Lifespan Chapter 4 Online Stud

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  • 1. Chapter 4Social and Personality Development in Infancy
  • 2. Forming the Roots of Sociability: Emotions in Infancy  Across every culture, infants show similar facial expressions relating to basic emotions.  Influenced by bio AND exp.  E.g., rules of display are culturally influenced  Temperament
  • 3. Emergence of Emotional Expressions: first expression of relationships • Enables coordinated interactions w/caregivers • Reciprocal changes in expression The “self-conscious” emotions (jealousy, empathy, embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt) appear later
  • 4. Emergence of Emotional Expressions: first expression of relationshipsCrying: at least three types: basic cry anger cry pain cry stimulated by physical pain or high-intensity stimulus
  • 5. Emergence of Emotional Expressions: first expression of relationshipsSmiling: 2 types: Reflexive Social 4 months
  • 6. Separation Anxiety (Protest)Begins ~ 8 or 9 months; peaks ~14months. (Slightly later than strangeranxiety.)Both stranger & separation anxietyrepresent important social progress!They reflect cognitive advances inthe infant, and growing emotionaland social bonds.
  • 7. Separation Anxiety (Protest)A universal (but slightly varying) phenomenon
  • 8. Social Referencing: Feeling What Others Feel Social Referencing>reading emotional cues to help determine how to act; esp facial expressions  First occurs ~8-9 months.  Most likely >uncertain and ambiguous situations.  If Dad and Mom show conflicting emotions?[next]
  • 9. Temperament Chess and Thomas’ Easy - 40% Difficult - 10% Slow-to-warm-up - 15% 35% cannot be consistently categorized Kagan’s Behavioral Inhibition/socially bold Effortful Control > high control = self- soothing; low control = easily agitated Biological foundations and experience
  • 10. The Consequences of Temperament: Does Temperament Matter?GOODNESS OF FIT: Development is dependent on the degree of match between childrens temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised.= affect on LT dev’t
  • 11. Infant Personality DevelopmentPersonality - enduring personal characteristics Includes emotions and temperamentErikson: Early Py is shaped largely by an infant’s personal experiences [next]
  • 12. Stages/Crises First year of life; Trust Age 2: Independence “autonomy versus shame and doubt” when caregivers are impatient and do for toddlers what they are capable of doing themselves, shame and doubt develop
  • 13. The Development of Self SELF-AWARENESS, knowledge of self, begins to grow ~12 months.  mirror and rouge task.  Most infants attempt to wipe off the rouge b/t 17-24 months. Ability to assess own physical features emerges in 2nd year. Crying, when presented with complicated tasks, implies consciousness. [next]
  • 14. AttachmentKonrad Lorenz Imprinting Harry Harlow and one of his monkeys [next]
  • 15. Attachment
  • 16. Attachment John Bowlby> attachment has a biological basis Ainsworth Strange Situation: illustrates the strength of attachment between a child and (typically) his or her mother [next]
  • 17. Individual Differences in Attachment Responses the Strange Situation securely attached insecure avoidant insecure resistant insecure disorganized
  • 18. Individual Differences in Attachment
  • 19. Attachment: The Roles of Mother & Father When stressed, infants tend to prefer their mothers. [?] BUT, no preference when no stress (boredom, fatigue, novel stimuli) present Fathers > more rough-and-tumble play; mothers > more feeding and nurturing. An interconnecting constellation of subsystems  Generations, genders, roles,  Reciprocal relationships
  • 20. Attachment MUTUAL REGULATION MODEL RECIPROCAL SOCIALIZATION  Scaffolding (turn-taking) part of the process
  • 21. Gender Dissimilar worlds for members of each sex, even during infancy. Fathers interact more with sons than daughters; mothers more with daughters. Fathers > more rough-and-tumble play; mothers > more feeding and nurturing. Infants wear different clothes and are given different toys based on gender. Infants behavior is interpreted differently depending on gender. Male infants are more active and fussier than females. By age one, infants are able to distinguish between males and females.
  • 22. Day care and social and personality development. 2/3 between 4 months and 3 years of age spend time in non-parental child care. > 80% of infants are cared for by people other than mothers at some point during their first year of life.
  • 23. Day Care: Assessing OutcomesPossible advantages Possible disadvantages Solve problems  Lower attachment. better.  Slower cognitive Pay greater attention development to others. Use language more  Illness effectively. Play well with others.
  • 24. Where Are Children Cared For?