While theAmericanRevolution andthe FrenchRevolution werebeing fought inthe late 1700s,another kind ofrevolution tookhold in Britain.Though notpolitical, thisrevolution—known as theIndustrialRevolution—brought aboutjust as manychanges tosociety.
Introduction to industry • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the late 1700s. • Changes in the way land was used and new farming methods increased productivity. • Skilled inventors developed new technology, and entrepreneurs with money invested in new or expanded ventures.
• Capitalism was a major factor in spurring industrial growth. It was an economic system in Capitalism which individuals and private firms, not the government, own the means of production, including land, machinery, and the workplace. In a capitalist system, individuals decide how they can make a profit and determine business practices accordingly• Industrialists practiced industrial capitalism which involved continually expanding factories or investing in new businesses. After investing in a factory, capitalists used profits to hire more workers and buy more raw materials and new machines.• Mass Production: the production of huge quantities of identical goods• Manufacturers invested in machines to replace more costly human labor. Machines were fast working and precise and enabled industrialists to mass-produce
Adam Smith • Adam Smith was a Scottish economist who set down the workings of a laissez-faire economy. • In The Wealth of Nations of 1776, Smith stated that businesses compete to produce goods as inexpensively as possible, and consumers buy the best goods at the lowest prices. Efficient producers make more profit, hire more workers, invent new stuff, and continue to expand, to everyone’s benefit. • By the 1850s, Great Britain, the world’s leading industrial power, had adopted free trade and other laissez-faire policies.- As the Industrial Revolution sped up, Smith’s ideasinfluenced economic thought and practice
Capitalist Ideas• During the Industrial Revolution, European thinkers rejected mercantilism with its government controls.• These thinkers supported laissez-faire, a policy allowing business to operate without government interference.• Laissez-faire comes from a French term meaning “let them alone.”• European thinkers held that fewer taxes and regulations would enable farmers to grow more produce.• In the early 1800s, laissez-faire soon gained the support of middle-class owners of railroads, factories, and mines.
English: Work by Ford Madox Brown, 1852-63 Oil on canvas. Original in the ManchesterCity Art Galleries
Great Britain Leads the Way Money and Industry• This agriculture revolution • Capital-money to invest in helped Great Britain to lead labor, machines, and raw materials that is essential for the Industrial Revolution the growth of industry• Successful farming business • By investing in growing allowed landowners to industries, the aristocracy and invest money in growing middle class had a good industries chance of making a profit • Parliament encouraged• Many displaced farmers investment by passing laws became industrial workers; that helped the growing moved to urban areas. businesses The four factors of economics are: land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship
Great Britain Leads the Way cont. Natural Resources Large Labor Supply• Britain’s wealth included its • In one century, England’s rich supply of natural population nearly doubled resources – Improvements in farming lead• Water provided power for to increased availability of developing industries and transported raw materials food and finished goods – better, more nutritious food• Britain also had huge led to people living longer supplies of coal, the and healthier lives principle raw material of • Changes in farming lead to the Industrial Revolution increased supply of industrial – Produced iron and steel workers for machinery and helped to fuel industry • Entrepreneurs-businesspeople who set up industries by bringing together capital, labor, and new industrial inventions
Enclosure Movement• Open field system- system where British farmers had planted crops and kept livestock on unfenced private and public lands for hundreds of years• Landowners felt that larger farms with enclosed fields would increase farming efficiency and productivity• Enclosure Movement-practice of fencing or enclosing common lands into individual holdings• Parliament supported this and passed laws that allowed landowners to take over and fence off private and common lands• Many small farmers dependent on village lands were forced to move to towns and cities to find work
• Landowners practiced new, more efficientfarming methods – To raise crop yields, they mixed different kinds of soil and used new crop rotation systems – Crop Rotation-the practice of alternating crops of different kinds to preserve soil fertility – Charles Townshend- urged the growing of turnips to enrich exhausted soil – Another reformer, Robert Bakewell, bred stronger horses for farm work and fatter sheep and cattle for meat – Jethro Tull- invented the seed drill that enabled farmers to plant seeds in orderly rows
Growing Textile Industry Advances in Machinery Producing More Cloth• John Kay- improved the loom with • Edmund Cartwright- the flying shuttle developed the power loom to• James Hargeaves- invented a solve the shortage of weavers more efficient spinning machine • The new inventions created a called the spinning jenny growing need for raw cotton• Richard Arkwright-developed the • (American) Eli Whitney- water frame-a huge spinning developed the cotton gin that machine that ran continually on cleaned cotton 50 times faster waterpower than one person could• Samuel Crompton- produce the spinning mule by combining features of the spinning jenny and the water frame
Flying shuttle Water Frame Spinning Jenny Power Loom Spinning Mule Cotton Gin
The Factory System• Factory System- organized method of production that brought workers and machines together under control of managers• Waterways powered machines and provided transportation for raw materials and finished cloth• As the factory system spread, manufacturers required morepower than horses and watercould provide• James Watt- designed an efficient steam engine* – Steam engines allowed factories that had to close down when water froze or flowed too low to run continuously• The steam engine enabledfactories to be built far fromwaterways
The first passenger carriage in Europe, 1830, George Stephenson´s steam locomotive, Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Eli WhitneyEli Whitney designed and invented thecotton gin by April 1793. The cotton ginwas a machine that automated theseparation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber. He contributed to theconcept of interchangeable parts andincreased factory production. Theseinterchangeable parts were machine-made parts that were exactly alike andeasily assembled or exchanged.
Industrial Developments• The use of factory machinery • Water transportation also increased demand for iron improved: in 1761, British and steel workers dug one of the first modern canals• Henry Bessemer and William – Soon, a canal building craze began Kelly-developed methods to in both Europe and the US inexpensively produce steel from iron • A combination of steam power and steel would soon• At the same time, people worked revolutionize both land and water to advanced transportation transportation systems throughout – In 1801, Richard Trevithick first Europe and the US brought steam-powered travel to• Improvements began when land with a steam-powered private companies began building carriage that ran on wheels and and paving roads three years later, a steam locomotive that ran on rails• John McAdam and Thomas – In 1807, Robert Fulton designed Telford- further advanced road the first practical steamboat making: • Railroads and steamboats laid the – better drainage systems and foundations for a global economy – the use of layers of crushed rock and opened new forms of investment
Modernizing JapanJapan didnt trade until 1853, when four American warships commanded by Commodore Matthew C. Perry sailed into the bay at Edo(present-day Tokyo).He wanted to trade with Japan and so they signed a treaty with Perry in 1854.Meiji Leaders First five years after Perry, shogun signed treaties with Britain, France, Holland, Russia, and the United States. Unhappiness of the treaties led to the overthrow of the shogun in 1868. A group of Samurai gave its allegiance to the new emperor, Mutsuhito, but kept the real power to themselves. Mutsuhito was known as the Meiji, or Enlightened emperor, Japans new rulers were called Meiji leaders. They Strengthened the Military, and worked to transform the nation into industrial society.They established a system of universal education designed to produce loyal, skilled citizens who worked for Japans modernization.
2 The Industrial Revolution: Cause and Effect Immediate Effects •Rise of factories •Changes in transportation and communication •Urbanization •New methods of production •Rise of urban working class •Growth of reform movements Causes Long-Term Effects•Increased agricultural productivity •Growth of labor unions•Growing population •Inexpensive new products•New sources of energy, such as •Spread of industrializationsteam and coal •Rise of big business•Growing demand for textiles and •Expansion of public educationother mass-produced goods •Expansion of middle class•Improved technology •Competition for world trade among•Available natural resources, labor, industrialized nationsand money •Progress in medical care•Strong, stable governmentspromoted economic growth
Samuel Slater• Tall, ruddy young British worker on a ship bound for New York.• A farmer was his listed occupation but he was actually a smuggler, stealing a valuable British commodity-industrial knowledge-to make money in America.• Knew how to build an industrial spinning wheel and introduced it to the US.
Communications Samuel Morse James Clerk Maxwellassembled a working model of promoted the development of the telegraph the radio Promoted the idea that Used a system of dots and electromagnetic waves travel dashes through space at the speed of light American inventor British physicist Telegraph lines linked mostEuropean and North American cities
Industrialization: Success or Failure? France Germany United States British capital and machinery government encouraged Used British capital to build and American mechanical industrialization their first major railway skills promoted new industry. developed a large pool of Strong iron, coal, and textile Shoe and textile factories outstanding scientists industries emerged. flourished in New England. industrialization was industrialization was slow- industrialization was successful especially in the paced successful Northeast Napoleonic Wars strained Government funding helped Coal mines and ironworks the economy and depleted the industry to grow expanded in PA the workforceGrowth of mining and railway By 1870, the US ranked with Brought machinery from Great Britain and Germany as construction became big in one of the world’s 3 most Britain and set up factories Paris industrialized countries.Economy depended on farmingand small businesses, not new industries.
1 Technology and IndustryThe marriage of science, technology, and industry spurredeconomic growth. To improve efficiency, manufacturersdesigned products with interchangeable parts.They also introduced the assembly line. (Mass production) STEEL CHEMICALS ELECTRICITY Henry Bessemer Alessandro Volta developed a process Chemists created developed the first battery. to produce stronger hundreds of new Michael Faraday created steel. products. the first electric motor and New chemical fertilizers the first dynamo, a Steel quickly became led to increased food machine that generates the major material production. electricity. used in tools, bridges, Alfred Nobel invented Thomas Edison made the and railroads. dynamite. first electric light bulb.
Alexander GrahamGuglielmo Marconi Belldevised the wireless telegraph invented the telephone which later became the radio Scottish-born American teacher of the deaf Tiny electrical wires carrying sound allowed people to speak to each other over long distances
Electricity Scientists devised ways to harness electrical power and electricity replaced coal as the major source of industrial fuel. Michael Faraday Thomas Edison discovered that moving a magnet Invented the phonograph whichthrough a coil in a copper wire would reproduced sound produce an electrical current Made electric lighting cheap and Electric motor was based on this accessible by inventing principle incandescent light bulbs. British chemist American inventor
Energy & Engines •The Industrial Revolution surged forward with advances in engines. These inventions ushered in the age of the motor car: Gottlieb Daimler German engineer Redesigned the internal combustion engine Now runs on gasoline Produced enough power to propel vehicles and boats Rudolf Diesel German engineer Developed an oil-burning internal-combustion engine Could run industrial plants, ocean liners, and locomotives Ferdinand von ZeppelinStreamlined the dirigible with a gasoline engineA dirigible was a 40-year-old balloon-like invention that could carry passengers
1 Advances in Transportation and Communication During the second Industrial Revolution, transportation and communication were transformed by technology. COMMUNICATION TRANSPORTATION •Samuel Morse developed•Steamships replaced sailing ships. the telegraph.•Rail lines connected inland cities and •Alexander Graham Bellseaports, mining regions and industrial patented the telephone.centers. •Guglielmo Marconi invented•Nikolaus Otto invented a gasoline-powered the radio.internal combustion engine.•Karl Benz patented the first automobile.•Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine•Henry Ford began mass producing cars.•Orville and Wilbur Wright designed and flewthe first airplane.
Henry Ford Henry Ford used the assembly line methods to produce his Model Tautomobiles. As he produced greater quantities of his cars, the cost ofproducing each car fell, allowing him to drop the price. This enabled millions of people to buy cars.
Taking Flight Wilbur and Orville Wright achieved success in 1903 at Kitty Hawk with the first flight of a motorized airplane. It covered a distance of 120 feet. Only five years later they flew their wooden airplane 100 miles.New airplanes and other vehicles needed asteady supply of fuel for power and rubberfor tires and other parts. Petroleum andrubber industries skyrocketed andinnovations in transportation,communications, and electricity changedthe American lifestyle forever.
1 The Rise of Big BusinessNew technologies required the investment of largeamounts of money. To obtain capital, entrepreneurssold stock, or shares in their companies, to investors.Large-scale companies formed corporations,businesses that are owned by many investors whobuy shares of stock. Powerful business leaders created monopolies and trusts, huge corporate structures that controlled entire industries or areas of the economy. Sometimes a group of businesses joined forces and formed a cartel, an association to fix prices, set production quotas, or control markets.
The Rise of the Middle Class• More jobs/biz came along with successful owners• Education became a key idea along with people becoming involved in politics In a democracy or a republic, it is essential that your electorate/plebiscite is literate and informed enough to make political decisions while voting.
Middle-Class Lifestyles• The stereotype of men go out to work and the women stayed home to clean and raise the children developed during this period• Boys sent to school to learn business or trade and typically took father’s position or worked in family business• Girls stayed at home learning to cook, sew and all the workings of a household
2 The World of Cities• How had cities changed by 1900?• How did working-class struggles lead to improved conditions for workers?
2 City Life As industrialization progressed, cities came to dominate the West. At the same time, city life underwent dramatic changes.• Settlement patterns shifted: the rich lived in pleasant neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city, while the poor crowded into slums near the city center.• Paved streets, gas lamps, organized police forces, and expanded fire protection made cities safer and more liveable.• Architects began building soaring skyscrapers made of steel.• Sewage systems improved public health.
Lives of the Working Class• Class size increased• Luxuries became available• No longer made or grew what the family needed—no longer self-sufficient• Went from “ruggedIndividualism” toconsumerism
Population Explosion 2Between 1800 and 1900, thepopulation of Europe more thandoubled. This rapid growth was •People ate better.not due to larger families. Instead, •Medical knowledge increased.population soared because the •Public sanitation improved.death rate fell. •Hygiene improved.The drop in the death rate can beattributed to the following: Year Male Female 1850 40.3 years 42.8 years 1870 42.3 years 44.7 years 1890 45.8 years 48.5 years 1910 52.7 years 56.0 years
At the Mercy of Machinery• As competition increased between factories, work conditions decreased• Workers spent between 10-14 hours in the factories a day• Women made less than half of men and children made even less
2 Working-Class StrugglesWorkers protested to improve the harshconditions of industrial life. At first,business owners tried to silenceprotesters, strikes and unions wereillegal, and demonstrations were crushed.By mid-century, workers slowly began to make progress:• Workers formed mutual-aid societies, self-help groups to aid sick or injured workers.• Workers won the right to organize unions.•Governments passed laws to regulate working conditions. Socialunionism—vote in guys who will pass pro-union laws.• Governments established old-age pensions and disability insurance.• The standard of living improved.
Workers’ Lives• Working children didn’t go to school, worked long hours and suffered from diseases and injuries from the intense work.• Working offered new independence for women• Owners of mill often controlled of the worker’s lives
Workers Unite• Developed labor unions that demanded fair wages and tolerable working conditions• Labor unions are made up of workers of a trade
Union Tactics• Organized protests, slowdowns, boycotts, sit-downs, strikes• Unions banned in England, and known members of unions lost their jobs and were not hired for jobs in U.S.--blacklisted• Collective bargaining developed and unions gained acceptance Picketing—an orderly assemblage of strikers to protest unfair working conditions. Signs were attached to wooden slats made from picket fenceposts. Recently banned because they made great weapons in a scuffle!
3What Values Shaped the New Social Order? • A strict code of etiquette governed social behavior. • Children were supposed to be “seen but not heard.” • Middle-class parents had a large say in choosing whom their children married. At the same time, the notion of “falling in love” was more accepted than ever before. • Men worked while women stayed at home. Books, magazines, and popular songs supported a cult of domesticity that idealized women and the home.
3 Rights for Women• Across Europe and the United States, politically active women campaigned for fairness in marriage, divorce, and property laws.• Women’s groups supported the Temperance movement, a campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages.• Before 1850, some women had become leaders in the union movement.• Some women campaigned to abolish slavery.• Many women broke the barriers that kept them out of universities and professions.• In the mid- to late 1800s, groups dedicated to women’s suffrage emerged. Women in the US will not get the vote until 1920—the 19th Amendment.
3 Growth in Public Education• By the late 1800s, reformers persuaded many governments to set up public schools and require basic education for all children.• Governments began to expand secondary schools, or high schools.• Colleges and universities expanded during this period. Universities added courses in the sciences to their curricula.• Some women sought greater educational opportunities. By the 1840s, a few small colleges for women opened.
Karl Marx’s Theories and Friedrich Engels • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels met in Paris in 1844. • Marx later settled in London, and he and Engels became lifelong friends and collaborators. • Marx believed that capitalism was only a temporary phase. As the makers of goods, the proletariat, or the working class, was the true productive class. Proletariats could seize control from the bourgeoisie,Karl Marx or middle class, during an economic crisis and then build a society in which the people owned Friedrich Engels everything. He wrote The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. Without private property, classes would vanish, and the government would wither away. This would be known as communism, a society without class distinctions or private property. This did not happen—sigh!
Marx and Engels• -Karl Marx, a German philosopher, dismissed early socialism as impractical and tried to find a scientific basis for it.• - Son of a German lawyer and had a doctorate of - Horrified by English factory history and philosophy conditions, Engels wrote The Condition of the Working Class in England.
Marx’s Theories• Following the German philosopher G.W.F. Hegel, Marx believed changing ideas were the major force in history and history advanced through conflict.• Marx viewed economics as the major force for change. Marx Economic Base BASE Theory ECONOMIC Social Customs Religion Art Law Law Social Systems Customs Religion Art Systems
Marx’s Theories cont.The class thatcontrolled They gave upproduction became control throughthe controlling class. revolutions. Therefore, clashes between the classes were inevitable.
Marx’s Theories (cont.)• Proletariat working class• Bourgeoisie middle class• -According to Marx, the proletariat would build a society in which people owned everything.• Without private property, classes and government would wither away.• Communism governing principle would be “from each according to his ability, and each according to his need”.• These views were published in The Communist Manifesto of 1848.• Marx developed them further in Das Kapital in 1867.
The Socialist Legacy • History did not proceed by Marx’s plan. • Workers could buy more with their wages. Rather than overthrow their governments, workers gained the right to vote to correct the worst social ills. Workers also remained loyal to their individual nations. • Democratic Socialists began to appear and urged public control of some means of production, but they respected individual values and democratic means to implement Socialist policies. • In the early 1900s, revolution swept Russia. Rising to power in the revolution, the Russian communists imposed their beliefs on the country and shunned democratic values.• Communism is a radical form of socialism first developed by a group of Marxist revolutionaries. Communism is a society without class distinction or private property.
The Socialist Legacy• -History did not proceed by Marx’s plan, however.• -Rather than overthrow their government, workers gained the right to vote and used it to correct social issues in many democratic countries.• Democratic socialism developed in Europe, which urged public control of production, but respected individual values and favored democratic means. Many countries like Denmark, West Germany, Sweden, Finland, Japan, etc. adopt socialism especially after WWII.