickly over land. The Liverpool to Railroad lines Manchester line crisscrossed opened in 1830. It England, Europe, began a railroad- and the United building boom. States by 1870.
The new technology set off a cycle that dramatically affected how people lived. Lower prices created More affordable more consumers andgoods caused still greater demand. lower prices. Greater demand led to new inventions and still more affordable goods.
LEQ: What key factors allowed Britainto lead the way in the IndustrialRevolution?Natural and human resources, technologicalinventions, demands for goods due to increasedpopulation, access to capital, social and politicalconditions, creation of factories, and bettertransportation